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Pulse consumption in Canadian adults influences nutrient intakes


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Pulses (dry beans, peas, lentils) are nutrient-dense foods that are recommended as good choices in either the vegetable or meat and alternative food groups in Canada's Food Guide. To examine the prevalence and the effect of pulse consumption on nutrient intake in Canadian adults ( ≥ 19 years), we analysed cross-sectional data (n 20,156) from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2·2. Participants were divided into non-consumers and quartiles of pulse intake. Sample weights were applied and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association of nutrient intakes and pulse consumption, with cultural background, sex, age and economic status included as covariates. On any given day, 13 % of Canadians consume pulses, with the highest consumption in the Asian population. The pulse intake of consumers in the highest quartile was 294 (se 40) g/d and, compared with non-consumers, these individuals had higher intakes of carbohydrate, fibre and protein. As well, the micronutrient intake of pulse consumers was enhanced, resulting in fewer individuals who were below the estimated average requirement for thiamin, vitamin B6, folate, Fe, Mg, P and Zn, compared with non-consumers. Although pulses are generally low in Na, its intake also was higher in pulse consumers. Among the higher quartiles of pulse consumers, fruit and vegetable intake was one serving higher. These data indicate that pulse consumption supports dietary advice that pulses be included in healthful diets. Further studies elucidating the sources of increased Na in pulse consumers will be necessary so that dietary advice to increase consumption of pulses will maximise their nutritional benefits.
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Pulse consumption in Canadian adults influences nutrient intakes
Adriana N. Mudryj
, Nancy Yu
, Terryl J. Hartman
, Diane C. Mitchell
, Frank R. Lawrence
and Harold M. Aukema
Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N2
Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N2
Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
(Submitted 27 July 2011 – Accepted 13 September 2011)
Pulses (dry beans, peas, lentils) are nutrient-dense foods that are recommended as good choices in either the vegetable or meat and
alternative food groups in Canada’s Food Guide. To examine the prevalence and the effect of pulse consumption on nutrient intake
in Canadian adults ($19 years), we analysed cross-sectional data (n20 156) from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey,
Cycle 2·2. Participants were divided into non-consumers and quartiles of pulse intake. Sample weights were applied and logistic regression
analysis was used to explore the association of nutrient intakes and pulse consumption, with cultural background, sex, age and economic
status included as covariates. On any given day, 13 % of Canadians consume pulses, with the highest consumption in the Asian population.
The pulse intake of consumers in the highest quartile was 294 (SE 40) g/d and, compared with non-consumers, these individuals had
higher intakes of carbohydrate, fibre and protein. As well, the micronutrient intake of pulse consumers was enhanced, resulting in
fewer individuals who were below the estimated average requirement for thiamin, vitamin B
, folate, Fe, Mg, P and Zn, compared with
non-consumers. Although pulses are generally low in Na, its intake also was higher in pulse consumers. Among the higher quartiles
of pulse consumers, fruit and vegetable intake was one serving higher. These data indicate that pulse consumption supports dietary
advice that pulses be included in healthful diets. Further studies elucidating the sources of increased Na in pulse consumers will be
necessary so that dietary advice to increase consumption of pulses will maximise their nutritional benefits.
Key words: Pulses: Adults: Nutrient intakes: Canadian Community Health Survey
Pulses have been consumed for at least 10 000 years and
are among the most extensively used foods in the world.
Nutritionally, they are characterised by high protein content
(about 20 – 30 %), a very high proportion of carbohydrate
(about 5065 %) and a very low fat content (about 1 %).
They are a significant source of many nutrients, including
fibre, protein and Fe, as well as many vitamins. However,
their consumption in the Western world remains quite low at
less than 3·5 kg/capita per year. In other parts of the world,
annual pulse consumption can range from 10 kg/capita (South
America and India) to 40 kg/capita (Burundi)
Pulses are the edible seeds of members of the Fabaceae
(Leguminosae) family. According to the FAO, pulse crops
refer to crops harvested exclusively for their grain, including
dry beans, peas and lentils. As defined further by the FAO,
the definition excludes crops used for oil extraction, such
as soyabeans and groundnuts or those harvested green
for food, such as green beans and green peas
(3 – 6)
. For the
purpose of the present study, the FAO definition is used and
the term ‘pulses’ refers to the dry, edible variety of beans,
peas and lentils, and excludes soyabeans, fresh beans and
fresh peas.
Research supporting pulse consumption coupled with diets
low in animal protein and high in grains and cereals has been
substantial. Results from six clinical trials reported at the 2008
Pulse Crop Symposium held in Toronto showed that eating
beans, peas, lentils and chickpeas can help combat chronic
diseases such as heart disease, obesity and diabetes and con-
tribute to overall good health. These clinical trials linked pulse
consumption with a reduction in health problems such as
obesity, diabetes and CVD
(7 – 9)
. Pulses contain a mixture of
soluble and insoluble fibre, which lowers total serum and
LDL-cholesterol and aids in gastrointestinal function, respect-
. With respect to cancer, the US Food and Drug
Administration, Canadian Cancer Society and the World
Cancer Research Fund also recommend the consumption of
*Corresponding author: Dr H. M. Aukema, fax þ1 204 237 4018; email
Abbreviations: CCHS 2·2, Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2·2; EAR, estimated average requirement; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey.
British Journal of Nutrition (2012), 108, S27–S36 doi:10.1017/S0007114512000724
qThe Authors 2012
British Journal of Nutrition
pulses to reduce cancer risk
(10 – 12)
. Nutritive components of
pulses such as Se, Zn, fibre and folate, as well as phytochem-
icals such as saponins, protease inhibitors and phytic acid also
may be associated with their anti-carcinogenic benefits
A high consumption of pulses also is one of the eight
components of the highly lauded Mediterranean diet
Research has shown that their consumption leads to increased
satiety, and high-fibre foods take longer to eat, increasing
one’s feeling of satiety
. While it remains inconclusive,
studies have shown that pulse consumers had lower body
weights and reduced waist circumferences compared with
, making pulses ideal for individuals
interested in weight loss
. In addition to being low in fat
and Na, pulses have a low glycaemic index, which may be
a factor in diabetes prevention and management
They do not contain cholesterol or gluten, and research has
also examined their protective effects as prebiotics
Canada’s Food Guide recommends the consumption
of pulses as a good choice and considers a half-cup
serving of pulses equal to one serving of vegetables, and a
three-quarter-cup serving equal to one meat or alternative
. The advisory committee on the Dietary Guidelines
for Americans in 2010 suggested shifting food intake patterns
to include cooked dry beans and peas, while the US Depart-
ment of Agriculture recommends that Americans consume
2·5 to 3·5 cups of pulses per week
. Data from the
US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
(NHANES) 19992000 showed that American adults consume
one-third or less than the recommended serving of pulses.
In our recent analysis of pulse consumption in the USA
using the NHANES data we found that the average consump-
tion of pulses was less than one cup per week. We also found
that pulse consumption resulted in higher intakes of fibre,
carbohydrate, protein, Ca, K, folate, Zn, Fe and Mg, with
lower intakes of saturated as well as total fat
The purpose of the present study was to examine the
demographics of the average Canadian pulse consumer
using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey,
Cycle 2·2 (CCHS 2·2). We report the prevalence of pulse intake
in the Canadian population and assess the relationship bet-
ween pulse consumption and nutrient intakes and diet quality.
Experimental methods
Data from the CCHS 2·2 conducted by Statistics Canada were
used for this analysis
. This cross-sectional survey targeted
respondents from all age groups living in private occupied
dwellings in the ten provinces (Indian reserve occupants, resi-
dents of the territories of Nunavut, Yukon and the Northwest
Territories, individuals residing in institutions and members of
the Canadian Forces were excluded). Data collection began in
January 2004 and continued throughout the year to remove
seasonal effects. The main objectives were to gather infor-
mation on the nutritional status of Canadians, and estimate
the distribution of usual dietary intake in terms of foods,
food groups, dietary supplements, nutrients and eating pat-
terns among a representative sample of Canadians at national
and provincial levels using a 24 h dietary recall. A grand total
of 35 107 adults and children completed the initial 24 h dietary
recall. Following this, a subsample of 10 786 completed
a secondary recall 310 d later. The 24 h dietary recalls were
collected primarily by face-to-face interviews by trained
. Further details on the methods used in
the CCHS 2·2 are available on the Statistics Canada Website
Data for the present analysis were limited to adults aged
$19 years (n20 156) and to 1 d dietary intakes only. Res-
pondents who did not consume any food or whose recalls
were considered to be unreliable according to Health
Canada were removed. Pregnant and breast-feeding women
were included in the present study and although vitamin
and mineral supplementation was coded for in the CCHS
2·2, these intakes were not accounted for in the present study.
The CCHS 2·2 also gathered physical measurements of the
participants, as well as data on selected health conditions
and socio-economic and demographic characteristics of
respondents. Key demographic variables were examined to
observe the demographic of the average Canadian pulse
consumer. Sex was examined as well as age, and a new
variable was created, splitting the respondents into one of
four age groups: 1930 years, 3150 years, 5170 years and
70þyears. The cultural background variable placed respon-
dents into categories based on their cultural or racial origin
and the education level placed respondents into one of four
categories based on their highest level of education attained.
Income also was examined, splitting the respondents into
four groups based on their income adequacy. The classifi-
cations were as follows: ‘lowest income’ for one or two
individuals with an income of #$15 000, three or four individ-
uals with an income of #$20 000, or greater than five individ-
uals with an income #$30 000; ‘lower middle income’ for one
or two individuals with an income between $15 000 and
29 999, three or four individuals with an income between
$20 000 and 39 999 or greater than five individuals with an
income between $30 000 and 59 999; ‘upper middle income’
for one or two individuals with an income between $30 000
and 59 999, three or four individuals with an income between
$40 000 and 79 999, or greater than five individuals with an
income between $60 000 and 79 999; and ‘highest income’
for one or two individuals with an income $$60 000, or
three or four individuals with an income $$80 000
To identify all foods and food sources that contained pulses,
the following files were used: the food and ingredient details
file, the food description file and the food recipe level file.
Soyabeans and fresh beans were excluded from the analysis
according to the FAO definition of pulses used in the present
paper. Food sources included varieties of dry beans (Phaseo-
lus vulgaris) such as the pinto bean, navy bean, kidney
bean and black bean, as well as the mung bean (Vigna
radiata) and peas which included yellow peas (Lathyrus
aphaca), split green peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas (Cicer
arietinum), black-eyed peas (Vigna unguiculata) and lentils
(Lens culinaris)
. Pulse consumers were defined as respon-
dents who consumed pulses or a pulse-containing product
for the 1 d dietary intakes. Consumers were further divided
into quartiles based on their level of consumption. Data
for macro- and micronutrients were expressed as absolute
A. N. Mudryj et al.S28
British Journal of Nutrition
values, percentage energy or quantity per 4184 kJ (1000 kcal).
The percentage of consumers and non-consumers with nutri-
ent intakes below the Institute of Medicine’s Dietary Reference
Intakes for nutrients that had an estimated average require-
ment (EAR) were calculated
. To identify the amount of
pulse product per 100 g of food the Canadian Nutrient File,
version 2007b, recipe database and the US Department of
Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrient Databases for Dietary
Studies, version 1.0, were used to find ingredient proportions
and process intake data for nutrient components. Food group
intake data were obtained from the Canada Food Guide
. Further details on both the Canadian Nutrient File
database and the USDA Food and Nutrient Database are
available on their respective websites
General linear models were used to analyse macronutrient
and micronutrient intakes and to compare nutrient intakes
and other variables between non-consumers and consumers
as well as between non-consumers and consumers at each
of the four levels of consumption. In addition, similar analyses
were conducted for each of the food groups using the data
from the CCHS’s Canada Food Guide file. Logistic regression
was used to determine whether any demographic variables
(sex, age, culture, province of residence, income adequacy
and education level) increased the likelihood of being
classified as a pulse consumer and OR were calculated.
Cross-tabulations and
tests were used to compare the
proportions of consumers and non-consumers who had
intakes of nutrients below their respective EAR values. The
significance level was set at P,0·05 for differences and
0·05 ,P,0·10 for trends. All analyses were performed using
PASW SPSS Statistics (version 18; IBM) and SUDAAN Statistical
Analysis Software Package (version 10.0.1; RTI International).
Because the CCHS 2·2 is a multi-stage survey design,
it requires a more complex formula to calculate variance
estimates. The approximation method used by the CCHS 2·2 is
called ‘bootstrapping’. This method is used to estimate standard
errors, coefficients of variation and CI. Bootstrapping is an
approach used to estimate distribution from a sample’s statistics.
It also can be defined as ‘sampling within a sample’ and involves
the selection of random samples known as replicates, and
the calculation of the variation in the estimates from replicate
to replicate
(30 – 32)
. The bootstrapping method was used in all
the data analyses for the present study via SUDAAN software.
Food sources of pulse products
The main sources of pulses in the adult Canadian diet were
mung beans, Mexican or Hispanic mixed dishes, kidney beans,
baked beans, bean soups and chilli. These seven dishes made
up two-thirds of the twenty-two dishes containing pulses in
the Canadian diet mentioned in the 1d recall data (Table 1).
Frequency of consumption and demographics
On any given day, 13·1 % of Canadian adults in 2004
consumed dry beans, peas or lentils (Table 2). Within pulse
consumers, average pulse intake was highest in New
Brunswick and lowest in Quebec, with the provinces of
Ontario and British Columbia having the highest proportions
of pulse consumers as residents. The highest proportion of con-
sumers fell into the 5170 years age bracket (Table 2). Pulse
consumption in grams also differed between age groups, but
not when expressed relative to energy intake (data not shown).
Participants who identified themselves as Asian Canadian
compared with Caucasian were 3·6 times more likely to be
pulse consumers. As well, participants who identified
themselves as being Arabic, Latin and African Canadian or of
multiple cultural origins were 1·6 times more likely to be
pulse consumers than Caucasians. Sex, income and education
level were not significant determinants of pulse intake (Table 2).
Effects on nutrient intake
When examining differences in dietary intakes across quartiles
of consumption and comparing them with non-consumers
(Table 3), consumers in the third (99 g/d) and fourth quartile
(294 g/d) of pulse consumption consumed 937 kJ (224 kcal)
or 11 % and 1360 kJ (325 kcal) or 16 % more energy per d,
respectively, than the average non-consumer. Pulse consu-
mers in the third and fourth quartiles consumed 13 and 24 %
more carbohydrate and 12 and 19 % more protein, respect-
ively, than non-consumers, while fat intake was only higher
in the third quartile of pulse consumers (by 12 % more than
non-consumers). The higher fat intake in pulse consumers
in the third quartile was consistent with the higher MUFA,
PUFA, linolenic and linoleic fatty acid content in the diets of
these individuals. In addition, a-linolenic acid intake was
44 % higher in the fourth quartile of pulse consumers com-
pared with non-consumers. Fibre intake was increased the
most by pulse consumption, being 34 and 85 % higher,
respectively, in the third and fourth quartile of pulse intake.
Cholesterol intake was 18 % higher in the second quartile
of pulse intake, but not at the other levels of pulse intake.
Table 1. Food sources of pulse products in the adult Canadian diet*
Food source Percentage of source reported
Mung beans 18·2
Mexican or other Hispanic dishes 14·0
Kidney beans† 13·3
Baked beans 11·4
Bean soups 10·7
Chilli 7·4
Lentils 5·3
Chickpeas 3·2
Split peas 3·0
White beans 2·9
Hummus 1·8
Pinto beans 1·3
Refried beans 1·3
Black beans 1·2
Other bean sources‡ ,1
* According to 1 d 24 h dietary recall of the Canadian Community Health Survey,
Cycle 2·2 (2004) of Canadian adults aged $19 years.
† Excluding chilli.
Includes rice with beans, navy beans, falafel, unspecified beans, bean dip, adzuki
beans, winged beans, and noodles with beans, which each represent less than
1 % of food sources reported.
Pulse consumption in Canadians S29
British Journal of Nutrition
However, when expressed relative to energy intake, choles-
terol levels were lowest in the highest quartile of pulse con-
sumption. A number of micronutrients were higher in the
highest pulse consumers compared with non-consumers
(Table 3). These included folate (45 %), P (20 %), Mg (35 %),
Fe (35 %) and Zn (28 %). As a result, the proportion of those
consuming these nutrients below the EAR was lower in consu-
mers compared with non-consumers, indicating a reduced
level of deficiency in consumers (Table 4). K intake also was
higher among pulse consumers, and, although it lacks an
EAR, analysis using adequate intake levels showed no signi-
ficant difference between consumers and non-consumers
(data not shown). In contrast, the levels of two vitamins
were lower in the fourth quartile of pulse consumers com-
pared with non-consumers: vitamin D (20 %), and vitamin
(14 %). However, the proportion of those that were
below the EAR for these two nutrients was similar for both
consumers and non-consumers. Finally, Na intake was 31 %
higher in pulse consumers v. non-consumers.
Fruit and vegetable consumption was higher in the higher
quartiles of pulse consumption, when compared with non-
consumers, resulting in approximately one more serving
from this food group. There was no difference in the amount
of total grain products or dairy products between pulse consu-
mers and non-consumers. In the two highest quartiles of
pulse consumers, intakes from the meat and alternatives
food groups were 13·5 servings higher when compared with
non-consumers, consistent with the inclusion of pulses in this
food group by Health Canada in this database (Fig. 1).
The proportion of pulse consumers in Canadian adults
appears to be similar to that of the US population, despite
important differences in cultural makeup. We previously
reported that 7·9 % of the US populations are pulse consu-
mers, but the NHANES analysis did not include mung beans
or other sprouted forms of beans (such as navy bean sprouts)
Table 2. Demographic characteristics of pulse consumers and non-consume rs based on 1 d intakes from the Canadian Community Health
Survey, Cycle 2·2 (2004)
(Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals; mean values and standard errors)
Proportion of
consumers (%) (n20 156) OR 95 % CI
Amount of pulses
consumed (g/d)
Mean SE
Male 13·1 1 Reference 120·1 6·1
Female 13·2 1·01 0·8, 1·29 105·1 10·1
Age (years)
19–30 11·5 1 Reference 131·9 29·5
31–50 13·2 1·17 0·84, 1·63 114·9 12·3
51–70 14·7 1·32 1·03, 1·69 105·3* 13·7
70þ12·2 1·06 0·77, 1·47 86·2 10·0
Provincial location
Nova Scotia 8·2 1 Reference 124·3† 15·0
Newfoundland and Labrador 12·6 1·61 0·96, 2·71 125·1 20·8
Prince Edward Island 11·3 1·42 0·78, 2·59 109·7 21·8
New Brunswick 10·9 1·37 0·74, 2·53 145·8† 34·9
Quebec 10·4 1·30 0·78, 2·16 82·6 7·8
Ontario 14·5 1·89 1·18, 3·05 128·2†† 23·4
Manitoba 12·9 1·66 0·89, 3·1 105·7 12·4
Saskatchewan 11·3 1·43 0·78, 2·63 98·8 21·4
Alberta 11·3 1·43 0·75, 2·74 96·0 25·9
British Columbia 17·6 2·39 1·35, 4·25 111·4†† 8·7
All of Canada 13·1 112·4 7·2
Caucasian 10·8 1 Reference 104·8 5·1
African Canadian, Arab, Latin, multiple origins 16·5 1·64 1·05, 2·56 129·5 34·4
Asian Canadian 30·4 3·62 2·04, 6·42 135·1 37·4
Aboriginal 11·1 1·04 0·45, 2·38 90·9 33·1
Other 23·2 2·5 0·94, 6·71 76·5 44·9
Lowest 13·7 1 Reference 113·3 19·3
Lower middle 14·1 1·04 0·52, 2·05 105·6 8·9
Upper middle 12·6 0·91 0·47, 1·78 139·8 30·7
Highest 13·5 0·98 0·47, 2·03 94·2 18·1
,Secondary school 11·0 1 Reference 104·3 6·0
Secondary school 12·6 1·16 0·71, 1·9 120·2 14·2
Post-secondary school 10·3 0·93 0·62, 1·39 92·0 13·3
Post-secondary degree or diploma 14·5 1·37 0·93, 1·56 115·0 10·6
*Mean value was marginally significantly different from that of the 70þyears age group (0·05 ,P,0·10).
Mean value was (marginally) significantly different from that of consumers of the province of Quebec: † 0·05 ,P,0·10, †† P,0·05.
A. N. Mudryj et al.S30
British Journal of Nutrition
Table 3. Pulse amount and macronutrient, micronutrient and energy intakes per d for non-consumers and by quartiles (Q) of pulse consumers based
on 1 d intakes from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2·2 (2004)
(Mean values with their standard errors)
(n17 750) Consumers (n2406)
Intake category... –Q1Q2Q3Q4
Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE
Pulse intake range (g) 0 0–28·89 28·90–66·29 66·30–137·19 .137·2
Pulse intake (g) 0 12·9 0·7 47·2 1·1 99·1 2·4 293·9 39·8
Pulses (g/4184 kJ)‡ 0 6·1 1·2 22·8 1·2 38·5 5·3 75·6 3·4
Food amount (g) 3219 119 3540 441 3280 174 3315 139 3619† 337
kJ 8640 561 9535 1331 8895 347 9619* 556 10 000** 494
kcal 2065 134 2279 318 2126 83 2299* 133 2390** 118
Carbohydrate (g) 253 16 280 38 256 12 286*** 16 314*** 25
Protein (g) 84·5 5·3 94·3 12·6 91·9 4·5 94·9* 7·9 100·7*** 6·7
Total fat (g) 75·6 5·1 81·2 12·2 77·8 3·6 84·5* 6·4 78·9 6·1
SFA (g) 24·8 2·0 24·8 3·1 22·8 1·6 26·2 2·3 23·6 2·2
MUFA (g) 30·3 2·1 32·9 5·3 32·1 1·5 34·6* 2·6 32·9 2·9
PUFA (g) 13·3 0·6 15·9 3·0 15·7 0·9 16·2* 1·7 14·9 0·9
Linoleic fatty acid (g) 10·6 0·4 12·9 2·9 12·4 0·7 12·8* 1·4 11·7 0·8
Linolenic fatty acid (g) 1·9 0·09 2·3 0·32 2·4 0·18 2·5* 0·34 2·6** 0·28
Carbohydrate (% kJ) 49·1 0·3 49·4 0·9 48·7 1·4 49·7 0·9 52·4 1·9
Protein (% kJ) 16·5 0·1 16·7 0·5 17·2† 0·4 16·5 0·6 16·9 0·6
Fat (% kJ) 31·5 0·2 30·6 0·7 31·5 1·2 31·4 0·9 28·0 2·5
SFA (% kJ) 10·3 0·2 9·4† 0·4 9·1* 0·4 9·7* 0·4 8·3† 1·0
MUFA (% kJ) 12·5 0·1 12·4 0·4 12·9 0·5 12·9 0·4 11·6 1·1
PUFA (% kJ) 5·5 0·2 5·8 0·2 6·5*** 0·3 6·0 0·3 5·3 0·3
Linoleic fatty acid (% kJ) 4·4 0·1 4·6 0·3 5·1** 0·2 4·7 0·3 4·2 0·3
Linolenic fatty acid (% kJ) 0·8 0·02 0·9* 0·05 1·0** 0·08 1·0 0·11 0·9 0·09
Cholesterol (mg) 279 19 316† 33 330* 32 303 34 239 36
Cholesterol (mg/4184 kJ) 139 2 140 11 150 9 131 10 103* 13
Fibre (g) 16·6 0·4 18·1 1·67 18·7 1·13 22·2*** 1·6 30·7*** 2·2
Fibre (g/4184 kJ) 8·5 0·4 8·5 0·6 9·4 0·6 10·5*** 0·4 13·8*** 0·7
Vitamin D (mg) 5·7 0·1 6·0 0·8 6·0 1·0 6·3 1·5 4·6* 0·4
Vitamin D (mg/4184 kJ) 2·8 0·2 2·7 0·3 2·9 0·4 2·7 0·9 2·0*** 0·2
Thiamin (mg) 1·7 0·06 1·8 0·26 1·7 0·08 1·9* 0·15 1·90 0·23
Thiamin (mg/4184 kJ) 0·9 0·04 0·8 0·03 0·8 0·03 0·8 0·03 0·8 0·10
Riboflavin (mg) 1·9 0·10 2·1 0·25 1·9 0·08 2·1† 0·14 2·0 0·09
Riboflavin (mg/4184 kJ) 0·96 0·02 0·94 0·03 0·95 0·03 0·93 0·03 0·87** 0·02
Niacin (mg) 39·6 2·5 43·3 5·8 42·7 2·0 43·1* 2·7 43·9 2·3
Niacin (mg/4184 kJ) 19·7 0·1 19·7 0·6 20·6 0·5 19·0 0·5 19·0 0·5
Vitamin B
(mg) 1·87 0·1 2·09 0·3 1·99 0·1 2·09† 0·1 2·12** 0·1
Vitamin B
(mg/4184 kJ) 0·94 0·02 0·97 0·03 0·99 0·05 0·95 0·06 0·91 0·03
Vitamin B
(mg) 4·4 0·3 5·1 0·7 4·9 0·7 4·2 1·0 3·8* 0·3
Vitamin B
(mg/4184 kJ) 2·2 0·04 2·2 0·32 2·4 0·63 1·9 0·60 1·7** 0·16
Folate§ (mg) 453 34·1 470 66·6 450 16·1 541† 80·3 656*** 59·0
Folate§ (mg/4184 kJ) 229 3·7 216 6·3 218 10·0 241 16·3 289*** 17·0
Folic acidk(mg) 119·8 18·95 157·3 43·4 130·2 28·0 139·0 32·1 133·2 20·7
Folic acidk(mg/4184 kJ) 58·5 5·8 68·0 10·12† 59·7 9·8 58·9 7·8 56·3 8·50
Ca (mg) 865 62·3 885 93·5 749 52·5 937 69·8 953·8† 92·9
Ca (mg/4184 kJ) 432 4·1 405 18·9 369·5*** 16·0 416·4 15·8 402 26·1
P (mg) 1330 63·1 1454 186·9 1352 61·8 1497** 84·4 1597*** 107·9
P (mg/4184 kJ) 660 11·4 650 17·8 657 18·9 671 19·1 687 25·0
Mg (mg) 323 14·2 359 45·6 339 14·8 375*** 17·1 438*** 39·5
Mg (mg/4184 kJ) 166 4·5 166 3·7 171 5·5 175† 4·8 192† 9·7
Fe (mg) 13·9 0·7 14·8 1·6 14·1 0·5 16·04*** 0·7 18·7*** 0·8
Fe (mg/4184 kJ) 7·0 0·1 6·8 0·2 7·0 0·2 7·2 0·4 8·3*** 0·3
Zn (mg) 11·2 0·6 12·5 2·0 11·8 0·8 12·7** 0·7 14·3*** 0·6
Zn (mg/4184 kJ) 5·5 0·1 5·6 0·3 5·7 0·24 5·7 0·2 6·2*** 0·2
Na (mg) 3050 169·6 3320 412·0 3369† 141·2 3581† 202·9 3988* 250·4
Na (mg/4184 kJ) 1522 32·6 1503 39·5 1613† 57·7 1584 122·4 1721† 143·2
K (mg) 3074 93·5 3351 438·4 3192 160·0 3476 133·4 3927 152·5
K (mg/4184 kJ) 1584 56·4 1564 40·5 1597 86·8 1608 62·7 1708** 66·2
Mean value was significantly different from that of the non-consumer group: * P,0·05, ** P,0·01, *** P,0·001.
Mean value was marginally significantly different from that of the non-consumer group (0·05 ,P,0·10).
‡ 4184 kJ is equivalent to 1000 kcal.
§ Folate intake from food in dietary folate equivalency.
kFolic acid is the synthetic form of folate, found in fortified foods.
Pulse consumption in Canadians S31
British Journal of Nutrition
Table 4. Prevalence of inadequacy for nutrients‡ with an estimated average requirement (EAR) in Canadian adults
based on 1 d intakes from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2·2 (2004)
Percentage of intakes less than EAR
Male Female§
Non-consumers Consumers Non-consumers Consumers
19–30 years 42·7 42·9 55·0 52·0
31–50 years 50·4 41·9 56·8 62·1
51–70 years 57·3 56·2 78·4 75·8
.70 years 76·9 73·8 82·1 83·1
Vitamin D
19–30 years 85·3 84·7 90·0 89·5
31–50 years 86·9 87·8 90·5 92·4
51–70 years 85·6 75·6 91·8 93·5
.70 years 85·3 88·9 90·7 92·6
19–30 years 15·3 7·2 26·2† 16·3
31–50 years 15·7 13·8 21·9† 15·3
51–70 years 16·4** 9·1 24·6 23·2
.70 years 20·0 17·5 27·5 20·9
19–30 years 11·7 12·2 18·6 10·0
31–50 years 11·8 11·4 13·3 9·7
51–70 years 14·0 11·3 15·2 10·3
.70 years 19·6 16·7 17·9 12·6
Vitamin B
19–30 years 15·7 6·2 34·9* 21·2
31–50 years 16·2 16·9 30·4 18·8
51–70 years 32·4 24·3 41·8 33·9
.70 years 39·0 28·0 42·9 36·4
19–30 years 22·2 9·7 44·2** 22·7
31–50 years 26·8** 19·0 40·6** 29·0
51–70 years 27·0** 20·0 42·8† 30·1
.70 years 39·5 27·3 54·1 39·5
Vitamin B
19–30 years 24·5 27·4 41·1 41·4
31–50 years 21·7 22·1 36·5 39·2
51–70 years 24·5 22·6 38·7 32·0
.70 years 34·6 32·5 42·8 38·5
19–30 years 5·1 1·1 27·2* 15·2
31–50 years 4·3** 0·8 26·1† 12·7
51–70 years 5·0*** 2·0 7·2 3·4
.70 years 8·2 3·4 7·0 4·1
19–30 years 49·7 31·8 49·1* 31·6
31–50 years 56·7 40·8 47·3† 31·9
51–70 years 60·6*** 45·1 46·3† 32·1
.70 years 66·7*** 55·2 53·1 36·4
19–30 years 5·6 1·2 13·7† 5·3
31–50 years 4·6 4·7 11·1† 5·3
51–70 years 5·8*** 4·4 12·1 6·9
.70 years 10·0 10·2 14·9 9·3
19–30 years 33·3 17·8 36·6* 21·7
31–50 years 35·1* 20·4 35·1* 18·7
51–70 years 42·7*** 28·2 34·8 23·0
.70 years 53·5* 39·0 43·3 28·4
Mean value was significantly different from that of non-consumers in the same life-stage group: * P,0·05, ** P,0·01, *** P,0·001.
Mean value was marginally significantly different from that of non-consumers in the same life-stage group (0·05 ,P,0·10).
Not including K (which lacks an EAR) and niacin (analysis showed no significant difference between groups).
§ Excluding pregnant or lactating women.
kFolate intake from food in dietary folate equivalency.
A. N. Mudryj et al.S32
British Journal of Nutrition
as a source of pulse consumption
. When these were
removed from our pulse database, the proportion of the
Canadian adult population classified as pulse consumers
dropped from 13·1 % to 10·7 %. In the Continuing Survey of
Food Intakes by Individuals 1994 – 1996, 14 % of US residents
consumed at least one pulse-containing food over a 2 d
. Similarly in our analysis, when the smaller subset
of 10 786 respondents with both day 1 and day 2 recalls
were combined, 14·7 % were pulse consumers. When the
smaller subset of respondents who completed the day 2
recall was examined alone, the rate of consumption was
12·6 %. Other differences between these studies include
larger sample size for the CCHS 2·2 data and the inclusion
of foods such as lima beans (which we excluded in our
analyses), and exclusion of lentils, split peas and yellow
peas, which represented approximately 8 % of the food
sources reported in the CCHS 2·2 survey.
In terms of the most frequently consumed pulse-containing
foods, in the NHANES study pinto beans and refried beans
were predominantly consumed, which mimicked results
found in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals
. In Canada, however, pinto and refried beans rep-
resented only 1 % of the pulse foods reported, while mung
beans were the most popular pulse in the CCHS 2·2 dataset.
This probably can be ascribed to the differences in the cultural
mosaic of the USA and Canada. The US Hispanic population
represents 16 % of the US population
, while the same
group represents approximately 1 % of the Canadian popu-
. Conversely, the Asian population in Canada is
approximately 10 %, making up approximately 66 % of
Canada’s visible minority population
, while Asian
Americans represent less than 5 % of the US population
The provinces with the highest proportion of Asians, Ontario
and British Columbia, were also the two provinces found to
contain the highest proportion of pulse consumers
, fitting
in with the finding that Asian Canadians were found to be
almost four times more likely to be pulse consumers. In contrast
to the US data, neither education level nor income level influ-
enced pulse consumption in Canadians, perhaps reflecting
the differing cultural backgrounds of Canadian consumers, or
the higher proportion of US citizens (27 %) having less than
a high school education compared with Canadians (16 %)
Overall, consumption of pulses is associated with improved
nutrient intakes, especially in the highest quartile of intake.
Similar effects on dietary quality were observed in our pre-
vious analysis of the NHANES population
. The nutrient
intake which improved the most with pulse consumption
was fibre. Consumers in the highest quartiles of pulse con-
sumption in both Canada and the USA consume almost
twice as much fibre as non-consumers. Although this level
of intake still does not meet the dietary recommendation for
this nutrient, it should be noted that the Canadian Nutrient
File lacks data on functional fibre (i.e. isolated, extracted or
synthetic fibre) so it is possible that the fibre intakes may be
underestimated in this analysis.
The higher intakes of carbohydrate, protein and fibre are
probably due to these macronutrients being present in large
amounts in pulses. This also contributes to the improvement
of diet quality observed in pulse consumers, as 32 % of
males and 21 % of females, aged 19 years and older, have
carbohydrate intakes below the acceptable macronutrient
distribution range
(38 – 40)
. Several micronutrients (folate, Mg, Fe,
Fruits and
Food groups
Dairy and
dairy products
Meat and
Fig. 1. Food group intakes among non-consumers ( ) and by quartiles ( , quartile 1; , quartile 2; , quartile 3; , quartile 4) of pulse consumers based on 1 d
intakes from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2·2 (2004). Food groups and serving sizes are from the Canada Food Guide
. Pulses are included
in the meat and alternatives group. Values are means, with standard errors represented by vertical bars. Mean value was significantly different from that of the
non-consumer group: * P,0·05, ** P,0·01, *** P,0 ·001. † Mean value was marginally significantly different from that of the non-consumer group
(0·05 ,P,0·10).
Pulse consumption in Canadians S33
British Journal of Nutrition
K and Zn) that were consumed by pulse eaters in larger
amounts also can be explained by these nutrients being
found in higher levels in pulses
. Indeed, there were
fewer pulse consumers that had inadequate intakes (below
the EAR) of Mg, Zn, folate and Fe. Health Canada recently
reported that 34 % of adults consume Mg in quantities below
the EAR, with this number being higher than 40 % in some life
stage groups. There also is a low prevalence of inadequacy
for Zn, folate and Fe, ranging from 1041 % for specific age
and sex groups that consume less than the EAR. Similarly,
median K intakes of Canadian adults are below the adequate
intake value
. The current analysis using EAR values was
consistent with these findings and further demonstrates that
fewer pulse consumers had intakes of nutrients below the EAR.
Pulse consumption is associated with higher Na intake,
contributing to the reported 78 % of Canadian adults that
exceed the tolerable upper intake level for Na
. This is
probably not due to the composition of the pulses themselves,
but may reflect an increased intake of pulse-containing foods
traditionally high in Na, such as Mexican or other Hispanic
dishes and bean soups. These dishes account for approxi-
mately 25 % of all pulse products consumed. It is also possible
that the increased Na intake among pulse consumers is due
to the Na that is added to canned beans during processing,
but such conclusions cannot be made from this dataset.
Another potential concern associated with pulse consumption
was the lower intakes of vitamins B
and D, as 10 – 35 % of
Canadian adults have an intake of vitamin B
that is below
the EAR
and the median intake of vitamin D in Canada
is below the recently revised RDA for this nutrient
(38 – 40,42)
However, the proportions of respondents below the EAR
for both vitamin D and B
were similar among consumers
and non-consumers, suggesting that pulse consumption does
not compromise the nutrient status of these individuals in
this regard and that the majority of Canadians, regardless
of pulse consumption, are not consuming sufficient levels of
these nutrients.
On the other hand, pulse consumers tended to consume
higher levels of Ca, a finding that was significant in the US
data analysis. This cannot be explained by altered dairy
product intake, as consumption of foods from the milk and
milk product group was not increased in pulse consumers.
The increase in Ca is perhaps due to the fact that common
pulse dishes such as Hispanic foods contain Ca
. Further
detailed analysis on the connection between ethnic
background and food choices may shed some light on the
relationship between pulse intake and vitamin D status.
Overall energy intake was higher in pulse consumers,
a finding consistent with the US population analysis
It would be expected that this higher energy intake by pulse
consumers would be associated with an increased body
mass. However, although mean BMI was higher in pulse
consumers (28·0 (SE 0·75) and 27·3 (SE 0·11) kg/m
, respec-
tively), this difference was not statistically significant. This
trend is in contrast to other findings which suggest that
high-fibre foods such as pulses lead to an increased feeling
of fullness and may lead to a healthier body weight when
eaten at higher amounts
. The reason for this apparent
discrepancy cannot be determined from the survey data, but
it may be that other foods consumed along with pulses may
counteract the expected satiating effects of high-fibre pulses.
The effect of pulse consumption on body weight also
may be confounded by the fact that a large proportion of
Canadians are in the overweight BMI category
In the USA, the percentages of total energy from total and
saturated fat were significantly lower in the diets of consumers
in the third and fourth quartiles of pulse consumption
This trend also was observed in Canadians in the present
analysis, but not as strongly as in the US data. It is interesting
to note that while US pulse consumers in the highest quartile
of intake consume 20 g more of total fat than non-consumers,
Canadians in the third quartile consume 10 g more total fat,
but in the fourth quartile, fat consumption is similar to non-
consumers. These differences may be due to the differences
in the types of foods commonly consumed in the different
data sets. Mung bean dishes more commonly consumed
in Canada are typically lower in fat compared with pinto
and refried bean dishes more commonly consumed in the
USA. This also may explain why the intakes of MUFA
and PUFA in the Canadian pulse consumers were higher
than in non-consumers, while this trend was not observed in
the US data
In addition to the predominantly positive effect of pulse
consumption on nutrient intakes, further evidence of
improved dietary quality with pulse consumption is demon-
strated by the extra serving of fruits and vegetables eaten by
consumers compared with non-consumers, a goal of the
Food Guide that most Canadians do not achieve. In contrast,
pulse consumers in the NHANES data consumed more grain
products, but not other food groups
. These differences
are probably due to the difference in the sources of pulses
being eaten by Canadian compared with US consumers.
There are some limitations in this research. As with the
NHANES study, the consumption of pulses in the CCHS 2·2
is based on a single reference day, meaning that those who
were not identified as a consumer during a single day of
intake may still be a pulse consumer. Although second-day
consumer values were similar to the first day, the frequency
of consumption is impossible to determine based on the
24 h recall method. Information was not collected on specific
types of diets (i.e. low-carbohydrate, vegetarian or vegan
diets) which may have been helpful in further examining
the demographic of the average consumer, or on food prep-
aration techniques, which may affect the nutrient content
(for example, added salt) of the dishes consumed. It is also
impossible to determine whether the 24 h dietary recall was
truly representative of the respondent’s normal diet, as
respondents may over- or under-report their food consump-
tion, even with trained experts administering the dietary
recall. Because the CCHS 2·2 was a cross-sectional look at
the dietary habits of Canadians, the results should be inter-
preted with caution. It is entirely possible that the survey
would have provided differing results if another time-frame
had been chosen, with either higher or lower amounts of con-
sumers. As well, cause and effect cannot be assumed, as pulse
consumption may be a component of an overall lifestyle.
A. N. Mudryj et al.S34
British Journal of Nutrition
The CCHS 2·2 also does not take into account those residing
on Indian reserves, residents occupying any of the three terri-
tories, those living in institutions or members of the Canadian
These results demonstrate that an increased intake of dry
beans and peas, especially at higher intakes, is associated
with higher intakes of fibre, protein, carbohydrate, folate,
Mg, Fe, K and Zn in Canadians, leading to improved diet qual-
ity. Clarification of the reasons for the effects of pulse con-
sumption on these potential improvements in the diet as
well as the potential increase in Na intake will need to be elu-
cidated so that dietary advice to consume pulses can include
ways to enhance or mitigate any positive or negative effects,
respectively. In this way, the potential beneficial effects of
pulse consumption on nutrient intake can be realised.
We would like to offer many thanks to Dr Ian Clara and Kelly
Cranswick at the Manitoba Research Data Centre for their
ongoing statistical help and support. The present study was
supported by grants from Saskatchewan Pulse Growers and
as part of the Pulse Innovation Project, through Canada’s
Agricultural Policy Framework (APF), a FederalProvincial-
Territorial initiative. All authors were responsible for the
study design and assisted in revision of the manuscript. A. N. M.,
N. Y. and H. M. A. were responsible for data analyses,
interpreting the results, drafting of the manuscript and critical
revision of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the
final manuscript. All authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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... Legumes, especially pulses, represent a good source of plant protein, fibre, vitamins, and phytochemicals (13,14) . Several studies have shown that high consumption of pulses is associated with an overall better nutrient intake profile, suggesting that legume-rich diets are overall healthier (15)(16)(17) . However, nutrients derived mainly and easily from meat and other animal sources, such as vitamin B 12 and bioavailable haem iron, might pose a challenge in plant-rich diets (18,19) . ...
... This is considered a strength since these legume types are already culturally accepted. Most of the earlier studies showing nutritional benefits of increased legume consumption or replacement of meat with legumes concentrated on pulses as the legume subtype (17,20,21) . Giving more emphasis on pulses might have resulted in even greater nutritional benefits in our modelling study. ...
Full-text available
Objective The shift towards plant-based diets with less meat and more legumes is a global target and requires understanding of the consequences on dietary adequacy on the population level. Our aim was to model the impact of partial replacement of red and processed meat with legumes on nutrient intakes and population shares below dietary reference intakes. Design Modelling study with three scenarios anchored in meat cut-offs: ≤70 g/day (Finnish dietary guideline); ≤50 g/day (Danish dietary guideline); ≤30 g/day (EAT-Lancet recommendation). In all subjects, the amount of meat in grams over the cut-off was replaced with the same amount of legumes. The SPADE method was used to model usual intake distributions. Meaningful differences in average intakes and in population shares below dietary reference intakes compared to the reference (FinDiet) were evaluated based on non-overlapping 95% CI. Setting Finnish national food consumption survey (FinDiet 2017). Subjects Finnish adults (n=1655) aged18-74 years (47% men). Results The scenarios introduced increases in the average intakes of fibre, folate, potassium, magnesium, copper, and iron, and decreases in intakes of saturated fat, niacin, vitamin B12, selenium, and zinc. Meaningful shifts of the usual intake distributions of fibre and folate towards improvement in intakes emerged already in ‘scenario 70 g’. Overall, distribution shifts towards higher probability of inadequate intakes of the studied nutrients were not observed. Conclusions These results support the public health message to partly replace meat with legumes and may benefit nutrition policy actions towards sustainable diets in the Nordic countries and beyond.
... Despite the nutritional value of pulses, it has been observed that fewer than 8% of Americans consume pulses on any given day (Mitchell et al., 2009(Mitchell et al., , 2021. In both the United States and Canada, those that do consume pulses exceed daily dietary fiber requirements (Mitchell et al., 2021;Mudryj et al., 2012). Moreover, their intake is likely underestimated, because the nutrient databases used were formed before a more accurate method of analysis for dietary fiber (AOAC 2011.25) was developed (Chen et al., 2016). ...
Onobrychis viciifolia (hereafter sainfoin) is an autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 28), allogamous insect‐pollinated perennial legume originating from the Caucasus that has historically been cultivated as a forage. As a perennial legume, sainfoin has the potential to improve the sustainability of agriculture and food systems in multiple ways. Sainfoin can provide continuous living cover and biological nitrogen fixation to enhance soil fertility and health. It can also provide ecosystem services as a resource for pollinators and wildlife in addition to nitrogen fixation. Building on this history of valuable uses, The Land Institute is developing sainfoin as a pulse crop for human use. With the goal of supporting human diets with a sustainable, perennial protein source and nutrient‐dense crop, this innovation requires a thorough understanding of the chemical composition of sainfoin seeds to ensure safety and potential nutritional quality. Using seeds from commercial sainfoin varieties developed for forage production, grown by commercial sainfoin seed growers in the western United States, this study evaluates seed composition as part of an ongoing investigation into sainfoin's potential as a novel pulse. We found crude protein content (38.78%) comparable with soybean and lupine, fat content (6.96%) comparable with lupine and chickpea, and starch (7.1%) and dietary fiber content (48.96%) comparable with lupine. Phytic acid content was higher than pulses (1790.89 mg). Ash (3.81%), iron (64.14 ppm), and zinc contents (61.63 ppm) were in the higher end of the range for pulses. This study indicates that sainfoin could become a novel, nutrient‐dense crop for human nutrition. Future studies are required to further characterize seed composition and safety and demonstrate how common legume processing techniques may influence nutritional quality.
... Lastly, they conclude that plant-based protein intake is a general and robust marker of nutrient adequacy of the diet, and hence of a healthy diet. In other studies, Canadian and American adults who reported a higher consumption of proteins from plant-based foods has reported an enhanced micronutrient intake resulting in lower individuals who were below the EAR for vitamins B1, B6, and folic acid, Fe, Mg, P, and Zn compared with non-consumers [47,48]. ...
Full-text available
Purpose There is no evidence of a dietary index that measures not only the quantity but also the quality of protein. The aim is to investigate the association between a new dietary protein quality index (PQI) and micronutrient intake adequacy in a Mediterranean cohort. Design We assessed 17,535 participants’ diet at baseline using a semi-quantitative FFQ. The PQI was calculated according to the ratio of protein (g/d) sources: [fish, seafood, lean meat, pulses, eggs, nuts, low-fat dairy, and whole grains]/[red and ultra-processed meats, whole-fat or semi-skimmed dairy, potatoes and refined grains]. Participants were classified into quintiles of PQI. We evaluated the intakes of Fe, Cr, I, K, Mg, Ca, P, Na, Se, Zn and vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, E and folic acid. Micronutrient adequacy was evaluated using DRIs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the micronutrient adequacy according to quintiles of PQI. Results In this cross-sectional analysis, a total of 24.2% and 4.3% participants did not to meet DRIs in ≥ 4 and ≥ 8 micronutrients, respectively. The odds of failing to meet ≥ 4 and ≥ 8 DRI were lower in participants in the highest quintile of protein quality (OR = 0.22; IC 95% = 0.18, 0.26; P-trend < 0.001; and OR = 0.08; IC 95% = 0.05, 0.14; P-trend < 0.001, respectively) as compared to participants in the lowest quintile. Conclusion Higher PQI was found to be strongly associated with better micronutrient intake adequacy in this Mediterranean cohort. The promotion of high-quality protein intake may be helpful for a more adequate intake of micronutrients. The odds of failing to meet certain numbers of DRIs were lower rather than saying lower risk.
... Although pulse consumers reported higher intakes of dietary fibre, folate, potassium, iron, and protein at intakes ≥69.4 g/day compared to non-pulse consumers, only 27% of adults consumed pulses on one of the two days of the survey [26]. These low consumption rates of pulses mirror previous analysis of the NHANES [27] and the Canadian Community Health Survey [28]. This is corroborated by other data demonstrating that pulses are relatively minor contributors to total protein intakes of diets in Canada [29], the US (~1.3%) [30], France (<1%) [31,32], and the UK (not reported as a significant source of protein) [33]. ...
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Dietary patterns are increasingly focusing on the interplay between nutritional adequacy, reduction of chronic disease, and environmental sustainability [...]
... It is known that the most health-beneficial form of dietary fiber is that derived from whole foods (reviewed in Thompson and Brick, 2016), which is the form in which most pulses are consumed (Didinger and Thompson, 2020). As reported by us , the current dietary fiber gap is eliminated in individuals who have a median intake of 277-294 g of pulses per day, an eating behavior that is routine in a subset of individuals in the United States, Canada, and many other countries (Mitchell et al., 2009;Mudryj et al., 2012). What is generally unappreciated is that there is a similar content of protein and dietary fiber in edible dry bean on a dry matter basis or per 100 kcal edible portion (Didinger and Thompson, 2021). ...
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Consumer food choices are often focused on protein intake, but the chosen sources are frequently either animal-based protein that has high fat content or plant-based protein that is low in other nutrients. In either case, these protein sources often lack dietary fiber, which is a nutrient of concern in the 2020–2025 Dietary Guide for Americans. Pulse crops, such as dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are a rich source of dietary protein and contain approximately equal amounts of dietary fiber per 100 kcal edible portion; yet the consumer's attention has not been directed to this important fact. If product labeling were used to draw attention to the similar ratio of dietary protein to dietary fiber in dry bean and other pulses, measures of carbohydrate quality could also be highlighted. Dietary fiber is categorized into three fractions, namely, soluble (SDF), insoluble (IDF), and oligosaccharides (OLIGO), yet nutrient composition databases, as well as food labels, usually report only crude fiber. The objectives of this research were to measure the content of SDF, IDF, and OLIGO in a large genetically diverse panel of bean cultivars and improved germplasm (n = 275) and determine the impact of growing environment on the content of DF. Dietary fiber was evaluated using the American Association of Analytical Chemist 2011.25 method on bean seed grown at two locations. Dry bean cultivars differed for all DF components (P ≤ 0.05). Insoluble dietary fiber constituted the highest portion of total DF (54.0%), followed by SDF (29.1%) and OLIGO (16.8%). Mean total DF and all components did not differ among genotypes grown in two field environments. These results indicate that value could be added to dry bean by cultivar-specific food labeling for protein and components of dietary fiber.
... In addition, the immature pods are usually used as a vegetable, especially in East Asia and Southeast Asia [1]. Being rich in nutrients such as protein, carotene, vitamins and mineral elements in tender pods [2,3], vegetable cowpea is widely cultivated in China, and the pods can be cooked in stew, stir-fried, served cold in a salad or processed into pickled vegetables. China has been the world's largest producer and consumer of vegetable cowpea, with an annual planting area of more than 533,333 hectares and total yield of more than 20 million tons. ...
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Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Tracheiphilum, is a serious threat to cowpea production worldwide. Understanding the genetic architecture of FW resistance is a prerequisite to combatting this disease and developing FW resistance varieties. In the current study, a genetic diversity panel of 99 cowpea accessions was collected, and they were infected by a single strain, FW-HZ. The disease index (DI) based on the two indicators of leaf damage (LFD) and vascular discoloration (VD) varied highly across the population: most accessions were susceptible, and only seven accessions showed resistant phenotypes by both indicators. Through a genome-wide association study (GWAS), 3 and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with LFD and VD were detected, respectively, which were distributed on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 6 and 9, accounting for 0.68–13.92% of phenotypic variation. Based on the cowpea reference genome, 30 putative genes were identified and proposed as the likely candidates, including leucine-rich repeat protein kinase family protein, protein kinase superfamily protein and zinc finger family protein. These results provide novel insights into the genetic architecture of FW resistance and a basis for molecular breeding of FW resistant cultivars in cowpea.
... [27,58] Plant-based protein diets can help to reach this goal, since they are rich in fiber, and has a lower glycemic index (GI) than cereal . [59,60] For instance, Cajanus genus represents the pulse with the lowest GI, being a great food source for diabetes patients. Meanwhile, Cicer genus has the highest GI, which can help malnourish patients . ...
Germination is a traditional process and a re-emerging trend in healthy foods, resulting a progressively increase in scientific research on their nutritional traits and phytochemical contents. This review examines the physiological and biochemical changes during the germination sensu stricto in pulses, taking into consideration the genotype, environmental conditions, hormone control, and the metabolic transition from seed to seedling. Germination sensu stricto is achieved as soon as elongation of the radicle, implies heterotrophy metabolism; further thermal processing is needed before consumption. In contrast, seedlings production requires a long period of imbibition and can provide a ready-to-eat food product. Furthermore, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and antinutritional compounds of pulses are described. Impacts of food processing, such as soaking, germination, and cooking, in nutritional and antinutritional values are also evaluated. The association of soaking, germination, and cooking increases the nutritional values of pulses by increasing protein/starch digestibility and vitamins content and by decreasing antinutritional compounds. The final plant-based product allows versatility in formulation to produce novel food products and/or ingredients with better nutritional content. This can encourage the scientific community, industry, and government to invest in research and development to increase germinated pulse-based food, to replace other products, or to develop new ones.
... Current recommendations appear to be based less on scientific evidence and more on what it is presumed that consumers will eat [6]. The science reported herein indicates the potential value of levels of consumption typical of high pulse consumers identified in both NHANES and its Canadian equivalent [19,116]. Moreover, even higher levels of consumption may hold benefits if mediation is via the gut microbiota. ...
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Underconsumption of dietary fiber and the milieu of chemicals with which it is associated is a health concern linked to the increasing global burden of chronic diseases. The benefits of fiber are partially attributed to modulation of the gut microbiota, whose composition and function depend on the amount and quality of microbiota-accessible substrates in the diet. However, not all types of fiber are equally accessible to the gut microbiota. Phaseolus vulgaris L., or common bean, is a food type rich in fiber as well as other prebiotics posing a great potential to positively impact diet-microbiota-host interactions. To elucidate the magnitude of bean’s effects on the gut microbiota, increasing doses of common bean were administered in macronutrient-matched diet formulations. The microbial communities in the ceca of female and male mice were evaluated via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. As the bean dose increased, the Bacillota:Bacteroidota ratio (formerly referred to as the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio) was reduced and α-diversity decreased, whereas the community composition was distinctly different between the diet groups according to β-diversity. These effects were more pronounced in female mice compared to male mice. Compositional analyses identified a dose-responsive bean-induced shift in microbial composition. With an increasing bean dose, Rikenellaceae, Bacteroides, and RF39, which are associated with health benefits, were enhanced. More taxa, however, were suppressed, among which were Allobaculum, Oscillospira, Dorea, and Ruminococcus, which are predominantly associated with chronic disease risk. Investigation of the origins of the dose dependent and biological sex differences in response to common bean consumption may provide insights into bean-gut microbiota-host interactions important to developing food-based precision approaches to chronic disease prevention and control.
The role of legumes in healthy and sustainable diets is increasingly of interest. Few studies have investigated the association between legume consumption and the consumption of other food groups and the intake of nutrients. This study examined how legume consumption is associated with the consumption of other foods and the intake of nutrients among Finnish adults. Our study used cross-sectional data from the population-based FinHealth 2017 Study consisting of 2250 men and 2875 women aged ≥18 years. The associations between legume consumption (quartile classification), food groups, and nutrients were analysed using multivariable linear regression. The models were initially adjusted for energy intake and additionally for age, educational level, smoking status, leisure-time physical activity, and body mass index (BMI). Legume consumption had a positive association with age, education level and leisure-time physical activity. The consumption of legumes was positively associated with the consumption of fruits and berries, vegetables, nuts and seeds, and fish and fish products and inversely associated with the consumption of red and processed meat, cereals, and butter and butter-based fat spreads. Furthermore, legume consumption was positively associated with the intakes of protein, fibre, folate, thiamine and salt in both sexes and inversely associated with the intake of saturated fatty acids and sucrose (sucrose, women only). Thus, legume consumption appears to reflect overall healthier food choices. An increase in legume consumption could accelerate the transition to more sustainable diets. The confounding role of other foods and nutrients should be considered when studying associations between legume consumption and health outcomes.
This chapter describes the constituents and health benefits of the major foods and food groups in the Med diet. It also describes possible ways in which these foods may benefit health and implications for how best to implement a Med diet. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is produced by crushing olives, and since olives are the fruit of the tree, EVOO is essentially a fruit juice. Olive oil is the food that most differentiates the Med diet from other healthy eating patterns. Suboptimal intake of fruit and vegetables ranks amongst the top dietary contributors to the global burden of disease and premature death. Pulses are legumes that are usually dried, whereas ‘legume’ is a broader term that also includes green peas and green beans. Mediterranean tree nuts include walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, pine nuts and pistachios. Sunflower and pumpkin seeds are popular aperitif foods in many Mediterranean countries.
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Objective. This paper reviews the scientific merit and feasibility of the Food-Based Dietary Guideline (FBDG) 'Eat dry beans, peas, lentils and soy regularly'. Beans, peas and lentils are also known as 'pulses'. In this review, legumes refer to pulses and soybeans (which are classified as oilseeds). Composition and nutrient content. Legumes are rich and economical dietary sources of good quality protein, carbohydrates, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre components and a variety of minerals and vitamins. Pulses have a low energy, fat and sodium content. Although full-fat soy foods are relatively high in fat, they may contribute significantly to polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, including α-linolenic acid, an n-3 fatty acid not commonly found in plant foods.
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An expanding body of research suggests that beans promote health and reduce risks for, or improve outcomes of, various disorders, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other diseases. For these reasons, many dietary recommendations include beans. Plus, beans are good to excellent sources of protein, fiber, folate, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper, and manganese yet also are cholesterol- and fat-free
Several epidemiological studies link consumption of fibre-rich foods to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and CHD. The ‘fibre hypothesis’ suggested that this was a direct effect of fibre. However, fibre-rich foods contain different types of fibre as well as other potentially beneficial compounds, and many foods naturally high in fibre have low glycaemic and insulinaemic indices, possibly due to food form. The question therefore emerges as to the effect of isolated fibre per se on insulin sensitivity, lipids and other risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome. Many beneficial effects are seen with pharmacological doses of isolated viscous soluble fibre, including improved insulin sensitivity, decreased LDL-cholesterol levels and decreased clotting factors. Similar effects are seen with low glycaemic-index foods. In contrast, insoluble non-viscous cereal fibre is not seen to act directly on risk factors when taken in refined foods such as in milled flour. Since cereal fibre, the major type of fibre in western diets, does not directly act on the risk factors for the metabolic syndrome, the question remains as to possible mechanisms. Until now, fibre and the nature and processing of the starch and particle size have been seen as the main determinants of the metabolic response to starchy foods. However, fibre-rich foods also have an increased protein-to-carbohydrate ratio. Hence we suggest that the protective effect of fibre may also be due to increased vegetable protein content, which may act directly to reduce clotting factors and oxidized LDL-cholesterol levels.
Proximate composition, globulin, albumin, nonprotein nitrogen and amino acid contents were determined in four varieties of dry bean. Protein and nonprotein nitrogen contents were similar in all four varieties. The lysine was higher in the varieties Rico 23 and Rosinha -G2. The sulfur-containing amino acids were higher in Rico 23. PER, apparent biological value, nitrogen retention and methionine availability were highest in Rico 23 and lowest in the variety Carioca. For these two varieties PER values ranged from 1.32–0.75, apparent biological value from 58.9–39.4%, nitrogen retention from 36.1 - 21.0 mg N retained/rat/day and methionine availability from 40.6–29.3%, respectively. Apparent digestibility was lowest for Rico 23 and highest for Pirat-1. Pirat-1 ranked second in all biological parameters, except for methionine availability. Cooking the raw bean did not raise digestibility beyond 66%. Availability of iron was in the range 4–5% for all varieties.