Balancing the Dose in the Mouse
Organisms that use a chromosomal basis of sex determination have a problem of gene inequality. In the mouse, this dimorphism is evident by the presence of two X-chromosomes in females, while males have a single X- and a single Y-chromosome. To balance this disparity, one of the two female X-chromosomes is transcriptionally silenced to neutralize the gene dose with the XY male. Dosage compensation in mammals is known as X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) and is a crucial early developmental process. XCI is an example of epigenetics: a phenotype resulting in changes on a chromosome without a change in nucleic acid sequence. Studies in mouse embryology and genetics have answered many questions about the process of balancing the dose. In this chapter, I highlight how the mouse dosage compensates the gene disparity between XX females and XY males in a crucial epigenetic process called X-chromosome inactivation (XCI).
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.