Digital Game Design for Elderly Users
Eindhoven University of Technology
Game Experience Lab, HTI Group
Den Dolech 2, 5600 MB, Eindhoven
Henk Herman Nap
Eindhoven University of Technology
Game Experience Lab, HTI Group
Den Dolech 2, 5600 MB, Eindhoven
Eindhoven University of Technology
Game Experience Lab, HTI Group
Den Dolech 2, 5600 MB, Eindhoven
Yvonne de Kort
Eindhoven University of Technology
Game Experience Lab, HTI Group
Den Dolech 2, 5600 MB, Eindhoven
The current paper reviews and discusses digital game design for
elderly users. The aim of the paper is to look beyond the
traditional perspective of usability requirements imposed by age-
related functional limitations, towards the design opportunities
that exist to create digital games that will offer engaging content
combined with an interface that seniors can easily and pleasurably
Categories and Subject Descriptors
[J.4 SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES]
Design, Human Factors
Digital game design, elderly users, social and cognitive benefits
of games, review.
"I´m growing older, but not up." - Jimmy Buffett
There are compelling social and financial reasons why game
developers should think seriously about making their games
interesting and accessible to elderly users. Digital games hold a
significant promise for enhancing the lives of seniors, potentially
improving their mental and physical wellbeing, enhancing their
social connectedness, and generally offering an enjoyable way of
spending time. From a commercial point of view, elderly users
are potentially a very large customer base. Worldwide, the
population is ageing rapidly, and this is particularly true for
Europe, where the proportion of seniors is dramatically on the rise
. However, the growing 65+ demographic is currently not
well served by the majority of commercial games on the market,
creating a significant potential niche market for game developers.
In this paper, we discuss a number of demographic characteristics
and age-related sensory, cognitive and motor properties that may
influence the senior’s experience of interacting with digital
games. To date, the interface design community has focused
primarily on the design requirements that make interactive
applications, including digital games, usable for elderly users.
Indeed, usability is a sine qua non, and usability issues can be a
serious showstopper to user acceptance. However, usability in
itself is not a sufficient motivation to use software. What is
important to realize is that game design for elderly users should
not only focus on usability issues, but should also seriously
investigate the motivations of seniors to engage with new
technology. A perceived lack of benefits may be more detrimental
to the adoption of digital games, than perceived costs associated
with usability problems. We need to design for rich and rewarding
experiences, combining low-threshold interaction styles with
content that will directly speak to and engage elderly users.
2. ELDERLY GAMERS
By the year 2020, one in four of the European population will be
aged over 60, and the largest increase is expected in the oldest age
groups (75+). Although quite a bit of demographic data is
available on gamers below 65 years of age, relatively little is
known for people over 65. Recent research, commissioned by the
BBC, shows that people over 65 watch more TV than other age
groups, and are also the most likely to cite TV viewing as their
favorite activity. Of all age groups they are least likely to be using
the internet. If they do use it, it is mostly for practical purposes -
travel, finance, education and shopping. However, over a third of
pensioners state that they like to keep up with new technology.
It is hard to find reliable numbers that adequately characterize the
adoption and use of digital games amongst seniors. A review of
pioneering research in this area  showed that a majority of
elderly users were interested to engage in playing digital games
when they were offered the opportunity through organizational
stimulation or study programs, and that such gameplay could
yield several benefits, ranging from improvements in perceptual-
motor speed to social and educational enrichment. However, it
was also found that many of the games were either not enjoyable
or were unsuitable because of a challenging interface (e.g., small
size of the objects on the screen, rapid movements or reactions
Although not addressing the 65+ demographic, Pratchett, Harris,
Taylor and Woolard  report that approximately one in five
(18%) of the 51-65 year olds in their sample of UK participants
played digital games, two thirds of whom play at least once a
week. These findings may not be homogeneous across Europe,
though. For example, a recent Finnish consumer study performed
by VTT as part of the Exergames project (1,489 respondents
between 13 and 76 years) found that every second (52%)
pensioner (over 65 years old) stated to play computer games, and
every fifth (22%) pensioner stated to play games on a daily basis
However, almost all pensioners (93%) spent less than an hour
playing at a time . In the US, the Entertainment Software
Association (ESA) reports on data from almost 1500 respondents
in their ‘Essential facts about the computer and video game
industry’ publication. They found that 19% of Americans over the
age of 50 played video games in 2004, an increase from 9% in
1999. In 2005, this number rose to 25% [10; 11].
Overall, it is clear that seniors play digital games to a lesser
degree than younger aged groups, but this cannot be attributed to
a lack of openness or interest. Despite the fact that interacting
with computer technology can be challenging for seniors, the
literature suggests that older people are generally quite receptive
to using new technology. In a detailed study of technology
adoption behavior by elderly users, Melenhorst  found that
older individuals are motivated to invest in new communication
technology provided they perceive enough benefit for their
purposes. The perception of a lack of benefits, irrespective of
perceived costs, is reason enough to reject a new technology. In
line with these findings, Eggermont, Vandebosch, and Steyaert
 report that, in general, elderly are proponents of technological
advancement, which may provide valuable opportunities for them,
but not at any price. For example, they do not want technology
that replaces face-to-face contacts, but are interested in
technology that supports additional social contacts, connecting
people with similar interests (e.g., clubs), or helping them to stay
in touch when immobile.
3. AGE RELATED CHANGES AND
DIGITAL GAME DESIGN
Although seniors are quite diverse in abilities and experience,
older age is generally associated with a number of well-
documented changes in sensory-perceptual processes, motor
abilities, response speed and cognitive processes, all of which
impose requirements on interfaces that are to be pleasurably used
by the growing elderly population. We will briefly summarise
some of the main issues here. For a more detailed treatment, we
refer to Czaja and Lee , and Fisk, Rogers, Charness, Czaja and
With increased age, there is a loss in static and dynamic visual
acuity, as well as a reduction in the range of visual
accommodation, a loss of contrast sensitivity, decreases in dark
adaptation, declines in colour sensitivity, and a heightened
susceptibility to problems with glare. Such visual decrements may
make it harder for elderly people to perceive small elements on a
display (e.g., single soldiers in a real-time strategy game), to read
small print instructions or captions, or to locate information on
complex screens. Allowing the user easy control of font, color
and contrast setting, as well as window resizing, scroll rate and
zooming, is generally recommended. These adjustments should
not exceed appropriate boundaries for the playability of a game
on a system, e.g., a 200 point-size font on a portable game device
will not increase readability. At any moment in time, the user
should be able to directly undo the adjustments by means of a
Ageing is also related to declines in auditory acuity, in particular
sensitivity for pure tones, and high frequency tones. Problems
may occur in localizing sound, through problems in binocular
hearing. Older people may find it hard to understand synthetic
speech, because it is often somewhat distorted. For non-speech
audio signals, lower frequency tones (in the 500-1000 Hz range)
are easier for elderly users to hear than higher pitched sounds. In
general, it is advisable to provide redundant information through
multiple modalities. For example, if an in-game sound effect
delivers vital information, tactile (vibration) feedback through a
rumblepad or force-feedback joystick would be helpful as well.
Moreover, online social play should support both headsets (voice)
and text messaging (keyboard) for communication.
Motor impairments are diverse in their nature and cause, and have
varying degrees of impact on the user experience. Generally
though, senior users may experience changes in motor skills,
including slower response times, declines in ability to maintain
continuous movements, disruptions in coordination and balance,
loss of flexibility, and greater variability in movement . Thus,
it may become a challenge to be steady with the mouse, or any
other control device. Small targets and moving interface elements
are known to be difficult for older people, and should best be
Age-related changes in cognition are also likely to affect the
requirements of interface design. Cognitive processes that decline
with age include attention processes, working memory, discourse
comprehension, problem solving and reasoning, and memory
encoding and retrieval. Apparently easy computer tasks may put
quite a stringent demand on many of the processes mentioned
here. For example, remembering information from one screen to
another could be difficult because of limits in attention (see )
and working memory. From the point of view of interface design,
the focus has to be on simplicity and intuitiveness, providing
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appropriate affordances and overview, thus keeping the load on
memory and cognitive processing to a minimum.
In addition to functional limitations, the current generation of
seniors has not been exposed to the same level of computer
technology as the younger generation. In fact, many pensioners
have retired without needing or having used computers or the
internet at all during their working lives. Thus, this lack of
exposure may result in seniors not having an accurate mental
representation or conceptual model of how computer technology
works, what it can and cannot do. There is very little published
literature available on the potential differences in the way mental
models are built up by seniors as compared to the young. Van
Hees  suggested that elderly users must unlearn some of their
accumulated knowledge if it does not fit with the properties of
new technologies. Docampo Rama  has demonstrated that in
addition to an age effect (i.e., decline of function over age) there
is also an independent effect of technology generation, that is, the
dominant user interface experienced during the formative period
in life. When confronted with a layered interface, there Docampo
Rama found a pronounced discontinuity in the number of error
between people from the ‘electro-mechanical generation’ (born
before 1960) and those from the ‘software generation’ (born after
1960), suggesting a generational effect. Time on task, on the other
hand, increased linearly with age, indicating a more continuous
cognitive change. In addition, elderly users appear to use
somewhat different strategies in handling novel interfaces, taking
a more reflective approach, rather than a trial-and-error one .
The functional limitations and ICT experience of seniors could
have an impact on seniors' confidence level in playing, or starting
to play, digital games. Within the ICT domain, seniors are less
confident in their ability to perform than the young, which is
related to poorer, computer-related, global self-efficacy beliefs
. Czaja, Charness, Fisk, Hertzog, Nair, Rogers, and Sharit 
found that computer self-efficacy is an important predictor of
computer anxiety. So, to decrease computer anxiety it is
important that seniors receive encouraging feedback and
experience some level of success (see ). Within the games
industry there already is a lot of (heuristic) knowledge about how
to provide effective positive feedback that increases the self-
efficacy or mastery of gamers. To support inexperienced elderly
users in overcoming their anxiety it is recommended to design
games that provide enough time to learn basic necessary skills,
and provide encouraging feedback from the start (e.g., provide
positive feedback in a strategy game after having build a town
centre, instead of providing feedback after having conquered
Europe). In this context, it is generally beneficial to emphasize
and provide feedback on learning goals rather than performance
goals, especially when the senior’s confidence in his or her
present abilities is low . By presenting learning goals, there is a
focus on progress and mastery, rather than ability judgments,
which will likely increase the senior’s motivation and persistence
to engage in a task that is initially perceived as challenging.
In a quantitative study of web usability, Nielsen  compared
the performance (tasks completed, time on task, number of errors)
and subjective ratings of elderly users with that of younger users,
and found that overall, seniors experience more than twice the
usability problems than do younger users. He also found a strong
positive correlation between successful performance on the
various tasks, and subjective preference (r=0.78), indicating a
strong preference for those websites that are easiest to use. In
short, seniors are hurt more by bad design, and increasing
usability will significantly increase their satisfaction.
Although the discourse of ‘disengagement’ and an age-related
digital divide has dominated discussions on the effects of old age
on ICT use, it should be noted that certainly not all seniors face
difficulties when interacting with computers. The larger part
consists of mentally and physically healthy autonomous adults
between 55 and 75 years of age . Most seniors are very well
capable of acquiring computer skills, learning how to use the web
(see, e.g., ), or learning how to use PDA's .
Moreover, retirement can also be considered as a time for further
exploration in life, rather than withdrawing from it. Digital games
may offer elderly users with new and exciting ways to be
entertained, stimulating mental abilities, and supporting existing
and emerging social networks, both within and across generations.
The accumulation of knowledge and wisdom, heterogeneity of
experiences, and changing social and societal roles that come with
age also bear relevance to the design of digital games. Perhaps the
most important design requirement we can formulate is to offer
seniors the kind of content they will appreciate and engage with,
even if this requirement is perhaps not as easily and
unambiguously specified and will be more idiosyncratic. As the
work of Melenhorst  has shown, it is not so much the cost of
having to learn a new interface that elderly users find prohibitive,
but a lack of perceived benefits. Thus, if a user-friendly interface
only provides access to games that are uninteresting for the
elderly user, he or she is not likely to engage with the content. To
put it differently, Counterstrike with adjustable font size may not
be the “killer application” for elderly users.
4. BENEFITS OF PLAYING DIGITAL
Although little is known about senior adults’ perceived benefits of
digital games, there is a small but growing body of research
evidence in support of the notion that digital games can have a
significant positive impact on the older person’s mental and
physical health and wellbeing (see  for a brief review). In one
of the earliest studies in this area, Weisman  suggested that
digital games can play a positive role in meeting seniors’ need for
fun and mental stimulation, while also heightening their self-
esteem. He reported that moderate physical and mental
impairments did not prevent the nursing home patients in his
study to participate, using four games specifically designed for
Hollander and Plummer  reported on a study involving a
senior community in Rockville, MD, who were asked to play
video games over a three week period. Results indicated that
thought-provoking games (Trivia and Hangman) were found to
be the most stimulating and attention-grabbing. Therapeutic
effects were reported in a greater constructive use of leisure time,
and in participants’ increased feelings of success and
McGuire  studied the effectiveness of digital games in
improving self-esteem among elderly long-term care residents.
Elderly residents in one wing of the institution were offered video
games for a period of eight weeks, whereas residents of a second
wing did not have the opportunity to play video games. Results
demonstrated that the elderly that played video games had an
improvement in self-esteem. Similarly, Goldstein et al.  found
that playing digital games for five hours per week for five weeks
improved reaction times, self-esteem and sense of well-being for
the elderly participants in his study. It did not, however, have a
significant effect on cognitive performance when compared to
Drew and Waters  have argued for the use of video games for
improving hand-eye coordination, or for slowing deterioration,
with age. A decline in perceptual-motor functions has serious
consequences which affects a range of activities of daily living.
The use of video games may ameliorate this situation for large
numbers of (non-institutionalized) seniors. Finally, Miller 
recently reported on a trial of 95 healthy older adults with an
average age of 80. Those who played HiFi, a game designed to
boost the function of the ageing brain, on a regular basis,
improved their scores on tests of memory and attention.
Although these studies indicate the potential benefits of digital
gaming in older age, especially on self-esteem and mental
stimulation, it should be noted that this research is still in its
infancy, and also some contradictory findings have been reported
(e.g., with regard to emotions; see ). Moreover, most studies
to date employed specially designed games, rather than games
that were already commercially available. Most commercially
available games today require such rapid and complex responses
that they are not easily accessible for seniors, who may find the
required eye-hand coordination and cognitive processing
prohibitive. Nevertheless, it is fair to say that digital games have
potential that goes beyond their primary recreational functions,
and may include therapeutic effects, as well as ‘spin-off’ effects
in terms of increased computer literacy and improved self-
efficacy in relation to other modern technologies.
5. DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES
Seniors have a variety of preferences, interests, tastes, abilities
and experiences which make them as heterogeneous a group as
any other. No empirical data are available as to what a typology
or categorization of senior gamers may look like and how this
would map onto potential game content. Although some of the
functional limitations described earlier may fuel a tendency to
focus on usability guidelines as an overarching design focus for
this group, we have argued that it is the perceived benefits rather
than the costs that will be decisive in the acceptance or rejection
of digital game design.
With this in mind, we see four main areas in which we feel there
are significant design opportunities. First, and perhaps most
basically, is the use of digital games for relaxation and
entertainment. Of all possible problems seniors may encounter in
their homes, those related to leisure time are among the least
solved ones. Although many seek problem-focused strategies for
problems such as housekeeping and personal care, often involving
the use of technology or social support, these types of solutions
are typically not sought when enjoyable leisure activities are
frustrated . Instead, in over 60 percent of reported cases,
seniors gave up on their favorite pastime. The most pressing
barriers for the adoption of technology in the service of goal
attainment are their availability and seniors’ perceived self-
efficacy to use these . Digital gaming applications present a
widely available class of technologies, serving a wide variety of
tastes, for which perceived self-efficacy can be increased through
accessible design and thoughtfully integrated feedback. Gaming
technology thus has significant potential to contribute positively
to seniors’ leisure time, as a viable alternative to television
Secondly, many elderly enjoy games (especially of the non-digital
sort) as a means of socializing with others within and outside their
social network. Games provide a rich set of enjoyable topics of
conversation (e.g., Trivia), as well as a common activity that can
serve as a way of decreasing social distance (e.g., Bingo).
Although many digital games can be played alone, digital gaming
has become an increasingly social activity. A 2005 Nielsen
research report commissioned by the Interactive Software
Federation of Europe (ISFE) details that two-thirds of the gamers
they sampled (N=2000, with equal proportions from Spain,
Germany, Italy, the UK and France) play video games with other
people for at least an hour a week. Moreover, when probed for
their motivations to play, the number one motivation, supported
by 60% of the gamers, is the social component, i.e., “being able to
play with friends” . The social interaction underlying games
is thus a crucial motivator to engage in digital gaming, and this is
only expected to increase in importance as one grows older.
Digital games may also connect different age groups together
while enjoying a common activity (e.g., grandparents and
grandchildren). Such games will need to meet requirements of
multiple user groups at the same time, which is an interesting
challenge from both a game and interface design point of view,
and one that recent intergenerational gaming projects are starting
to address .
Third, games can be played with the explicit motivation of
sharpening one’s mind. The evidence presented earlier in this
paper provides tentative support that challenging mental
activities, such as puzzles and quizzes, may indeed be beneficial
for stimulating memory and attentional abilities. Moreover, the
sense of accomplishment and perceived self-efficacy after
mastering a certain game can provide a significant boost to one’s
self-esteem. Echoing this sentiment, Nintendo has recently
launched an active and successful marketing campaign focusing
on elderly as a serious consumer segment. For the Nintendo DS
platform they introduced their ‘Dr Kawashima's Brain Training:
How Old Is Your Brain?’, software which puts players on a daily
regimen of number games, word puzzles and reading exercises. It
also lets players test their intelligence levels ('brain age') through
quizzes that involve attentional and memory processes (such as
the Stroop test; see Figure 1). It saves the results so progress can
be tracked or compared with others, introducing a social
component as well.
Finally, with the advent of new interaction technologies, digital
games now afford new ways of interacting that are both more
natural in terms of affordances and engage the whole body.
Examples of such embodied interaction devices include the Sony
EyeToy (using computer vision) and the Nintendo Wii (using
position and acceleration sensing), both of which allow for an
embodied, physically active way of engaging with the game
content. Such interaction styles can be employed for engaging the
user in a virtual fitness programme, providing guidance and
coaching that can be tailored to the individual, especially if such
software is coupled to biometrics data, such as heart rate (see,
e.g., ). In such a context, digital games can be regarded as
persuasive technologies that provide an additional incentive to
engage in healthy behaviour . Indeed, the Nintendo Wii has
been successfully introduced in some old people’s homes, where
they are being used to keep physically fit, as well as socially
engaged with one another. As an example, Wii is now the latest
rage at the Sedgebrook retirement community in Lincolnshire,
where the average age is 77. In particular, the Wii Bowling
component of Wii Sports has members of this particular
retirement community hooked on playing the Wii installed inside
the Sedgebrooks’s clubhouse lounge.
Digital games hold significant positive potential for elderly users
– one that has hardly been tapped to date. In addition to
entertainment value, there can be substantial therapeutic value in
playing digital games. Moreover, digital games allow elderly
people, like other users, to bond socially, both with online or
physically co-located others, thereby enhancing their social
connectedness and potentially enlarging their social support
structure. Despite this potential, seniors are at present
proportionally underrepresented as consumers of digital games,
creating a significant and largely untapped market opportunity.
One of the reasons for this state of affairs has been the focus of
game developer studios to develop games primarily for adolescent
users – games which do not usually resonate well with the
interests, needs, abilities and limitations of elderly users.
As a consequence of both functional limitations and a simple lack
of technological experience, seniors are hurt more by usability
problems than younger users. Most game developers are still very
much unaware of basic game accessibility guidelines, which
could benefit a range of users, including seniors. This situation
can and should be drastically improved through extensive user
testing with elderly users and the use of design guidelines that are
specifically tailored to an elderly population. There is a
substantial body of literature focusing on the elderly ICT user
which details a number of specific interface design guidelines that
could also be usefully applied to game design (e.g,, ). Two
general design recommendations can be distilled from this
literature, which are particular to the needs of the senior
population. First, interface design for elderly users should
minimize the burden on functions that may have suffered decline,
such as demands on spatial memory, working memory, visual
functions or motor ability. Second, interfaces should be adaptable
to compensate for particular functional limitations (sensory,
motor or cognitive) of elderly users.
However, in this paper, we have argued that in addition to
ensuring usability of games for seniors, we need to make sure that
there are substantial perceived benefits for elderly users so that
they are willing to invest their valuable time and energy in what
could potentially be a rich and rewarding experience. To explore
and understand the needs and motivations of elderly gamers, there
is a great need for a substantial research effort, which includes
focus group studies, interviews, surveys and general market
segmentation research. In addition, further well-controlled studies
are required to establish unambiguously the effects of different
genres of digital games on different types of elderly gamers,
putting the various hypothesized benefits to a much more detailed
We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the European
Commission’s Framework 6 IST programme. In particular, the
work reported here has been supported by the FUGA project (part
of the IST – New and Emerging Science and Technology
programme) and the Games@Large project (part of the IST –
Networked Audio-Visual Systems and Home Platforms
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