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Research on perfectionism and achievement motivation: Implications for gifted students

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Abstract

Perfectionism has been associated with a rigid adherence to impossibly high standards, an irrational importance on the attainment of these standards, and a tendency to overgeneralize failures. Researchers have primarily focused on how perfectionism predicts psychological adjustment; yet, recent research also indicates that perfectionism impacts students' achievement motivation. In this article, research on the relationship between perfectionism and achievement motivation in non-gifted students is reviewed. Conclusions about perfectionism and achievement motivation in non-gifted students will highlight directions for future research and implications for enhancing the achievement motivation of gifted students with perfectionism. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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... Research has not indicated that perfectionism is more prevalent in gifted populations (Mofield & Parker Peters, 2018;Parker, 2002); however, this personality disposition is still frequently studied and associated with gifted, high ability or high achieving individuals (e.g., Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012;. Perfectionism has gained considerable traction as a hindrance to "psychological well-being and achievement of academically advanced students" (Miller & Speirs Neumeister, 2017, p. 314). ...
... Perfectionism has gained considerable traction as a hindrance to "psychological well-being and achievement of academically advanced students" (Miller & Speirs Neumeister, 2017, p. 314). Educators need to consider that some students experience psychological distress related to perfectionism and may wish to avoid excessively praising student achievements as indicative of their ability (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012). Hewitt and Flett (2014) urge movement toward the adoption of positive psychology, encouragement of positive sense of self and prosocial connectedness to promote the well-being of perfectionistic youth. ...
... Hewitt and Flett (2014) urge movement toward the adoption of positive psychology, encouragement of positive sense of self and prosocial connectedness to promote the well-being of perfectionistic youth. Earlier identification and counseling for students struggling with perfectionism can provide interventions to assist in the development of healthy self-concept and promote resilience (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012;Hewitt & Flett, 2014). ...
... Research has not indicated that perfectionism is more prevalent in gifted populations (Mofield & Parker Peters, 2018;Parker, 2002); however, this personality disposition is still frequently studied and associated with gifted, high ability or high achieving individuals (e.g., Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012;. Perfectionism has gained considerable traction as a hindrance to "psychological well-being and achievement of academically advanced students" (Miller & Speirs Neumeister, 2017, p. 314). ...
... Perfectionism has gained considerable traction as a hindrance to "psychological well-being and achievement of academically advanced students" (Miller & Speirs Neumeister, 2017, p. 314). Educators need to consider that some students experience psychological distress related to perfectionism and may wish to avoid excessively praising student achievements as indicative of their ability (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012). Hewitt and Flett (2014) urge movement toward the adoption of positive psychology, encouragement of positive sense of self and prosocial connectedness to promote the well-being of perfectionistic youth. ...
... Hewitt and Flett (2014) urge movement toward the adoption of positive psychology, encouragement of positive sense of self and prosocial connectedness to promote the well-being of perfectionistic youth. Earlier identification and counseling for students struggling with perfectionism can provide interventions to assist in the development of healthy self-concept and promote resilience (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012;Hewitt & Flett, 2014). ...
... There also has been no agreement on how to measure perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Some researchers have argued that being self-oriented, having high personal standards, and organization are the key factors for strivings dimension of perfectionism, whereas being socially prescribed, having concern over mistakes, holding doubts about actions, and discrepancy are considered perfectionistic concerns (see Chan, 2009;Enns & Cox, 2002;Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012;Kornblum & Ainley, 2005;Maksić & Iwasaki, 2009;Mofield & Chakraborti-Ghosh, 2010;Mofield et al., 2016;Reyes et al., 2015;Stoeber & Otto, 2006;Stumpf & Parker, 2000). Margot and Rinn (2016) mentioned that parental expectations and parental criticism subscales might be related to maladaptive perfectionism. ...
... In Terman's longitudinal study, which is recognized as the first comprehensive research of the gifted population, gifted individuals were found to have more perfectionistic tendencies than their nongifted peers (Siegle & Schuler, 2000). According to Fletcher and Speirs Neumeister (2012), unrealistic standards for success and an extreme reaction to academic failure are the two reasons why perfectionism has received attention in gifted education. The Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students (SRBCSS; Renzulli et al., 1976), a widely used measurement for gifted identification, contains items about striving toward perfection and being self-critical as motivational characteristics of gifted students. ...
... Figure 1 shows the search process. And, 27 out of 85 studies were excluded because the articles were largely literature reviews or qualitative studies of this topic (e.g., Adelson, 2007;Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012;Fong & Yuen, 2014;Foster, 2007;Greenspon, 2000;Nugent, 2000;Speirs Neumeister, 2004b). In addition to that, some of them lacked sufficient statistical analysis (e.g., Hess, 1994;Kakavand et al., 2017;Stornelli et al., 2009). ...
Article
There is a rich literature on perfectionism among gifted individuals, but the results of these individual studies are ambiguous. The present meta-analysis aimed to clarify the nature of the relationship between perfectionism and giftedness by focusing on quantitative studies that compared the perfectionism levels of gifted and nongifted students. Hedge’s unbiased g was used as the effect size metric and a three-level multilevel meta-analytic approach taken to control for dependency among the effect sizes obtained from the same study. The analyses used 63 effect sizes from 14 published studies that indicated there was no significant difference between gifted and nongifted students on perfectionism. The analyses also focused on two moderators: dimensions of perfectionism and grade level. The moderator analysis indicated that perfectionism dimensions were a significant moderator. Gifted students, although not significantly, outscored their nongifted peers on perfectionistic strivings but rated lower on perfectionistic concerns.
... Many studies have indicated that gifted students are academic perfectionists, who set high personal standards for themselves, especially in the classroom (Fletcher & Neumeister, 2012;Fong & Yuen, 2014;Margot & Rinn, 2016;Neumeister, Williams, & Cross, 2007;Wang, Fu, & Rice, 2012). There are many reasons behind perfectionist behaviors among gifted students, which might be family or environmental factors (Neumeister, Williams, & Cross, 2009). ...
... There are many reasons behind perfectionist behaviors among gifted students, which might be family or environmental factors (Neumeister, Williams, & Cross, 2009). However, these behaviors in academia could be appeared in the form of overcompensating behaviors, such as excessive checking and rechecking (Mofield & Parker Peters, 2018a), concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, and discrepancy (Fletcher & Neumeister, 2012). ...
... The quantitative results of this study showed a higher correlation between maladaptive perfectionism and academic self-handicapping. This finding is aligned with previous literature that referred to the relationship between maladaptive behavior and self-handicapping strategies among perfectionists' students, such as gifted students, to the high personal standards for themselves, especially in school (Fletcher & Neumeister, 2012;Fong & Yuen, 2014;Margot & Rinn, 2016;Neumeister, Williams, & Cross, 2007;Wang, Fu, & Rice, 2012). academic self-handicapped ...
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This study aimed to examine the relationship between perfectionism and academic self-handicapping strategies among gifted students in Jordan. This study used a mixed-method approach to explore the relationship as well as exploring any other factors associated with using such strategies. The Revised Almost Perfect Scale (APSR) and the Academic Self-Handicapping Strategies Scale were used to measure perfectionism and academic self-handicapping among 242 gifted students on a high school for gifted learners. Subsequently, the researchers conducted four focus group discussions with 23 gifted students to identify the factors that may lead those students to use self-handicapping strategies. The results showed that Self-handicapped students were 4.58 times more likely to be maladaptive perfectionists than non-self-handicapped students. The results also revealed a combination of environmental, personal, and cultural factors that contributed to the use of these strategies by gifted students. This study has proposed an explanatory model to illustrate the relationship between perfectionism, academic self-handicapping, and factors that might be related. Finally, this study provided a range of educational implications that can be used in the field of gifted education.
... A substantial literature has shown that perfectionism is linked to various mental health outcomes and psychopathology among individuals at various developmental stages and contexts (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012;Hewitt, Flett, & Mikail, 2017;A. P. Hill, 2016;Sirois & Molnar, 2016;Stoeber, 2018). ...
... When examined with students' perfectionistic tendencies, perfectionistic strivings have been positively related to mastery goals, and perfectionistic concerns have been linked to performance-avoidance goals (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012). However, the pattern related to performance-approach goals has been less consistent and has been associated with both perfectionistic strivings and concerns (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012;Stoeber, 2018). ...
... When examined with students' perfectionistic tendencies, perfectionistic strivings have been positively related to mastery goals, and perfectionistic concerns have been linked to performance-avoidance goals (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012). However, the pattern related to performance-approach goals has been less consistent and has been associated with both perfectionistic strivings and concerns (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012;Stoeber, 2018). ...
Article
The current study examined how teachers’ perfectionism (personal standards [PS] and concern over mistakes [COM]) relates to their achievement goals for teaching, instructional practices (creation of mastery vs. performance classroom goal structures), job satisfaction, and flow experience during teaching. The data were collected from teachers (N = 143; mean age = 43.5; 70% female; 100% European American) practicing in the Midwestern U.S. Path analyses indicated that teachers’ high personal standards predicted endorsement of mastery goals for teaching, creation of mastery goal structure emphasizing personal progress and learning, high job satisfaction, and frequent flow experience during teaching. On the contrary, teachers’ high concern over mistakes predicted endorsement of performance‐approach and ‐avoidance goals, creation of classroom performance goal structure emphasizing competition among students, low job satisfaction, and infrequent flow experience during teaching. A significant interaction between PS and COM was found for fluency (subscale of flow) experience, indicating that PS can buffer the harmful effects of COM. Therefore, the study evidenced the benefits of PS and the drawbacks of COM.
... The study of perfectionism in HIA children and adolescents has received increasing attention due to the fact that some HIA students have shown high standards for achievement, sometimes extreme and impossible to reach, as well as negative reactions to academic failure (Fletcher & Speirs-Neumeister, 2012). Nonetheless, the question about whether perfectionism is higher among children and adolescents with high intellectual abilities is, at this moment, in need of more empirical evidence (Baker, 1996;Parker, Portesová, & Stumpf, 2001) in order to provide better resources to parents, teachers and psychologists associated with the optimization of school performance and its role in the students' digital culture. ...
... Previous studies have supported the idea of a multidimensional manifestation of perfectionism in HIA students with healthy/adaptive and unhealthy/maladaptive consequences (Fletcher & Speirs-Neumeister, 2012). For instance, the study by Parker (2002) revealed three different types of perfectionism in middle-school gifted students by means of the Frost and others' scale (Frost & al., 1990) with students in the healthy/adaptive group scoring lower on neuroticism and higher on extroversion and agreeableness, and students in the unhealthy/maladaptive group scoring higher on neurosis, lower on agreeableness, but also higher on openness to experience, and finally, a third group of non-perfectionists. ...
... The general objective was the understanding of the components associated with the types of perfectionism des cribed as adaptive/healthy, maladaptive/unhealthy (Chan, 2007;Costa & al., 2016;Damian & al., 2017;Fletcher & Speirs-Neumeister, 2012;Parker, 2002), or nonperfectionism, which could offer the positive aspects to improve excellence and wellbeing, as research in HIA literature supports. ...
Article
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El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender los componentes asociados a distintos tipos de perfeccionismo descrito como: adaptativo/sano, mal adaptativo/insano o no perfeccionismo que pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos para el logro de la excelencia. Se exploró el número y contenido de las estructuras latentes del perfeccionismo como constructo multidimensional en una muestra de n=137 estudiantes con Altas Capacidades Intelectuales (ACI) con una media de edad de 13,77 años (DT=1,99). La conexión con el perfeccionismo positivo y negativo se analizó sobre la base de los diferentes perfiles de perfeccionismo. Se utilizaron las escalas «Almost Perfect Scale Revised» (APS-R) y la «Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale-12». Los resultados mostraron tres clases latentes de perfeccionismo: «No Sano» (CL1), «Sano» (CL2) y «No Perfeccionista» (CL3). La CL1 mostró puntuaciones más altas en las subescalas de Discrepancia y bajas en Orden y Altos Estándares. La CL2 reveló puntuaciones altas en Altos Estándares y Orden. La CL3 mostró bajas puntuaciones en todos los dominios de perfeccionismo. Las diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas entre las clases latentes en los dominios del perfeccionismo. Asimismo, se encontraron diferentes patrones de asociaciones de las clases latentes con el perfeccionismo Positivo y Negativo. Los resultados encontrados permiten atender a las estructuras latentes de perfeccionismo en estudiantes con ACI, que posibilitan delimitar, analizar y entender posibles perfiles latentes.
... Previous studies have mostly focused on mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals (for review, see, Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012). In this study, we focused on a set of five orientations that represent a rather comprehensive array of goals and outcomes relevant in the classroom: mastery-intrinsic, mastery-extrinsic, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and workavoidance goal orientations (Niemivirta et al., 2019). ...
... Finally, since the majority of previous research examining the relations between perfectionism and achievement motivation has focused on university and gifted students (see Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012), or have been conducted in the context of sports (for review, see Stoeber, 2011), we seek to add to current understanding by examining these relations in two academic contexts, among young adults and adolescents. ...
Article
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Two studies utilising a group-based approach examined the relationships between perfectionism and achievement goal orientations, and the role academic self-worth contingency plays in this, among university (N = 506, Study I) and general upper-secondary school students (N = 154, Study II). In both studies, four groups of students were identified based on their patterns of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns (i.e., perfectionistic profiles) using TwoStep cluster analysis, and group differences in achievement goal orientations were examined while controlling for the effect of academic self-worth contingency. High perfectionistic concerns, with or without high perfectionistic strivings, were connected with goals reflecting relative performance and avoidance, whereas high strivings with low concerns were linked with a stronger emphasis on mastery. Students with low strivings and low concerns were, instead, inclined towards work avoidance. Academic self-worth contingency was highest among students with high concerns, and it contributed significantly to group differences on achievement- and performance-related achievement goal orientations. This suggests that self-worth maintenance might be one of the mechanisms linking perfectionism and motivation.
... The same authors claim that school motivation is manifested both in the learning process, mediating performance, and as a modeller of the attitude that the student adopts towards the object of study. Self-regulation of motivation can be defined as the activities which the person initiates or maintains intentionally, their own willingness to initiate, approximate or complete a certain activity or a certain goal (Kathryn, Fletcher, Neumeister, 2012). ...
... Adjustment in the realm of education could include behavioral and psychological developments during which individuals try to adjust themselves with their new environment and successfully adapt to their academic requirements and meet their learning needs [23]; therefore, an increase in their resilience will not be unexpected [24]. Academic adjustment is influenced by some factors, such as motivation, intellectual ability, family conditions, educational system, personal skills, sociocultural factors, psychological aspects [25], and perfectionism [26]. T resilience is a critical issue in schools that should be regularly and purposefully evaluated, nurtured, and recognized by researchers and specialists in the realm of education [27]. ...
Article
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Introduction: The effectiveness of perfectionism and resilience on the students’ academic adjustment have been paid into attention by lots of researchers. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between perfectionism and resilience by the mediating role of students' academic adjustment. Materials and Methods: The statistical population consisted of all male high-school students in Bandar-e Langeh City, Iran, in the 2017-2018 academic year (N= about 1300). Using a multistage cluster sampling method, and Morgan and Krejcie’s Table, 400 individuals were selected. The data-gathering instruments were Ahvaz Perfectionism Scale, Resilience Scale, and Academic Adjustment Inventory for high school students. A path analysis was used to analyze the obtained data by SPSS and LISREL. Results: The present study findings suggested that perfectionism decreased the investigated students’ resilience (B=-0.21, P<0.0001). Moreover, an educational adjustment had a mediating role between perfectionism and resilience (B=-0.24, P<0.0001). Besides, changes in the variance of resilience scores with the mediation of academic compatibility could be explained by perfectionism among the studied students (P<0.001). Conclusion: The obtained data suggested that planning to improve students’ academic adaptability could play an essential role in increasing resilience by reducing the negative impact of their perfectionism.
... There are many studies of perfectionism in gifted students (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012;Mofield & Parker Peters, 2015;Parker, 1997;Parker & Mills, 1996;Rice & Ray, 2018;Speirs Neumeister, 2004), because setting and achieving high goals can serve as their primary "drive" and support their aspirations and academic performance. On the other hand, perfectionism can hamper the development of gifted students' lives if it is related to unrealistic goals, parental criticism, indecisiveness, self-doubt, and the fear of failure (Pfeiffer & Stocking, 2000). ...
Article
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New game technologies seem to permeate every area of daily life. Therefore, it is not surprising that, in addition to the incorporation of entertaining gaming features into otherwise dull or tedious activities, the positive influence of user experience and user engagement has also been on the rise in recent years. It is all part of gamification. Individual differences in response to gamification deserve attention. Specifically, the objective of this experimental study was to investigate how perfectionism and gender affect behavior under two conditions—free play and competition—during a logic video game played by 155 gifted high school students. Game points monitoring frequency (GPMF) and game completion time (GCT) were measured. Functional perfectionists showed significantly higher GPMF than dysfunctional perfectionists. Furthermore, the competitive condition increased GPMF significantly more in functional perfectionists (compared to dysfunctional perfectionists) and girls tended to show higher GCT across the conditions. The results indicate that, in a competitive environment, the effectiveness of employing points for feedback is influenced by both a perfectionistic personality style and gender. Our study supports the notion that gamification elements can affect individuals differently, supporting the motivation of some students, yet being ignored by others.
... Concepts in the area of students' social and emotional well-being (Neihart et al. 2015) include issues such as students' cognitive development being asynchronous to their chronological development (Rosenberg, 2012), underachievement (Rubenstein, Siegle, Reis, McCoach, & Burton, 2012), perfectionism (Margot & Rinn, 2016;Fletcher & Speirs-Neumeister, 2012), over-excitabilities (Mofield, & Parker-Peters, 2015;Dabrowski 1972, p. 7), twice exceptional challenges (Reis, Baum, & Burke, 2014), and the need for social competence (McNally, Brown & Jackson, 2012). The gifted education teachers at the sample schools need to be aware of and take actions to accommodate these distinct needs of gifted students. ...
... According to Fletcher & Speirs (2012), anxiety affects more than just ordinary pupils and students with learning impairments. Anxiety issues are common among gifted students. ...
Article
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Aim of the study was to find out the relationship between anxiety with academic performance of undergraduate university students. The study was conducted for the objectives; (i) to find out the anxiety level of undergraduate university students. (ii) to identify the level of achievement scores (GPA) and co-curricular activities of undergraduate university students, and (iii) to find out the relationship between anxiety and academic performance of undergraduate university students. A sample of 408, including 195 male and 213 female 2nd-semester undergraduate BS students from 12 different departments out of 4 faculties of the University of the Sargodha, taking 34 students from each department, were selected through multistage random sampling techniques. Two instruments, anxiety scale and performance checklists, were developed to collect data from students. Research instruments were validated through experts' opinions, pilot testing was done, and the reliability coefficient Cronbach Alpha value for the anxiety scale was .832. Frequencies, mean, standard deviation, t-tests and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis. There was a weak and negative relationship between anxiety and achievement scores of undergraduate university students whereas. But there was a significant but weak and negative relationship between anxiety and achievement scores and co-curricular activities of undergraduate university students. So it is recommended that teachers of the university may integrate activities in their classroom teaching to keep students involved and reduce anxiety.
... However, other researchers argued that perfectionism may not always be a negative characteristic. Perfectionism was found to be positively associated with goal setting and task motivation (Locke & Latham, 2002), and beneficial in achievement motivation for gifted students (Fletcher et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Perfectionism is characterized by striving for flawlessness and setting excessively high standards for performance. Previous studies indicate that perfectionism is associated with negative psychological functioning. This study examined self-oriented perfectionism (impose high standards upon themselves), and socially prescribed perfectionism (strive to meet the standards that significant others impose on them) in relation to the three aspects of intelligence: analytical (analysis, evaluation, and critiquing), creative (discovering, creating, and inventing), and practical (using, implementing, and applying). The data were gathered from 630 adolescent Filipino students using self-report measures. Results of regression analyses showed self-oriented perfectionism positively predicted all three aspects of intelligence while socially prescribed perfectionism only predicted creative intelligence. Implications point to self-oriented perfectionism being associated with high positive perfectionist strivings, complementing high expectations with high actual achievements, and, if they are not overly concerned about what others impose on them. Overall, the results suggest the adaptive form of perfectionism for learners in the academic context.
... Extensive research from a motivational perspective suggests, going forward, there is a clear need for a more nuanced conceptualization to capture the complexities of this dimension. Collectively, research suggests that socially prescribed perfectionism can involve profound motivational deficits; it is characterized by not only deficits in achievement motivation and avoidance (see Fletcher & Neumeister, 2012), behavioral inhibition (Randles, Flett, Nash, McGregor, & Hewitt, 2010), negative urgency , and excessive validation seeking, but likewise low growth-seeking (Flett, Besser, & Hewitt, 2014;Hill, Hall, Appleton, & Murray, 2010). However, people dealing with socially prescribed perfection also tend to be characterized by a high degree of obsessive passion, so they are driven individuals, albeit for defensive reasons and in ways that can become too intense and compulsively urgent. ...
Article
Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality construct with various components. Socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., perceived social pressures and expectations to be perfect) is one key element. This trait dimension represents a chronic source of pressure that elicits feelings of helplessness and hopelessness at extreme levels. Unfortunately, at present, the destructiveness of socially prescribed perfectionism has not been fully recognized or extended conceptually despite the extensive volume of research on this dimension. To address this, we first trace the history and initial conceptualization of socially prescribed perfectionism. Next, we summarize and review findings that underscore the uniqueness and impact of socially prescribed perfectionism, including an emphasis on its link with personal, relationship, and societal outcomes that reflect poor mental well-being, physical health, and interpersonal adjustment. Most notably, we propose that socially prescribed perfectionism is a complex entity in and of itself and introduce new conceptual elements of socially prescribed perfectionism designed to illuminate further the nature of this construct and its role in distress, illness, dysfunction, and impairment. It is concluded that socially prescribed perfectionism is a significant public health concern that urgently requires sustained prevention and intervention efforts.
... At the end the conclusion exposed that students are more anxious who were studying in lower degrees but those were not that much anxious those have experienced the test taking process before. Fletcher & Speirs, (2012) stated that achievement, perfectionism and motivation can have impact on gifted students. ...
Article
Library anxiety plays a critical role in academic performance of the students. Anxiety is the feeling of disturbance while doing some important work. Everybody feels anxious in a daily life routine. Anxiety affects thinking and behavior. Previous research showed that there was a negative correlation among study anxiety and educational performance of the students. Students cannot achieve their goals if they are having library anxiety. No study had been done to identify the study anxiety sources in the universities of Pakistan so there was a need to report this crucial situation. The major objective of the current study was to identify different forms of anxiety and their effects on academic performance of public and private sector university students of Pakistan. In this survey, 416 students from public and private universities of Lahore, Pakistan were included. Survey Method was utilized to meet the set objectives of the study. Data was collected by using questionnaire. Findings of the study show that the mean of library anxiety remained the maximum so it is ranked 1. The mean of presentation anxiety ranked 2, exam anxiety ranked 3, and subject anxiety ranked 4 which remained minimum. Findings of this research are indeed of great value for the authorities and policy makers to formulate policies to reduce anxiety so that students might perform well in academics.
... Developmentally disruptive characteristics which cause a "tendency to avoid or withdraw from activity" (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006, p. 810) not only hamper interactions but indicate that the student may not be experiencing psychological well-being. The development of phobias (Dai et al., 2015), engagement in selfcriticism (Robertson, 2013), the perception that they cannot meet their goals (Corson et al., 2018), or maladaptive perfectionism connected with a fear of failure (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012) could be indicative of compromised psychological well-being. It is worth noting though that Dickinson and Dickinson (2014) challenged the perception that perfectionism can only be a negative force. ...
Article
There is a growing acknowledgment of the relationship between students’ psychological well-being and educational success. However, relatively few studies have focused on a connection between the psychological well-being of students who have high abilities and their school ecology. School-based experiences associated with interactions involving students, individual characteristics, contextual aspects and time-related factors are explored as they relate to the psychological well-being of students with high abilities. Psychological well-being in this article refers to students’ motivation, ability to cope with stressors, their expectations for the future, their involvement in the community, and their sense of life satisfaction. This position paper invites researchers, educators, and other school-based stakeholders to consider the importance of the interplay between students’ psychological well-being and the ecology in which they work.
... The same authors claim that school motivation is manifested both in the learning process, mediating performance, and as a modeller of the attitude that the student adopts towards the object of study. Self-regulation of motivation can be defined as the activities which the person initiates or maintains intentionally, their own willingness to initiate, approximate or complete a certain activity or a certain goal (Kathryn, Fletcher, Neumeister, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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... We believe that knowledge on students' different perfectionistic profiles as well as their stability and connections to achievement motivation will provide us with a better understanding of how teachers could identify and take into account such individual differences to accommodate their instructional strategies and pedagogical practices (e.g., goal setting, feedback, and evaluation, see Flett & Hewitt, 2014a;Nugent, 2000;Wade, 2018) accordingly. Following this, the objective of the present study was to investigate Research on the relations between perfectionistic profiles and achievement goal orientations is yet somewhat scant and has mostly focused only on mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals (for a review, see Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012). However, as the different emphases on the facets of perfectionism could arguably be linked with a broader set of achievement-related strivings-for example, high perfectionistic strivings linked with an orientation to seek absolute success, or low strivings with and orientation to minimize effort spent on schoolwork (see Ståhlberg et al., 2019)-we took this into account and utilized an approach that explicitly included these tendencies (i.e., mastery-extrinsic and work-avoidance goal orientations, respectively, Niemivirta, 2002). ...
Article
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In this study, we examined what kind of perfectionistic profiles (i.e., different patterns of perfectionistic strivings and concerns) can be identified among general upper‐secondary school students, how stable those profiles are over the school year, and how they are connected with students' motivation (i.e., achievement goal orientations). Four distinct profiles were identified. Students with high strivings and low concerns had their focus mainly on mastery, while students with an opposite profile emphasized performance‐avoidance and work‐avoidance orientations. Students with high strivings and concerns favored both performance‐ and mastery‐related goals, whereas students characterized by low strivings and low concerns did not display a dominant tendency toward any orientation. Perfectionistic profiles were relatively stable over time, with the majority of students reporting similar tendencies across the measurements, and with no extreme changes observed. Some indications of more students displaying less adaptive perfectionistic tendencies by the end of the school year were nevertheless found. Our findings demonstrate not only stability in perfectionistic tendencies, but also their motivational relevance in the academic context where students' goals and performance concerns play an important role.
... Further research is warranted to confirm and expand upon these findings. Finally, there is little focus in the literature on discrepancy in high-achieving individuals (Fletcher & Neumeister, 2012). This may represent a unique population who performs well yet suffers internally from anxiety and negative affect. ...
Article
This study explored the relationships between the discrepancy facet of perfectionism, time spent on academic tasks, task-related and overall anxiety, and general psychological well-being in high-achieving university students (N = 83). Using a lab paradigm, we hypothesized those higher in discrepancy would 1) experience greater task-related state anxiety, 2) invest more time in study tasks, 3) report higher overall anxiety and lower psychological well-being, and that 4) these relationships would remain significant even after taking covariates into account. Results of this preliminary study suggest individuals with elevated discrepancy do not spend more time working than other high-achievers, yet experience greater task-related and overall anxiety, and poorer psychological well-being.
... The findings suggested that only perfectionistic concerns are clearly maladaptive, whereas perfectionistic strivings may form part of a healthy striving for excellence. Fletcher and Speirs-Neumeister (2012) reported that selforiented perfectionism was related to the adoption of mastery approach goals, performance approach goals, and performance avoidance goals, and socially prescribed perfectionism was related to the adoption of performance approach and performance avoidance goals. ...
Article
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Group Decision Making
... Just as the teachers were given the freedom to experiment, the students were also provided autonomy and encouragement to action. Many in the gifted field have expressed concerns regarding maladaptive forms of perfectionism, leading to underachievement and decreased psychological well-being (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012). This design-thinking principle could be one way to support students' development of adaptive risk-taking, consistent with NAGC Standards 1 and 3 (NAGC, 2019). ...
Article
Effective gifted education should incorporate opportunities for gifted students to develop creative and critical thinking along with academic and affective skills. Professional learning (PL) supporting these outcomes is not consistently successful. Therefore, this study pilots a new PL model called Instruct to Innovate (I2I) to support teachers’ efforts in facilitating gifted students’ development. This model integrates the Design Thinking Model and adult learning theories. Teachers participated in a multiphase intervention, including a 2-week PL summer camp with subsequent bimonthly meetings throughout the school year. Teachers’ reflections, captured in focus groups, along with secondary sources of corroborating data were collected. Through qualitative analyses, teachers recognized key design principles (i.e., human-centeredness, bias towards action, collaborative nature, and mindfulness of the process) within the PL model, their practice, and their students. These findings provide initial evidence that this approach may support educators’ efforts as they provide powerful learning experiences for gifted students.
... Özel yetenekliler de ise bir alanda uzmanlaşmak için kendilerine uygun hedefler belirlemesi ve başarıya dair inanç oluşturabilmesinde uyumlu mükemmeliyetçiliğin gerekli bir kavram olabileceği belirtilmektedir (Fletcher ve Speirs Neumeister, 2012). Ayrıca bu çocukların yeteneklerini geliştirmeleri, kendi hızlarında ilerleyebilmeleri, geniş ilgi alanlarını takip edebilmeleri için özdüzenlemeli öğrenmenin de bu çocuklar için gerekli bir beceri olduğu alanyazında yer almaktadır (Obergriesser, Steinbach ve Stoeger, 2013;Tortop ve Eker, 2014). ...
... El perfeccionismo es un constructo multidimensional y complejo 3 , que se conceptualiza como una característica de control cognitivo hacia el logro de la excelencia, facilitando o no su consecución 4 . Desde esta perspectiva, se relaciona con la motivación, el esfuerzo y el rendimiento escolar con altos estándares, pero también con otros signos como la ansiedad hacia la evaluación, miedo al fracaso 5 , o el bajo rendimiento, lo cual indica que puede ser potencialmente negativo. ...
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Perfectionism is a psychological construct related o excellence and an optimal manifestation of high intellectual ability (HIA). The main goal of the present work was to compare types and dimensions of perfectionism in students with HIA and an age-gender matched comparison group. We selected 137 participants with diagnosis of HIA and a comparison group of 137 matched by gender and age. The mean age was 11.77 years (SD = 1.99). The Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R) and the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale-12 (PNPS-12) were used. The cluster analysis for the total sample identified 3 groups of participants (non-perfectionist, unhealthy perfectionist/negative, and healthy perfectionist/ positive). The HIA group presented a higher prevalence of healthy perfectionists and a lower prevalence of unhealthy perfectionists, in comparison with the group of students without a diagnosis of HIA. When comparing the average scores of APS-R and PNPS-12 between the ACI and the comparison group, statistically significant differences were found in high standards, order, discrepancy, positive and negative perfectionism. In all cases, the comparison group yielded higher mean scores than the HIA group. These results have clear implications in the understanding of the phenotypic expression of perfectionism related to excellence and optimal manifestation of the high intellectual potential.
... ‫وبابا‬ ‫ونيغرو،‬ ‫وستويبر،‬ ‫داميان،‬ ‫ن‬ (Eum & Rice, 2011;Damian, Stoeber, Negru, & Băban, 2014) ‫الكمالية‬ (Fletcher & Speirs-Neumeister, 2012) . ...
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This study aimed to find out the relationship between Perfectionism and Goal Orientation among Gifted Students in the King Abdullah II School of Excellence. It also aimed at finding out if the relationship between Perfectionism and Goal Orientation is different according to the level of education and gender. To achieve the objectives of the study, Perfectionism and Goal Orientation scales were developed by the researchers. The sample of the study consisted of 184 students at seventh and eighth grades in the King Abdullah II School of Excellence. They were randomly stratified selected from the students population. The results of the study indicated that the level of Perfectionism among the gifted students was high, and the study showed that the level of the types of goal orientation was high, specifically Mastery goal oriented. The results also indicated there was no statistically significant difference at the significance level (α=0.05) in the strength of the correlation between Perfectionism and the types of goal orientation due to the level of education. The results also indicated there was no statistically significant difference at the significance level (α=0.05) in the strength of the correlation between Perfectionism and the types of Goal Orientation due to gender.
... Moreover, lack of concentration, poor memory, communication skillsas 20 reported by Nelson et al. Low self-drive may worstly affect these students and even intelligent students who were use to [20][21][22][23] achieve good scores in academics in past. Different studies has concluded that the chronic stress is also responsible for increase frequency of medical problems like, hypertension, cardiac diseases, headaches, cognitive disorder, lack of concentration, insomnia, excessive fatigue, poor ...
... Some students, especially those seen as 'gifted', may seek perfection. Fletcher and Neumeister (2012) have reviewed and discussed some of the attributes and consequences for perfectionist students. They suggest that, 'educators should be cautioned about their inferences about the psychological wellbeing of gifted students on the basis of their high levels of achievement' (Fletcher and Neumeister 2012, 675). ...
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Although alternatives exist, unseen, written examinations still appear to be a major component of assessment in higher education in the UK. Such exams can be unsettling for students new to higher education, particularly for those with specific learning difficulties. The concept of an ‘attainment curve’ is developed to assist mark attribution and to help maximise attainment over the time needed to provide an answer. The idea of a ‘lead-time’ is proposed to help settle students before they start to write. This time can be used for planning and to apportion writing time in exams by way of appreciating the nature of attainment curves. This approach has cognitive benefits to procedures in general, such as fair mark apportioning and by informing procedures relating to students’ previous experiences. The analysis also considers ‘feedback’ and ‘rules of the game’ and also suggests how students might better tackle exam questions. Ways by which tutors might produce ‘student friendly’ examinations and be transparent over assessment procedures and mark gains are also indicated.
... However, only a limited number of publications have analyzed perfectionism in reference to internal and external motivation. Similarly, some research has been done showing a connection between perfectionism and conflict between motivational tendencies of hope for success and fear of failure [19]. Some authors point out that the motivational basis of perfectionism has not been studied profoundly enough. ...
Article
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Many studies have shown connections between perfectionism, motivation, and anxiety disorders (AD), as well as essential hypertension (EH). The objective of this study is to examine the connections between motivation and the structure of perfectionism in AD patients and EH patients compared to healthy individuals. Projective and semi-projective tests (thematic apperception test (TAT) of Heckhausen, Multi-Motive Grid) were used to measure motivation, while a perfectionism questionnaire by Hewitt and Flett was used to determine perfectionism levels. The participants were 21 AD patients, 21 EH patients, and 33 healthy individuals. EH patients show higher level of other-oriented perfectionism, and AD patients demonstrate increased levels of self-oriented perfectionism compared to the healthy group. Both groups of patients are motivated by fear of failure rather than hope for success, and they also demonstrate an increased fear of rejection. AD patients have an increased fear of power of other people. In EH patients, the fear of power seems to play a significant role as it correlates with many other variables. In EH patients, the other-oriented perfectionism is connected to achievement motivation, whereas in AD patients the same is true for socially prescribed perfectionism. Overall, studying motivation and perfectionism in relation to various disorders seems to offer research prospects.
... En los estudios se refiere que la orientación al logro académico es mayor en los estudiantes sobresalientes en relación con aquellos que se encuentran en el promedio en lo relativo a aptitudes intelectuales (Fletcher y Speirs Neumeister, 2012;Valdés, Sánchez y Valadez, 2015). La presencia de motivos orientados al logro se asocia con alta perseverancia y esfuerzo en los estudiantes cuando intentan alcanzar elevadas metas académicas (Héctor, 2012). ...
Chapter
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Este trabajo se propuso analizar la influencia de la motivación al logro y la percepción de autoeficacia académica en el desempeño académico de estudiantes intelectualmente sobresalientes. Para esto se revisaron 32 estudios internacionales y nacionales acerca de la temática. Se encontró que en la literatura se evidencia que la presencia de motivos orientados al logro y percepción de alta autoeficacia académica se relaciona con un mejor desempeño académico en los estudiantes sobresalientes. Se concluye que el logro académico de los estudiantes sobresalientes es afectado por las variables antes mencionadas, lo cual sugiere que éstas deben ser tenidas en cuenta en las intervenciones dirigidas a favorecer el desarrollo de las potencialidades intelectuales en este grupo de estudiantes.
... Esta revisión aporta evidencia de la relevancia de la motivación al logro en el éxito académico de los estudiantes sobresalientes (Accordino et al., 2000;Cho et al., 2008;Goetz et al., 2008;Meier et al., 2014;Phillips y Lindsay, 2006;Valdés et al., 2013). Además, se muestra que este constructo se relaciona con características psico-afectivas y de personalidad de los estudiantes (Fletcher y Speirs Neumeister, 2012;Neihart, 2006). ...
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En el artículo se analizan las investigaciones que abordan la motivación al logro en estudiantes sobresalientes durante el período del 2000 al 2015. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos EBSCOhost, Web of Science y Redalyc con una muestra original de 715 artículos, de los cuales fueron seleccionados 18 que abordaban el tema estudiado. Los trabajos se clasificaron de acuerdo con las siguientes temáticas: a) la relación de la motivación al logro con el logro escolar, b) la influencia de factores psico-afectivos en la motivación al logro y c) la asociación de la motivación al logro con características de la personalidad. Los resultados denotan los múltiples factores relacionados con la temática, la existencia de un campo de trabajo en desarrollo en esta área de investigación, así como pocos estudios realizados en castellano y efectuados en América Latina.
... In gifted students, facets of perfectionistic concerns are negatively related to academic efficacy, grade point average (GPA), life satisfaction (Wang et al. 2012), and happiness (Chan 2012). Additionally, perfectionistic concerns are negatively related to intrinsic motivation, which may lead to underachievement in gifted students (Fletcher and Speirs Neumeister 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
There are different views on whether perfectionism is a characteristic of intellectually gifted students. Over the last decades, comparative studies of intellectually gifted and non-gifted students have produced inconsistent results. This heterogeneity in findings might be explained by underpowered studies and the multidimensional nature of perfectionism, comprising two broader dimensions: perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings. Whereas perfectionistic concerns are clearly maladaptive, perfectionistic strivings frequently positively relate to academic and psychological adjustment. We meta-analytically aggregated 32 effect sizes from 10 comparative studies ( N = 4,340) to investigate to what extent intellectually gifted and non-gifted students differ in perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings. Intellectually gifted students displayed equal levels of perfectionistic concerns compared to nongifted students ( g = -0.117, 95% CI [-0.337, 0.103], p = .252), but displayed elevated levels of perfectionistic strivings ( g = 0.332, 95% CI [0.092, 0.572], p = .012). The magnitude of the effect sizes indicates that perfectionism is not a core characteristic of giftedness. In particular, giftedness is not related to inherently maladaptive forms of perfectionism.
... Nedoseganje ciljev in perfekcionizem sta bila identificirana kot oviri, ki nadarjenim učencem preprečujeta izpolnitev njihovega potenciala (Fletcher in Speirs Neumeister, 2012). Učenci, ki menijo, da je na inteligentnost mogoče vplivati, so v manjši meri nagnjeni k perfekcionizmu in nedoseganju učnih ciljev v primerjavi z njihovimi vrstniki, ki menijo, da je inteligentnost fiksna (Siegle in McCoach, 2005). ...
... Nedoseganje ciljev in perfekcionizem sta bila identificirana kot oviri, ki nadarjenim učencem preprečujeta izpolnitev njihovega potenciala (Fletcher in Speirs Neumeister, 2012). Učenci, ki menijo, da je na inteligentnost mogoče vplivati, so v manjši meri nagnjeni k perfekcionizmu in nedoseganju učnih ciljev v primerjavi z njihovimi vrstniki, ki menijo, da je inteligentnost fiksna (Siegle in McCoach, 2005). ...
... El perfeccionismo es un constructo multidimensional y complejo 3 , que se conceptualiza como una característica de control cognitivo hacia el logro de la excelencia, facilitando o no su consecución 4 . Desde esta perspectiva, se relaciona con la motivación, el esfuerzo y el rendimiento escolar con altos estándares, pero también con otros signos como la ansiedad hacia la evaluación, miedo al fracaso 5 , o el bajo rendimiento, lo cual indica que puede ser potencialmente negativo. ...
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Resumen El perfeccionismo es un constructo psicológico relacionado con la excelencia y una manifestación óptima de alta capacidad intelectual (ACI). El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue comparar las tipologías y dimensiones de perfeccionismo entre jóvenes de ACI y un grupo de comparación apareado por género y edad. Se seleccionaron 137 participantes con diagnóstico de ACI y un grupo de 137 de comparación apareado por género y edad. La media de edad fue de 11.77 años (DT = 1.99). Como herramientas se utilizaron la Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R) y la Escala de Perfeccionismo Positivo y Negativo 12 (PNPS-12). El análisis de conglomerados para la muestra total, identificó la presencia de tres agrupaciones de participantes (No perfeccionista, Perfeccionista no saludable/negativo, y Perfeccionista saludable/positivo). El grupo de ACI presentó una mayor prevalencia de perfeccionistas de tipo saludables y una menor prevalencia de perfeccionistas de tipo no saludable, en comparación con el grupo de alumnos sin diagnóstico de ACI. Cuando se compararon las puntuaciones medias de APS-R y PNPS-12 entre los grupos de ACI y grupo de comparación, se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en altos estándares, orden, discrepancia, perfeccionismo positivo y perfeccionismo negativo. En todos los casos el grupo de comparación presentó puntaciones medias mayores que el grupo de ACI. Estos resultados tienen implicaciones claras en la comprensión de la expresión fenotípica del perfeccionismo relacionado con la excelencia y la manifestación óptima del alto potencial intelectual. Palabras clave: perfeccionismo, alta capacidad intelectual, excelencia, bienestar Abstract Perfectionism and high intellectual capacity. Perfectionism is a psychological construct related o excellence and an optimal manifestation of high intellectual ability (HIA). The main goal of the present work was to compare types and dimensions of perfectionism in students with HIA and an age-gender matched comparison group. We selected 137 participants with diagnosis of HIA and a comparison group of 137 matched by gender and age. The mean age was 11.77 years (SD = 1.99). The Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R) and the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale-12 (PNPS-12) were used. The cluster analysis for the total sample identified 3 groups of participants (non-perfectionist, unhealthy perfectionist/negative, and healthy per-fectionist/positive). The HIA group presented a higher prevalence of healthy perfectionists and a lower prevalence of unhealthy perfectionists, in comparison with the group of students without a diagnosis of HIA. When comparing the average scores of APS-R and PNPS-12 between the ACI and the comparison group, statistically significant differences were found in high standards, order, discrepancy, positive and negative perfectionism. In all cases, the comparison group yielded higher mean scores than the HIA group. These results have clear implications in the understanding of the phenotypic expression of perfectionism related to excellence and optimal manifestation of the high intellectual potential. La alta capacidad intelectual (ACI) se explica actual-mente desde un modelo de desarrollo de la superdotación y el talento 1 , entendiendo a la persona que la posee como un sistema dinámico en cambio continuado, en la que el sustrato neurobiológico de la alta potencialidad intelectual se expresa, a lo largo del desarrollo, en interacción con diversas variables intra e interpersonales que modulan la expresión del potencial inicial a través de una epigénesis probabilística. Una de las variables moduladoras en esta trayectoria de desarrollo, puede ser el perfeccionismo. La asociación entre ACI y perfeccionismo se ha esta-blecido por la relación de ambos con la excelencia y el alto rendimiento, y porque la excelencia es uno de los criterios que configuran la ACI 2 , aunque no siempre se manifies-te. De ahí la importancia de conocer las dimensiones y características del perfeccionismo que pueden optimizar o limitar la expresión de la ACI y sus consecuencias en el logro, y en el bienestar personal. El perfeccionismo es un constructo multidimensional y complejo 3 , que se conceptualiza como una característica
... Gottfried & Gottfried, 1996;Gottfried et al., 2006;Zeidner & Shani-Zinovich, 2015), perfectionism (e.g. Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012;Wang, Fu, & Rice, 2012) or need for autonomy (Butler, 1998(Butler, , 2006Garn & Jolly, 2014) may also account for keeping talented students far from instrumental help seeking. ...
Article
Seeking help as an important self-regulated learning strategy has been consistently associated with student motivation. Despite the extensive body of research on typically achieving students, no studies have included help seeking in the literature on talented children. The present study explored the help-seeking intentions and beliefs and achievement goal motivational profiles of academically talented adolescents (n = 207) who were identified via a special testing process organized by the Center of Talented Youth in Greece. Students were administered self-report scales measuring mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals, general intention to seek academic help, intention to seek instrumental help, avoidance of help seeking, and perceived help-seeking benefits and costs. Latent class analysis indicated four latent clusters based on the four goal orientations as indicator variables. The probabilities of seeking instrumental help and perceived help-seeking benefits were high for students in the high mastery and low performance goals profile. Students in the high performance goals profile were more likely to perceive help-seeking costs, whereas students having all goal orientations low were less likely to perceive help-seeking benefits and to seek instrumental help. Findings are discussed in light of current theory and evidence for typically achieving student motivation and help-seeking beliefs and tendencies. Implications for educational practices with talented adolescents are discussed.
... Research suggests that self-oriented perfectionism was positively related to intrinsic motivation, whereas socially prescribed perfectionism was positively related to extrinsic motivation (Miquelon, Vallerand, Grouzet, & Cardinal, 2005;Stoeber, Feast, & Hayward, 2009). More recently, results of research suggest that perfectionism can also impact students' achievement motivation (Fletcher & Speirs Neumeister, 2012). Scholars who interviewed gifted high school students about their perfectionism found that parental expectations and role modeling were influential elements in the extent and ways in which perfectionism manifested for the youth (Speirs- Neumeister, Williams, & Cross, 2009), suggesting a critical role parents can play in learning and modeling effective anxiety management techniques themselves. ...
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Gifted students can encounter anxiety-provoking stressors throughout their day. Developing effective anxiety management skills allows them to better navigate these challenges. Concepts from neuroscience help us better understand responses to anxiety and can assist gifted youth and those working with them in recognizing how and when to best apply anxiety management strategies. This article reviews these concepts and integrating them into the classroom environment to assist with this learning process. In addition, it examines an evidenced-based anxiety management intervention that has been found to be efficacious for gifted youth, Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT). Results of recent EFT research are reviewed and the steps to learning EFT are outlined.
... Offering a variety of tasks can also serve to reduce competitive pressures among students and emphasize the need for students to consider their own progress relative to objective and self-referenced criteria (i.e., a mastery orientation). Task variety among all students can help alleviate maladaptive perfectionism that gifted students can experience (Fletcher & Spiers-Neumeister, 2012). For example, David and Tia subtly compete on every assignment to see who finishes first, who gets the most points, or who can outdo one another. ...
Article
Self-report, trait-based instruments have provided data about adolescents and their emotional development. However, a holistic and self-referential view of the emotionality of the adolescent who is gifted remains elusive. The theoretical framework of emotionality was tailored for this inquiry by combining two prominent theories of emotional intelligence with emotional development. This merge allowed for the generation of a large body of descriptive statements. These were sampled according to procedures in Q methodology to result in 41 statements, which were sorted by 28 adolescents identified as gifted by their public school district personnel. Q factor analyses revealed four types of emotionality among the gifted adolescents who participated, which were interpreted as Humanitarians, Politicians, Regulators, and Stabilizers. These findings provide insight into the self-descriptions of emotional lives of adolescents who are gifted.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin kariyer gelişimlerini inceleyen makaleleri yayınlandığı yıllara, araştırmanın yapıldığı ülkeye, konularına, araştırma yöntemine, veri toplama araçlarına ve çalışma grubunun özelliklerine göre incelemektir. Çalışma kapsamında, SPRINGER (f=5), SAGE (f=18), WOS (f=12), SCOPUS, (f=4), TAYLOR&FRANCIS (f=2) veri tabanlarında yer alan 2000-2021 yılları arasında çalışılan ve tarama sonucu ulaşılan 41 makale yer almaktadır. Araştırmanın seçim ölçütlerine uygun makaleler doküman analizi yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Doküman analizi sonuçları, makalelerin yarısının 13-17(%50) yaş aralığındaki öğrenci örneklemlerinde ve en çok ABD’de (%43) çalışıldığını göstermiştir. Üstün yetenekli öğrencilerde en çok karşılaşılan özelliğin mükemmeliyetçilik olduğu bulunmuştur. Bu araştırma kapsamındaki makalelerin yarıdan fazlasının betimsel yöntem (%63) ile çalışıldığı, deneysel ve kültürlerarası çalışmaların sınırlı sayıda olduğu bulunmuştur. Araştırma kapsamındaki makalelerde kariyer karar verme süreci, öz yetkinlik, dezavantajlı grupta yer alan üstün yetenekli öğrenciler gibi konuların daha çok çalışıldığı belirlenmiştir.
Conference Paper
The aim of this exploratory research effort was to examine the triggers of motivation to learn in highly capable Computer Science students and to identify which types of environments they perceive as being likely to ensure their academic success. The study participants, gifted students and graduates from Innopolis University, Russia, were categorized as gifted based on winning and participating in the higher stages of school subject and project Olympiads. Mixed approach was used to study this population. First, qualitative data were collected by way of offline interviews of four focus groups. Based on the results of these interviews, and to collect quantitative data, an online questionnaire of forty questions was designed and distributed among the University students online; 106 of the University students responded, each of those also qualified as gifted based on their self-identification as Olympiads participants or winners. The results of both qualitative and quantitative data analysis revealed the importance of appealing to interest and challenge in the learning process of gifted IT students, as well as the need for greater independence and flexibility in the choice of material they focus on; these conclusions imply such students are likely to prefer educational experiences that are similar to the process of preparation to the said Olympiads.
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This study examined the psychological well-being of students enrolled in two gifted programs with different service delivery models. Participants were 292 fifth- and sixth-grade students ( M age = 11.70, SD age = 0.65) enrolled in a gifted math pull-out program ( n = 103), a self-contained gifted program ( n = 90), or a program providing no gifted services, which served as a control group ( n = 99). Multiple differences in psychological well-being across programs were revealed in Hierarchical Linear Models, particularly in terms of math self-concept, loneliness, and maladaptive perfectionism. Students in the two gifted programs reported different patterns of psychological well-being when compared with students in the no gifted services control group. These differences suggest distinct social phenomena underlying the two different service delivery models.
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El talento en la escritura académica de jóvenes universitarios es un tema poco explorado. Este estudio genera un acercamiento al perfil de estudiantes de Periodismo con dicho talento, basado en sus características comunes personales y de escritura, situado en los catalizadores ambientales e intrapersonales del Modelo Diferenciado de Dotación y Talento de Gagné, así como en algunos recursos del proceso de su desarrollo. Se llevó a cabo con un diseño de estudio de casos múltiple, con seis estudiantes del Programa de Periodismo. Los resultados arrojan varias coincidencias en las características de los catalizadores ambientales e intrapersonales, como alto desempeño académico, participación en concursos de redacción, ausencia de patrones para estudiar, poca sociabilidad, presencia de profesores detonantes del interés en la lectura y la redacción, pares retroalimentadores y motivantes, y prácticamente nula tradición lectora y escritural en la familia; los estudiantes se perciben como hábiles en motricidad fina, perfeccionistas, perseverantes y con el respeto como valor central. Se concluye que esas coincidencias en los casos son útiles para la construcción de una primera aproximación a un perfil de estudiantes de Periodismo con talento en la escritura académica.
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Se presenta un análisis sobre los elementos de la motivación de logro académico y el desempeño académico, relacionados en cuatro casos de dos grupos de estudio: jóvenes universitarios con aptitud intelectual sobresaliente y jóvenes con alto desempeño académico. El enfoque metodológico del estudio es mixto, de tipo no experimental transversal, correlacional y diseño de estudio de casos múltiple. La muestra de la sección cuantitativa fue no probabilística por nominación de profesores, de 21 participantes, sobre casos de ambos grupos de estudio; en la sección cualitativa se trabajó con cuatro casos (dos de cada grupo). Se usó la escala breve de inteligencia Shipley 2, la escala de motivación de logro académico y se realizó una entrevista estructurada abierta. De los resultados cuantitativos se obtuvo que el CI tiene una relación positiva moderada con la competitividad en cuanto a que otros obtengan mejores calificaciones (r = 0.521) y cuando su trabajo es mejor que el de los demás (r = 0.474), sin embargo, el rendimiento académico no tiene relación significativa con ninguno de los dos factores de la escala de motivación de logro. Del análisis de la sección cualitativa, las similitudes en los casos aparecieron sobre elementos de la exigencia, cumplimiento de metas, la búsqueda de alternativas y del éxito y los temores al fracaso. Las diferencias encontradas fueron en cuanto a las características personales y en el desempeño académico, así como las subcategorías de metas, resolución de problemas, automotivación y reconocimiento
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Tanulmányunk a tehetség és az azt befolyásoló, különböző tényezők koncepcióját járja körül társadalmi-történelmi és aktuális keretek között, az ősi kultúráktól napjainkig követve a jelenség definiálását, meglétének következményeit, mérésének lehetőségeit és fejlődését. Kifejtjük az intelligencia, a kreativitás, a motiváció, a teljesítményigény és egyéb, más tényezők hatását, azt, hogy e folyamatok, képességek hogyan, miben járulnak hozzá (vagy nem) a tehetség kibontakozásához. Végezetül pedig szót ejtünk egy olyan tehetségcsoportról – kétszeresen kivételesek –, akik különösen nagy segítséget igényelnek abban, hogy képességeik a leghatékonyabb módon jöjjenek felszínre és szilárduljanak meg. Our study revolves around the concept of giftedness and the various factors that influence it, in a socio– historical and current context, following the definition of the phenomenon from ancient cultures to the present day, the consequences of its existence, its measurement possibilities and development. We explain the impact of intelligence, creativity, motivation, performance needs and other factors, how these processes and skills contribute (or not) to the development of giftedness. In the end, we will talk about a group of talents -the twice-exceptional talents -who need a great deal of help in getting their skills to the surface and consolidating in the most effective way.
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پژوهش حاضر با هدف آزمون نقش واسطهای رفتارهای تسهیلگر/بازدارنده سبک زندگی تحصیلی سالمتمحور در رابطه کمالگرایی و راهبردهای نظمبخشی شناختی هیجان با بهزیستی تحصیلی و هیجانهای پیشرفت دانشآموزان تیزهوش دختر انجام شد. 400 دانشآموز به سیاهه شناختارهای کمالگرایی چندبعدی )کابوری، 2006 ،)سیاهه هیجانهای پیشرفت )عبداهللپور، 1394 ،)سیاهه مشغولیت تحصیلی )سالمالـآرو و آپادایا، 2012 ،)سیاهه فرسودگی تحصیلی )سالمالـآرو، کیورا، لسکینن و نورمی، 2009 ،)سیاهه راهبردهای نظمبخشی شناختی هیجان )گارنفسکی و کرایج، 2006 )و پرسشنامه رفتارهای ارتقادهنده/بازدارنده سالمت تحصیلی )صالحزاده، شکری و فتحآبادی، 1396الف( پاسخ دادند. نتایج نشان داد مدل واسطهمندی کامل رفتارهای تسهیلگر/بازدارنده در رابطه کمالگرایی و راهبردهای نظمبخشی شناختی هیجان با بهزیستی تحصیلی و هیجانهای پیشرفت با دادهها برازش مطلوبی داشت. در مدل مفروض تمامی وزنهای رگرسیونی از لحاظ آماری معنادار بودند. در مجموع، نتایج نشان داد که بخشی از کارکرد هیجانی و بهزیستی تحصیلی نوجوانان تیزهوش در محیطهای تحصیلی از طریق مشخصههای شناختی ـ هیجانی ـ رفتاری آنها قابل تبیین است.
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Students’ academic underachievement, defined as discrepancies between ability and academic performance, is a widespread problem leading to many negative consequences. Our study examines high school students’ math underachievement, its motivational antecedents, and its impact on future math achievement, college attendance, and STEM interest. Using data from the nationally representative High School Longitudinal Study, we identified students who exhibited a math ability-achievement discrepancy between their standardized math scores at the beginning of 9th grade and their final math grade in fall of 9th grade. We then conducted generalized structural equation modeling to identify direct effects of math motivation on math underachievement along with the direct effects of math underachievement on future STEM and college outcomes. Informed by expectancy-value theory, we found that math motivation, as measured by value and expectancy beliefs was significantly associated with math underachievement. We also found that math underachievement was associated with a number of outcomes in the high school to college transition with evidence of moderation by high math ability. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.
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Perfectionism has historically been conceptualised as a personality characteristic – a personal quality of the individual. In this paper, we propose a new conceptualization of perfectionism that focuses on aspects of the social environment that are perfectionistic. Based upon motivational theory, we consider perfectionistic climate to be informational cues and goal structures aligned with the view that performances must be perfect and less than perfect performances are unacceptable. Perfectionistic climate has five components of expectation, criticism, control, conditional regard, and anxiousness. We define and describe each of these components and highlight the similarities and differences between these and existing concepts. We also draw on research that has examined similar concepts to inform our speculation on the possible consequences of perfectionistic climates for the development of perfectionism and its role in intervention work. We believe that the study of perfectionistic climate has the potential to extend perfectionism research considerably and highlights how people can still suffer the consequences of perfectionism through the environment without ever fully internalizing the personal quality themselves. Key words: perfectionism, personality, social
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Perfectionism has historically been conceptualised as a personality characteristic – a personal quality of the individual. In this paper, we propose a new conceptualization of perfectionism that focuses on aspects of the social environment that are perfectionistic. Based upon motivational theory, we consider perfectionistic climate to be informational cues and goal structures aligned with the view that performances must be perfect and less than perfect performances are unacceptable. Perfectionistic climate has five components of expectation, criticism, control, conditional regard, and anxiousness. We define and describe each of these components and highlight the similarities and differences between these and existing concepts. We also draw on research that has examined similar concepts to inform our speculation on the possible consequences of perfectionistic climates for the development of perfectionism and its role in intervention work. We believe that the study of perfectionistic climate has the potential to extend perfectionism research considerably and highlights how people can still suffer the consequences of perfectionism through the environment without ever fully internalizing the personal quality themselves.
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Achievement Motivation is one unique and salient theory which highlights the context that individuals are motivated and determined to succeed by seeking out achievement and success. These individuals are more encouraged to succeed at challenging tasks and find meaning in life when they are able to accomplish their targets the best way that they can. This research undertaking looked into the Achievement Motivation level of the psychology majors as it was correlated with their personality profile as measured by a standardized test Myer-Briggs Type Indicator and the Sixteen Personality Factor, which are reliable and valid instruments. Similarly, this study investigated the relationship between Achievement Motivation and General Weighted Average. The varied dimensions of the Personality tests 16 PF and MBTI were correlated with the GWA and Achievement Motivation respectively to assess how well the distinct personalities of the AB Psychology students enrolled in the Department of Psychology differ from each other in significant way. The chosen respondents of the study consisted of ninety (90) AB Psychology students enrolled in the college. The research locale of the study is the Tarlac State University, one of the promising SUC in the region and in the entire country with its aim of becoming the premiere state university in the Asia Pacific region. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the chi-square test of significance were utilized in the interpretation of data as well as descriptive statistics. Results reveal that there is a significant relationship between Achievement Motivation and the General Weighted Average of the AB Psychology students. This connotes that as the GWA increases the Achievement Motivation of the respondents also increases. On the other hand, results revealed that there is no direct relationship between the Achievement Motivation of the respondents and the personality types based on the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator Test (MBTI). Similarly, the 16 PF Factor Vigilance has significant relationship with General Weighted Average, while Dominance has direct relationship with Achievement Motivation. Analysis of data suggests the following recommendations: The school officials and curriculum planners should prioritize and integrate in the academic and social curriculum the deepening and strengthening of the unique personality attributes of every learner. To provide avenues for the learner to grow more deeply while maintaining their uniqueness as persons. Knowing that the higher the degree of achievement motivation of the students the higher their grades is as reflected in their General Weighted Average. Thus, the Psychology faculty, whether Junior or Senior is encourage to creatively find ways to strengthen the personality traits and unique qualities of the learners by proactively engaging the students in quality and efficient learning. To be instrumental in the molding of the unique psyche of the "would-be" psychologists and psychometricians who will play a critical role in the country and across the globe. There is too limited or too few studies have been done in the Philippine setting regarding achievement motivation. Therefore, the researcher recommends that Achievement Motivation be explored more deeply in different school settings and levels as a solution to the dearth of literature on this very important topic which concerns the actors and actresses in the educational scenario-the students.
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C. Midgley et al. (2001) raised important questions about the effects of performance-approach goals. The present authors disagree with their characterization of the research findings and implications for theory. They discuss 3 reasons to revise goal theory: (a) the importance of separating approach from avoidance strivings, (b) the positive potential of performance-approach goals, and (c) identification of the ways performance-approach goals can combine with mastery goals to promote optimal motivation. The authors review theory and research to substantiate their claim that goal theory is in need of revision, and they endorse a multiple goal perspective. The revision of goal theory is underway and offers a more complex, but necessary, perspective on important issues of motivation, learning, and achievement.
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We document a typology of perfectionism in a sample of academically talented adolescents and directly examine its relationship to indices of psychiatric symptomatology, adjustment, self-esteem, and coping. Adolescents enrolled in a state-funded residential academy for academically gifted high school students (N = 141) responded to the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, the Mastery Coping and Superior Adjustment scales from the Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents, the Perception of Personal Security and Academic Competence scales from the Self-Esteem Index, and the Coping Inventory (COPE). A 2-step cluster analysis of perfectionism scores revealed four clusters: Mixed-Adaptive (n = 51), Mixed-Maladaptive (n = 20), Pervasive (n = 30), and Self-Assured Nonperfectionist (n = 39). The Pervasive and Mixed-Maladaptive clusters showed a uniformly poor profile of mental health, adjustment, and coping relative to Mixed-Adaptive and Nonperfectionists. The Mixed-Adaptive cluster reported greater academic competence and superior adjustment than did the Nonperfectionist cluster, although these cluster groups were statistically similar on other dimensions of mental health and adjustment. These results suggest that maladaptive perfectionism takes two forms: pervasive and mixed. Implications for intervention and directions for future research are discussed.
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A new measure of motivation toward education has been developed in French, namely the ''Echelle de Motivation en Education'' (EME). The EME is based on the tenets of self-determination theory and is composed of seven subscales assessing three types of intrinsic motivation (intrinsic motivation to know, to accomplish things, and to experience stimulation), three types of extrinsic motivation (external, introjected, and identified regulation), and amotivation. Extensive data support the reliability and validity of the EME. The EME has been translated recently in English. Initial data provided support for the reliability (internal consistency and temporal stability) and factorial validity of the English version of the scale now termed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). However, the concurrent and construct validity of the AMS has not been assessed. Such was the purpose of the current study. The subjects were 217 junior-college students who completed the AMS, other motivation-related constructs, as well as variables assessing motivational determinants and consequences. The concurrent validity of the AMS was assessed by correlating its subscales with known motivational scales, while the construct validity was ascertained through a series of correlational analyses among the seven AMS subscales, as well as between these scales and other psychological constructs deemed to represent motivational antecedents and consequences. Findings provided support for the concurrent and construct validity of the AMS. Future directions concerning the use of the AMS in theoretical and applied research are proposed.
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Perfectionism is a prevalent characteristic in athletes. Yet some researchers have argued that perfectionism in sports is maladaptive because it undermines athletes’ performance and stifles athletic development. This argument, however, neglects that perfectionism is a multidimensional characteristic and that only some dimensions of perfectionism are clearly maladaptive, whereas others are not. This review argues that perfectionism is comprised of two main dimensions – perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns (Stoeber & Otto, 2006) – that show different and unique patterns of relationships with athletes’ emotions, motivation, and performance. In support of this argument the review will present findings indicating that only perfectionistic concerns show unique positive relationships with competitive anxiety, fear of failure, and avoidance goal orientations. In contrast, perfectionistic strivings show unique positive relationships with self-confidence, hope of success, approach goal orientations, and performance in training and competitions. The findings suggest that only perfectionistic concerns are clearly maladaptive, whereas perfectionistic strivings may form part of a healthy striving for excellence. Implications for applied sport psychology are discussed as are open questions for future research.
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C. Midgley et al. (2001) raised important questions about the effects of performance-approach goals. The present authors disagree with their characterization of the research findings and implications for theory. They discuss 3 reasons to revise goal theory: (a) the importance of separating approach from avoidance strivings, (b) the positive potential of performance-approach goals, and (c) identification of the ways performance-approach goals can combine with mastery goal to promote optimal motivation. The authors review theory and research to substantiate their claim that goal theory is in need of revision, and they endorse a multiple goal perspective. The revision of goal theory is underway and offers a more complex, but necessary, perspective on important issues of motivation, learning, and achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies examined the relationship between undergraduates' perceptions of their classroom environment, their adoption of achievement goals for the course, and their graded performance and intrinsic motivation. Results revealed a distinct antecedent profile for each goal in the trichotomous framework: Mastery goals were linked to the presence of lecture engagement and the absence of an evaluation focus and harsh evaluation, performance-approach goals were linked to the presence of evaluation focus, and performance-avoidance goals were linked to the presence of evaluation focus and harsh evaluation. When the perceived classroom environment and achievement goal variables were tested together as predictors of graded performance and intrinsic motivation, the results clearly demonstrated that the influence of the perceived classroom environment on these outcomes measures was indirect; the perceived classroom environment influenced achievement goal adoption, and achievement goal adoption, in turn, directly influenced graded performance and intrinsic motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes the development of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and data exploring the reliability and construct validity of the subscales are provided. 809 college students (aged 17-43 yrs) participated. The results support the existence of 3 subscales with adequate internal consistencies and promising relationships with other relevant measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors identified several specific problems with the measurement of achievement goals in the current literature and illustrated these problems, focusing primarily on A. J. Elliot and H. A. McGregor's (2001) Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ). They attended to these problems by creating the AGQ-Revised and conducting a study that examined the measure's structural validity and predictive utility with 229 (76 male, 150 female, 3 unspecified) undergraduates. The hypothesized factor and dimensional structures of the measure were confirmed and shown to be superior to a host of alternatives. The predictions were nearly uniformly supported with regard to both the antecedents (need for achievement and fear of failure) and consequences (intrinsic motivation and exam performance) of the 4 achievement goals. In discussing their work, the authors highlight the importance and value of additional precision in the area of achievement goal measurement.
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Previous studies suggest that self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism show differential relationships with intrinsic–extrinsic motivation and test anxiety, but the findings are ambiguous. Moreover, they ignored that test anxiety is multidimensional. Consequently, the present study re-investigated the relationships in 104 university students examining how the two forms of perfectionism are related to intrinsic–extrinsic motivation and multidimensional test anxiety (worry, emotionality, interference, lack of confidence, and total anxiety). Regarding motivation, self-oriented perfectionism showed positive correlations with intrinsic reasons for studying, and socially prescribed perfectionism positive correlations with extrinsic reasons. Regarding test anxiety, only socially prescribed perfectionism showed positive correlations with total anxiety. Moreover, socially prescribed perfectionism showed positive correlations with interference and lack of confidence, whereas self-oriented perfectionism showed positive correlations with worry, but negative correlations with interference and lack of confidence. The findings confirm that socially prescribed perfectionism is a maladaptive form of perfectionism associated with extrinsic motivation for studying and higher anxiety in exams. Self-oriented perfectionism, however, is an ambivalent form associated with intrinsic motivation for studying and with both higher and lower anxiety (higher worry; lower interference, lower lack of confidence) in exams.
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The present research uses self-determination theory to examine whether autonomous and controlled regulation of performance-approach (PAp) goals would differentially predict educational outcomes and add to the variance explained by the goal strength. Two cross-sectional studies among 10th to 12th grade students supported this hypothesis but showed that when regulations of PAp goals were entered into the same regression equation with the PAp goal strength, the PAp goal strength no longer predicted outcomes. Study 2 examined perfectionism in relation to PAp goals and types of regulation, thereby showing that whereas adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism were both positively related to PAp goals, adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism were associated with autonomous and controlled regulations, respectively. Finally, path modeling indicated that autonomous and controlled regulations of PAp goals (but not PAp goals themselves) accounted for nearly all of the relation between the types of perfectionism and learning outcomes. The discussion emphasizes that it is critical to move beyond the consideration of PAp goals per se, thereby considering the types of regulation of PAp goals.
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The article by Flett and Hewitt (2006) highlights a number of important issues in the study of perfectionism and rightly urges caution against simplistic conceptualizations. Their view that the term perfectionism should be reserved for pathological forms of behavior is questionable, though understandable given the perspective from which they view it. But whatever the terminology used, the underlying processes remain unaffected. Relevance of the data they cite in support of an alleged maladaptive side to positive perfectionism, however, rests on the assumption of close parallels between self-oriented perfectionism and positive perfectionism, an assumption that may not be justified. It is important to draw attention not only to differences between the theoretical underpinnings of their and the authors perspectives but also to points of agreement that the authors may previously have failed to make clear. The authors concur entirely with their view that clear avenues of potential research are now apparent that should serve to clarify the issues.
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This article attempted to demonstrate that the perfectionism construct is multidimensional, comprising both personal and social components, and that these components contribute to severe levels of psychopathology. We describe three dimensions of perfectionism: self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism. Four studies confirm the multidimensionality of the construct and show that these dimensions can be assessed in a reliable and valid manner. Finally, a study with 77 psychiatric patients shows that self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism relate differentially to indices of personality disorders and other psychological maladjustment. A multidimensional approach to the study of perfectionism is warranted, particularly in terms of the association between perfectionism and maladjustment.
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This article begins with a brief review of the current literature on the structure and measurement of perfectionism. It is concluded from this review that two major types can be distinguished, a normal/healthy form and a pathological form. These two forms are then defined as positive and negative perfectionism and related directly to Skinnerian concepts of positive and negative reinforcement. The positive/negative distinction is then further elaborated on in terms of approach/avoidance behavior, goal differences, self-concept involvement, emotional correlates, and the promoting environment. Finally, some of the more obvious theoretical and practical implications are briefly explored.
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Through a qualitative interview design, this study investigated how participation in a rigorous academic environment may influence gifted students who demonstrate high levels of perfectionism. The study also examined how their responses to a rigorous academic and residential environment may differ according to the type of perfectionism. Findings indicated that some socially prescribed perfectionists reported an increase in perfectionism, whereas some self-oriented perfectionists reported an increase followed by a decrease in their perfectionism. Overall, the majority of the participants, regardless of their type of perfectionism, indicated a decrease in their perfectionism as a result of their new academic environment. Reactions to experiencing imperfections ranged from calm to guilt or even anger, depending on the type of perfectionism. Implications for working with gifted students who show high levels of perfectionism are discussed.
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Two studies examined the relationship between undergraduates' perceptions of their classroom environment, their adoption of achievement goals for the course, and their graded performance and intrinsic motivation. Results revealed a distinct antecedent profile for each goal in the trichotomous framework: Mastery goals were linked to the presence of lecture engagement and the absence of an evaluation focus and harsh evaluation, performance-approach goals were linked to the presence of evaluation focus, and performance-avoidance goals were linked to the presence of evaluation focus and harsh evaluation. When the perceived classroom environment and achievement goal variables were tested together as predictors of graded performance and intrinsic motivation, the results clearly demonstrated that the influence of the perceived classroom environment on these outcomes measures was indirect; the perceived classroom environment influenced achievement goal adoption, and achievement goal adoption, in turn, directly influenced graded performance and intrinsic motivation.
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Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed.
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A nationally gathered sample of 820 academically talented sixth graders at the Center for Talented Youth of Johns Hopkins University took the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and scores were cluster analyzed using both hierarchical and nonhierarchical cluster analysis with cross-validation. A three-cluster solution was indicated. Students also took the Adjective Check List (Gough & Heilbrun, 1983), the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) to determine characteristics of cluster membership. Results indicated that the cluster groups comprised a nonperfectionistic type (32.8%), a healthy perfectionistic type (41.7%), and a dysfunctional perfectionistic type (25.5%). Parent perceptions of the children were consistent with the students' self-perceptions. The construct of perfectionism was primarily associated with conscientiousness and secondarily with agreeableness and neurosis.
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This study sought to provide empirical support for the notion that adaptive and maladaptive perfectionists fundamentally differ in their reported achievement goals and that their differential profiles manifest in varying academically-related outcomes. College students (N = 180) enrolled in a military institution responded to the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, achievement goal measures from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales, and two subscales measuring academic functioning. As expected, adaptive perfectionists endorsed a preference for mastery goals along with an advantageous profile of academic functioning. Although maladaptive perfectionists endorsed comparable mastery goals to the adaptive group, they also reported heightened performance goals and a poorer profile of academic functioning. These results suggest that any positive effects that could otherwise be associated with a mastery orientation are negated when the perfectionist concurrently espouses a performance orientation and harbors concerns related to the self. The implications for these findings are discussed.
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IT technologies applied in the urban places are being promoted in each area. Especially infrastructure is performed in the central role of technical support in urban area. However, u-City infrastructure has lack of integrated way and concentrated on only feasible technology which cause frequent substitution and the nested technology in urban area. Therefore this study sheds light on infrastructure through a overall considerations of urban compositional elements and interactions, and apply technology in the process of the industrial era, the domestic supply of urban infrastructure and the cycle comparison-analysis deal with the domestic implications when applied. The results of the study, first, the u-City infrastructure should be supplied by public. Second, u-City infrastructure is in need of the agile character, and standardization of the subtleties is needed. Third, a new system of integrated-macroscopic perspective should be established by changes that influenced by convergences of IT technologies and infrastructures. Fourth, u-City infrastructures planning should consider interactions of services, devices and systems.
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The psychometric properties of the Almost Perfect Scale–Revised (APS-R, Slaney, Mobley, Rice, Trippi, & Ashby, 1999) scores were examined in this study. The APS-R consists of three subscales measuring adaptive (high standards, order) and maladaptive (discrepancy) perfectionism. Participants consisted of 342 academically talented middle school students from an academic summer school. Reliability estimates of APS-R subscale scores were in the moderate to high range. The three subscales emerged on exploratory factor analyses; however, confirmatory analyses indicated that the goodness-of-fit indices were just below the criteria for acceptability. The best fit was found for the Slaney et al.'s three-factor model. Correlations between APS-R subscales and grade-point average, an organization variable, and future goal completion provided convergent and divergent validity support for the three scores. The authors concluded that the validation of another perfectionism subscale in an academically talented sample prepares the field for longitudinal studies of perfectionism.
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The present investigation examined whether academically gifted children, relative to their nongifted peers (a) were subject to greater self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, (b) endorsed higher levels of Ellis' (1962) irrational beliefs, and (c) were prone to more negative reactions to an experimentally induced failure. Relative to their nongifted and academically achieving peers, the academically gifted students demonstrated more negative affective and physiological stress reactions to the experimentally induced failure, as well as higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism and irrational beliefs. The present findings highlight the need for research within the relatively new and unexplored field of gifted students' reactions to scholastic failure.
Article
A nationally gathered sample of 820 academically talented sixth graders at the Center for Talented Youth of Johns Hopkins University took the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and scores were cluster analyzed using both hierarchical and nonhierarchical cluster analysis with cross-validation. A three-cluster solution was indicated. Students also took the Adjective Check List (Gough & Heilbrun, 1983), the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) to determine characteristics of cluster membership. Results indicated that the cluster groups comprised a nonperfectionistic type (32.8%), a healthy perfectionistic type (41.7%), and a dysfunctional perfectionistic type (25.5%). Parent perceptions of the children were consistent with the students' self-perceptions. The construct of perfectionism was primarily associated with conscientiousness and secondarily with agreeableness and neurosis.
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The purpose of the present study was to create and test a model that (a) illustrated variables influencing the development of perfectionism, and (b) demonstrated how different types of perfectionism may influence the achievement goals of high-ability students. Using a multiple-groups path analysis, the researchers found that parenting style was related to attachment, with authoritative and permissive parenting associated with secure attachment and authoritarian and uninvolved parenting associated with insecure attachment. Attachment, in turn, was related to perfectionism, with insecure attachment associated with either self-oriented or socially prescribed perfectionism. In addition, the model then illustrated that perfectionism would influence achievement goals, with self-oriented perfectionists more likely to set mastery or performance-approach goals, and socially prescribed perfectionists more likely to set performance-approach or performance-avoidance goals. The findings of this study are interpreted in the context of the existing literature, and implications for working with high-ability perfectionistic students are discussed.
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The researchers designed this study to investigate levels of multidimensional perfectionism in identified gifted middle school students and a group of their peers from the general cohort. Gifted students (N = 83) were compared with the general cohort (N = 112) from a Southeastern rural middle school (grades 6 through 8). One‐way analyses of variance were used to determine whether gifted and general cohort students differed on measures of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism. Results revealed that gifted students had significantly higher standards scores, a measure of adaptive perfectionism, and significantly lower discrepancy scores, a measure of maladaptive perfectionism. These results suggest that gifted students are more perfectionistic (i.e., hold higher personal standards) than general cohort students. However, the results do not support the contention that gifted students experience distress or maladjustment from their higher levels of perfectionism (e.g., Maxwell, 1995).
Article
A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the mediating role of achievement goals in the differential association of self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) with academic achievement and satisfaction of university students. Results showed that the positive association of SOP with academic achievement was partially mediated by performance-approach goal, whereas mastery-approach goal acted as full mediator in the positive relation between SOP and academic satisfaction. Furthermore, the negative link between SPP and academic achievement was partially mediated by performance-approach goal, whereas mastery-approach goal acted as a partial mediator in the negative relation between SPP and academic satisfaction.
Article
Achievement goal researchers and theorists have relied primarily on the distinction between performance goals and mastery goals in differentiating competence-based strivings. In this article, an argument is made for incorporating the distinction between approach and avoidance motivation into the performance-mastery dichotomy. Historical, theoretical, and empirical reasons for attending to the approach-avoidance distinction are offered, and a revised, trichotomous framework of achievement goals comprising mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals is described and reviewed. This trichotomous framework is discussed in the broader context of a hierarchical model of achievement motivation that attends to the motivational foundation underlying achievement goals per se. Avenues for further theoretical development are also overviewed, including consideration of a mastery-avoidance goal construct.
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In this study, the connection between perfectionism and gifted adolescents was examined. Quantitative data about attitudes and behaviors concerning perfectionism were gathered from the Goals and Work Habits Survey (Schuler, 1994), and qualitative data were gathered from semistructured interviews and documentary evidence. Results indicate that perfectionism exists on a continuum of behaviors and thoughts from normal to neurotic. Of the gifted adolescents in a rural middle school who took the Goals and Work Habits Survey, 87.5% were perfectionistic. Most (58%) were in the healthy range of perfectionism, while (29.5%) were in the neurotic range. Normal perfectionists viewed order and organization as important in achieving their “personal best.” Neurotic perfectionists, however, were limited by their fixation on making mistakes, which resulted in a constant state of anxiety. Limitations of the study include the selection and number of participants (20) involved in the case studies from a high-achieving, academically gifted population. The adaptation of one of the instruments that was used to gather data may also be viewed as a limitation of this study.
Article
Using the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, (Frost et al., 1990) perfectionism scores were compared between a group of 600 students identified as academically talented and a group of 418 peers from the general cohort. In this nationally gathered sample, all students were sixth graders and of similar socioeconomic status. Findings indicated little difference between the mean scores of the two groups. Comparisons were also made between the gifted students and the general cohort using an empirical typology of perfectionism. This analysis did not indicate a statistically significant difference in the frequency of perfectionistic types between gifted students and the general cohort. These findings suggest that the frequent anecdotal reports of greater perfectionism among the gifted may be a product of differential labeling patterns of similar behaviors when demonstrated by gifted students and the general cohort. A greater distinction between perfectionistic strivings which stimulate excellence and those perfectionistic strivings which frustrate and inhibit achievement needs to be made.
Article
This study evaluated everyday “hassles” and other stressors experienced by academically gifted, exceptionally academically gifted, and academically average adolescents. The results suggest that gifted and non-gifted adolescents experienced similar levels and types of everyday stressors. However, exceptional and to some degree gifted girls endorsed more perfectionistic tendencies than did their average peers. The need for affective education and psychosocial interventions for gifted students in schools is discussed. Adolescence is a time of increased stress for all youth. Educators of the gifted have had a long and enduring concern about the special stressors and pressures affecting gifted adolescents (e.g., Hollingworth, 1942; Seeley, 1993). Although gifted students are often posited to have strong psychosocial characteristics (e.g., Clark, 1988), we also have documentation that giftedness can generate stress and conflict for some students (e.g., Whitmore, 1980). Although we might expect high levels of stress from gifted students experiencing psychosocial or educational difficulties (i.e., underachieving gifted students), we have little normative information about problems and strains experienced by “typical” gifted adolescents. This study focused on specific stressors endorsed by academically gifted adolescents and compared them to those endorsed by their peers of average academic ability.
Article
A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation was proposed and tested in a college classroom with 178 undergraduates. Mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals were assessed and their antecedents and consequences examined. Results indicated that mastery goals were grounded in achievement motivation and high competence expectancies; performance-avoidance goals, in fear of failure and low competence expectancies; and performance-approach goals, in achievement motivation, fear of failure, and high competence expectancies. Mastery goals facilitated intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals enhanced graded performance, and performance-avoidance goals proved inimical to both intrinsic motivation and graded performance. The proposed model represents an integration of classic and contemporary approaches to the study of achievement motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Asserts that perfection is an undesirable and debilitating goal and that striving for nonexistent perfection keeps people in turmoil and is associated with a number of psychological problems. Human qualities come from imperfection, from defects that define unique personalities and create real people. The psychopathological aspects of perfectionists are described, focusing on mental distortions and the distinction between perfectionists and neurotic perfectionists. Individual and group treatment techniques are outlined. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale was administered to 219 youth (mean age 15.8 yrs) in the Czech Republic. The sample was composed of both mathematically gifted and typical students. As previously found in U.S. samples, two distinct orthogonal constructs of perfectionism were identified, indicating that healthy and unhealthy perfectionism are not opposite poles on a single continuum but, instead, are independent constructs. In this sample, perfectionism was more problematic among the typical than among the gifted students. The relationship between perfectionism and parent-reported adjustment problems and psychosomatic conditions was fairly weak. Asthma was related to parental pressures, and depression was related to concerns over making mistakes; but the magnitude of the relationship was quite modest. The strongest and most consistent result was found in migraine headaches, with the migraines negatively related to high personal standards and a healthy pursuit of excellence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Self-determination theory and a motivational model of engagement were used to determine the impact of perceived competence and autonomy on engagement and performance in school of 77 3rd and 4th graders identified as above average in ability by scoring above the median on the Stanford Achievement Test. Despite this high ability, children who reported experiencing a lack of competence (those less certain of their abilities) or a lack of autonomy (being externally motivated) reported more negative affect and withdrawal behaviors than did children who perceived themselves as having ability or who perceived themselves to be autonomous. Implications for the achievement and adjustment of children in school are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book integrates contemporary theory and research on the nature of perfectionism, with particular focus on perfectionism as maladaptive. Chapters are divided into four sections. The first part serves as an introduction to some basic themes in the perfectionism field. The second part examines the role of social, motivational, emotional, and cognitive factors in perfectionism. The next part focuses primarily on the important association between perfectionism and life stress and how the two combine to produce adjustment difficulties. The final part of the book addresses perfectionism as it relates to clinical disorders in the therapeutic context. The goal of the book is to further research on the assessment, nature, and treatment of dysfunctional forms of perfectionism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study investigated the mediating role of perfectionism in the effects of psychologically controlling parenting on achievement goals. Undergraduate students (N = 367) completed measures related to perfectionism, psychologically controlling parenting, and achievement goals. Four dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards, organization, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions) were considered. Psychologically controlling parenting positively predicted doubts about actions and concern over mistakes but not the other two dimensions of perfectionism. Psychologically controlling parenting positively predicted both performance approach and avoidance goals; yet these effects were fully mediated by doubts about actions and concern over mistakes. Organization was positively related to mastery and performance-approach goals and doubts about actions showed the opposite pattern. Concern over mistakes was positively related to performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals. Personal standards were linked to all types of achievement goals, suggesting both benefits and consequences.
Article
Perfectionism is a major diagnostic criterion for one DSM-III diagnosis, and it has been hypothesized to play a major role in a wide variety of psychopathologies. Yet there is no precise definition of, and there is a paucity of research on, this construct. Based on what has been theorized about perfectionism, a multidimensional measure was developed and several hypotheses regarding the nature of perfectionism were tested in four separate studies. The major dimension of this measure was excessive concern over making mistakes. Five other dimensions were identified, including high personal standards, the perception of high parental expectations, the perception of high parental criticism, the doubting of the quality of one's actions, and a preference for order and organization. Perfectionism and certain of its subscales were correlated with a wide variety of psychopathological symptoms. There was also an association between perfectionism and procrastination. Several subscales of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), personal standards and organization, were associated with positive achievement striving and work habits. The MPS was highly correlated with one of the existing measures of perfectionism. Two other existing measures were only moderately correlated with the MPS and with each other. Future studies of perfectionism should take into account the multidimensional nature of the construct.
Article
This study compares two recently developed measures of perfectionism. College students completed the Frost, Marten, Lahart and Rosenblate (1990; Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449–468) Multidimensional Perfectionsim Scale and the Hewitt and Flett (1991; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456–470) scale of the same name. Their relationship to each other, as well as to measures of affect, were examined. There was considerable overlap in the two measures of perfectionism. Frost et al.'s Total Perfectionism score appears to reflect a global dimension of perfectionism which is correlated with Hewitt and Flett's Self-Oriented and Socially-Prescribed scales, and less closely related to the Other-Oriented scale. Frost et al.'s Personal Standards scale was most closely associated with Hewitt and Flett's Self-Oriented Perfectionism scale. Frost et al.'s Concern over Mistakes, Parental Expectations and Parental Criticism scales were independently correlated with Hewitt and Flett's Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism scale. The subscales from each measure showed differential relationships with measures of positive and negative affect. Those dimensions which have been found to be related to symptoms of psychopathology were most closely related to negative affect (e.g. Concern over Mistakes, Socially- Prescribed Perfectionism), while those which have been found to be related to more “healthy” characteristics were associated with positive affect (e.g. Personal Standards, Other-Oriented Perfectionism). A factor analysis using the 9 subscales resulted in a conceptually clean two-factor solution. The first of these reflected maladaptive evaluation concerns, and the second reflected positive achievement strivings. The implications of these findings for the understanding of the construct of perfectionism are discussed.