ArticleLiterature Review
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Abstract

Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), in particular glycolic acid, are a class of chemical compounds frequently used in cosmetics and dermatology. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding chemistry, mechanism of action as well as the different indications ranging from cosmetic skin hydration to acne proven by clinical trials. Overall AHAs depending on the concentration used present an ingredient for cosmetic products or medical devices with proven efficacy.

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... AHAs are watersoluble acids that naturally consist of organic carboxylic acids and are substituted for the presence of the hydroxyl group on the α carbon atom. As occurring naturally, they are mostly found in botanical substances such as fruits [2,3] . These include the following such as lactic acid which comes from fermented milk products and tomato juice, citric acids, citrus fruit, mandelic acids (almonds), tartaric acids (fermented grapes), ascorbic acids (fruits), malic acids (apple), and lastly, the glycolic acid (sugarcane) and is one of the popular and the first AHA that is being introduced as one of the ingredients in skin care products due to its best anti-aging effects [1,2] . ...
... As occurring naturally, they are mostly found in botanical substances such as fruits [2,3] . These include the following such as lactic acid which comes from fermented milk products and tomato juice, citric acids, citrus fruit, mandelic acids (almonds), tartaric acids (fermented grapes), ascorbic acids (fruits), malic acids (apple), and lastly, the glycolic acid (sugarcane) and is one of the popular and the first AHA that is being introduced as one of the ingredients in skin care products due to its best anti-aging effects [1,2] . BHAs, on the other hand, are lipid-soluble compounds with hydroxyl functional groups separated by two carbon atoms and connected to the carboxyl group's beta position [3] . ...
... They're involved in the Krebs cycle, glycolysis, and serine formation. AHA also influences the epidermis and dermis of the skin [2] . Moreover, Salicylic acid and other beta hydroxy acids (BHAs) are remarkably similar to AHAs, with the exception of their solubility. ...
Article
Hydroxy acids have a significant role in various therapeutic circumstances, most notably in the cosmetics business. Despite its importance in treating acne, scars, pigmentation, skin dryness, and wrinkles, among other skin disorders, AHAs and BHAs have substantial side effect s, such as increased photosensitivity. In today's market, these products are becoming increasingly popular due to the promise of quick whitening benefits, which causes worry in the pharmaceutical cosmetics business. As a result, this analysis intends to provide a larger perspecti ve on the AHA-BHA, its current state within the healthcare sector, various linked cosmetics goods with FDA warnings, and related themes from the past to the present. The review resurrects founded papers in order to better comprehend the condition of AHA-BHA, acknowledge its subsisting role in the pharmaceutical industry, and comprehend the potential toxicity brought by AHA-BHA in order to pique readers' interest in using cosmetic products containing AHA-BHA with caution.
... Glikolik asit; diğer adlarıyla hidroksiasetik ya da hidroksietanoik asit farklı meyvelerde doğal olarak bulunan ve meyve asitleri olarak da bilinen alfa hidroksi asitlerin (AHA) bir üyesidir [12]. AHA'lar kozmetikte ve dermatolojide sıklıkla kullanılan bir kimyasal bileşikler sınıfıdır [13]. Bilinen en küçük yapıdaki AHA glikolik asittir [14]. ...
... Glikolik asit üzüm, şeker pancarı ya da şeker kamışı gibi bitkilerden doğal olarak elde edilmektedir [13]. Renksiz, kokusuz ve suda yüksek oranda çözünebilen bir maddedir [15]. ...
Article
Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı farklı final irrigasyon prosedürlerinin MTA Fillapex kök kanal dolgu patının bağlanma dayanımı üzerine olan etkisini araştırmaktır.Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu çalışmada 98 adet çürüksüz insan alt premolar dişi kullanıldı. Dişlerin koronal bölümleri çalışma uzunlukları 12 mm olacak şekilde uzaklaştırıldı. Kök kanalları ProTaper Next ile genişletildi. Örnekler rastgele 7 gruba dağıtıldı ve farklı final irrigasyon prosedürleri (Grup 1:EDTA, Grup 2:%10 glikolik asit, Grup 3:%17 glikolik asit, Grup 4:EDTA+CHX, Grup 5:%10 glikolik asit+CHX, Grup 6:%17 glikolik asit+CHX ve Grup 7:Distile su) uygulandı. Kök kanalları MTA Fillapex ve guta perka ile dolduruldu. Örneklerden, apikal konstriksiyondan itibaren 4 ve 9 mm mesafede olacak şekilde kesitler alındı. Push-out testi yapılarak kesitlerdeki kök kanal dolgusunun bağlanma dayanımı değerleri hesaplandı. Veriler Duncan ve T testleri kullanılarak istatistiksel olarak incelendi. Bulgular: Gruplar arasında yapılan değerlendirmede 4. ve 9. mm’den alınan her iki kesitte de; kök kanal dolgusunun en yüksek bağlanma dayanımı değerleri Grup 6’da, en düşük bağlanma dayanımı değerleri ise grup 7’de tespit edildi (p<0,05). Her iki kesitte de bağlanma dayanımı Grup 6>Grup 3>Grup 5≥Grup 2>Grup 4≥Grup 1>Grup 7 şeklinde tespit edildi. Grup içi değerlendirmede ise; bütün gruplarda 9. mm’den alınan kesitlerdeki kök kanal dolgusunun bağlanma dayanımı değerleri, 4. mm’den daha yüksek bulundu (p<0,05).Sonuç: MTA Fillapex kök kanal dolgu patının bağlanma dayanımı açısından; glikolik asit EDTA’dan daha yüksek değerler gösterdi. %17 glikolik asit ve CHX ile yapılan final irrigasyonu en yüksek bağlanma dayanımı değerlerini gösterdi.
... Zabiegi z użyciem preparatów zawierających te związki w niższych stężeniach (do 4,0%) wykorzystywane są do pielęgnacji skóry suchej i z rybią łuską [17]. W przypadku wyższych stężeń (powyżej 5,0%) zachodzi eksfoliacja zrogowaciałych komórek naskórka, którą przeprowadza się w profesjonalnych gabinetach kosmetycznych [7,14,[19][20][21][22]. Produkty zawierające kwasy owocowe, takie jak kwas glikolowy czy mlekowy, stosowane są jako środki nawilżające skórę, poprawiające ogólny wygląd skóry oraz odwracające oznaki starzenia się skóry i nadmiernej ekspozycji na słońce. ...
... Uzyskane wyniki w ramach prowadzonych na szeroką skalę badań klinicznych wskazują, że alfa-i beta-hydroksykwasy działają nawilżająco na skórę, zmniejszając spójność korneocytów, wspierając złuszczanie i stymulując regenerację skóry poprzez złuszczanie komórek warstwy zewnętrznej. Dzięki swoim właściwościom stały się one jednym z niezbędnych składników kosmetyków rewitalizujących [7,14,20,21]. W przemyśle kosmetycznym w analizie środków kosmetycznych wykorzystywane są różne metody, zarówno konwencjonalne, jak i innowacyjne. Najczęściej, z uwagi na ich dokładność i precyzję, są to: spektrofotometria UV-VIS, spektro uorymetria, spektroskopia w podczerwieni, absorpcyjna spektrometria atomowa (AAS), spektrometria emisyjna z indukcyjnie sprzężoną plazmą (ICP) oraz chromatogra a gazowa (GC), jonowa (IC), wysokosprawna chromatogra a cieczowa (HPLC) i elektroforeza kapilarna (CE) [23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. ...
Article
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W artykule wyjaśniono zagadnienia związane z występowaniem i zastosowaniem hydroksykwasów organicznych w fitokosmetykach rewitalizujących i zabiegach kosmetycznych. Dokonano charakterystyki budowy skóry oraz właściwości fizycznych i chemicznych alfa-(AHA) i beta-hydroksykwasów (BHA) (kwas glikolowy, kwas mlekowy, kwas cytrynowy, kwas jabłkowy, kwas winowy, kwas salicylowy). Scharakteryzowano sposoby oznaczania hydroksykwasów, a także przedstawiono regulacje prawne dotyczące stosowania hydroksykwasów w kosmetykach. Przedstawiono wskazania i przeciwwskazania do zastosowania zabiegów z kwasami owocowymi. Opisano czynniki warunkujące skuteczność działania biologicznego alfa-hydroksykwasów (AHA).
... Chances of complications and post-operative care are minimum with superficial peels. TCA is most commonly used in combination with AHAs, such as lactic acid and glycolic acid (7) because mechanism of action of AHAs and their indications are well-understood (11,12). AHAs are indicated for use in many in-home and dermatologists' cosmetic and medical products for skin moisturization, wrinkle and pigment reduction, and chemical peeling (3,12). ...
... TCA is most commonly used in combination with AHAs, such as lactic acid and glycolic acid (7) because mechanism of action of AHAs and their indications are well-understood (11,12). AHAs are indicated for use in many in-home and dermatologists' cosmetic and medical products for skin moisturization, wrinkle and pigment reduction, and chemical peeling (3,12). More recently, lactic acid has emerged as safer alternate to goldstandard glycolic acid without compromising efficacy. ...
Article
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Chemical peeling is usually performed by dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and aestheticians for the treatment of photo-aged skin, dyspigmented skin, skin prone to acne eruption, and pre-cancerous skin lesions, etc. In this research paper, we report our investigative findings to understand the mode of action of a commercial professional chemical peel to treat hyperpigmented and photoaged skin. In the in-vitro experiments, we found that the peel inhibits enzymes that are responsible for degradation of collagen and elastin, and the production of melanin pigment. It was surprising to observe that trichloroacetic acid (TCA), which is considered a workhorse of chemical peels for its cauterant action, could synergistically promote the inhibitory action of lactic acid. The rationale behind this synergistic effect could be the conformational change in TCA from linear structure to ring-like structure, which was elucidated through sequential docking using Rosetta software. The in-vitro results on collagen and elastin were corroborated by up-regulation of COL1A, COL3B, fibronectin, and elastin gene expression from 3D human skin equivalents treated with the peel. The findings were further validated through ex-vivo testing on human skin biopsy. The peel significantly inhibits the production of total melanin, and ameliorates photo-damage that was evident through repair of the collagen in the skin exposed to a biological effective dose of UV daily light (6 J/cm2). These research findings have implications for product developers and users (dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and aestheticians) in improving safety and efficacy of chemical peels/peeling.
... Therefore, the interest of many researchers has been focused on the use of natural compounds or extracts from plants and fruits, as novel, alternative and breakthrough reducers and stabilizers [15][16][17][18][19]. In fact, compounds such as: fruit acids, naturally occurring in fruit, wine, and almonds, meet the requirements of green chemistry [20]. They are also called as alpha-hydroxy acids due to the presence of hydroxyl groups at the α-carbon atom as well as a variable number of carboxylic groups. ...
... They are also called as alpha-hydroxy acids due to the presence of hydroxyl groups at the α-carbon atom as well as a variable number of carboxylic groups. They have been widely employed in cosmetics and dermatology (i.e., in skin moisturizing) for reduction of wrinkles and chemical peeling of the skin [20,21]. ...
Article
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In colloidal methods, the morphology of nanoparticles (size and shape) as well as their stability can be controlled by changing the concentration of the substrate, stabilizer, adding inorganic salts, changing the reducer/substrate molar ratio, and changing the pH and reaction time. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out according to the modified Lee and Meisel method in a wide pH range (from 2.0 to 11.0) using citric acid and malic acid, without adding any additives or stabilizers. Keeping the same reaction conditions as the concentration of acid and silver ions, temperature, and heating time, it was possible to determine the relationship between the reaction pH, the type of acid, and the size of the silver nanoparticles formed. Obtained colloids were analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and investigated by means of Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The study showed that the colloids reduced with citric acid and malic acid are stable over time for a minimum of seven weeks. We observed that reactions occurred for citric acid from pH 6.0 to 11.0 and for malic acid from pH 7.0 to 11.0. The average size of the quasi-spherical nanoparticles changed with pH due to the increase of reaction rate.
... 3 Importantly, α-hydroxy acids are also frequently used by cosmetic industries for manufacturing of their products for wrinkles treatment as well as for soften of skin, and for overall improvement of the skin quality. 15 Reports have shown that total protein contents including whey proteins in camel milk are significantly more than milk from other sources, [3][4][5] this might be the reason for its effect on reducing risk for the onset of disorders such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. ...
... As a medicinal point of view, camel milk has mainly two active ingredients lactoferrin and immunoglobulins. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] Number of studies on camel lactoferrin reported that it has anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor properties, etc. 2,3 More specifically, it inhibits growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Clostridium, Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, etc. Furthermore, camel lactoferrin also has anti-pathogenic activity against human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus-1 infection. ...
... Treatment with glycolic acid increased epidermal cell proliferation rate and thickness in mice, as well as the nuclear volume of keratinocytes in the basal, spinous, and granular layers. Treatment with lactic acid results in increased firmness and thickness of both the epidermis and the dermis, as well as clinical improvement in the softness of the skin and in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles Babilas et al. (2012), Bhattacharyya et al. (2009), Ditre et al. (1996, Smith (1996), Yamamoto et al. (2006) Arotinoid ethyl ester AEE stimulated cell proliferation in the epidermis of embryonic and adult mice. AEE inhibited epidermal differentiation in embryonic mice and stimulated it in the adult animal Tsambaos et al. (1985) Ethyl-␣-d-glucoside ␣-EG, the main component in Japanese sake, increases loricrin content significantly by acting on keratinocyte differentiation, while reducing the number of SC layers in aged mice, improving their functionality Nakahara et al. (2007) Green tea polyphenols Green tea polyphenols, especially EGCG, were tested on primary human keratinocytes and stimulated their proliferation and differentiation via induction of p57/KIP2, with higher expression of K1 and filaggrin and increased transglutaminase activity. ...
... In addition to the possibilities here identified, physical treatments such as photodynamic (Orringer et al., 2008), high-energy pulsed CO 2 laser (Ratner et al., 1998;Stuzin et al., 1997), and fractional CO 2 laser (Sasaki et al., 2009) therapies are suggested as options for epithelium renewal and keratinocyte proliferation incitement action. Table 1 lists ingredients capable of supporting the protective epidermal barrier against mechanical and chemical insults, including literature-enshrined elements, such as retinoids and their derivatives (for recent review, see Babamiri and Nassab, 2010), as well as alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) (for recent review, see Babilas et al., 2012) and several other compounds. ...
... Used in cosmetics and dermatology Babilas et al. (2012) Sapindus mukorossi nuts Palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, eicosenoic acid, triolein, eicoseno-di-oleins Antibacterial and antifungal agent; as a detergent, biosurface-active substance and an agent for removal of organic contamination of soil Sengupta et al. (1975) Camelina sativa oil Saturated acid, polyunsaturated acid, linoleic, αlinolenic, erucic acid ...
Article
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The global climate changes are causing an increase in the number and harmfulness of slugs. Deroceras agreste (Linnaeus, 1758) (Stylommatophora, Agriolimacidae) is a polyphagous phytophage that damages over 150 species of plants, including many vegetables , cultivated berries and grasses. Other than decrease in yield, slugs cause deterioration of consumer qualities of the products, promote infections of plants, and are intermediate hosts of some parasites of mammals and birds. Thus, slugs impose great losses on agricultural farming, and therefore the objective of our study was determining the variability of locomotor activity of D. agreste slugs in reaction to aromatic substances. We determined repellent or attractive effects of those substances for the purpose of further using the obtained data for plant protection. We tested 52 substances and their mixtures, which were conditionally divided into the following groups: chemical solvents, plant extracts, aromatizers, organic acids and synthetic cosmetic additives. Only dimethyl sulfoxide could be identified as an attractant. All the rest of the substances increased the speed of the slugs to various degrees, but had no significant effect on the direction of the animals' movement. Gasoline increased the speed of the slugs' movement by 3.20 times, xylene by 4.56. The most effective organic acids and aromatizers to increase the moving speed of slugs were avobenzone and formic acid: the first caused a 2.83-fold increase in the moving speed, the other a 3.16-fold increase. Only one of 13 aromatic substances changed the direction of the slugs' movement during the experiment-β-ionone. As with the plant extracts, the highest effect on locomotor activity of slugs was exerted by tree bark of Quillaja saponaria (3.64-fold) and Aesculus hippocastanum extract (4.33-fold). Furthermore, together with Capsicum frutescens, they changed the direction the mollusks were moving in, and therefore could be used as repellents. Synthetic cosmetic additives hydrolyzed silk and chrysalide oil exerted the greatest effects on the lcomotor activity of slugs (3.16 and 3.20 times, respectively). A total of 78.6% of the slugs moved away from chrysalide oil, and thus this oil may be suggested as a repellent, as well as mousse de babassu and cocamidopropyl betaine (84.6% and 78.6%, respectively). Therefore, a large amount of the tested substances to one or another extent made the slugs move faster, but most of them did not alter the direction in which the slugs were moving.
... Histamine release from mast cell inhibitors such as cromoglycate and quercetin was suppressed by a chloroform extract of feverfew. [50] Hydroxy ...
Article
Cosmetics with biologically active chemicals that claim to provide medical or drug-like advantages are referred to as cosmeceuticals. Cosmeceuticals are used to improve and nourish the appearance of the skin and treat various dermatological conditions. In recent days, a number of cosmeceutical products have been placed on the market with greater effectiveness. Moisturizers, sunscreens, pigment brighteners and other formulations have been revamped into makeshift forms with the addition of drug-like ingredients for better results. Although the effects may be small, these products still improve the feel and appearance of the skin with continued use over a period time; so there is a great opportunity to explore this avenue. This review aims to highlight current scenario of cosmeceutical industries and describes existing compound classes like retinoids, botanicals, hydroxy Acids used in cosmeceutical industries.
... Examples of AHAs include glycolic and lactic acids and they are applied topically to the skin in products like moisturizers, cleaners, masks, and other similar products. 22 Commonly used BHAs, such as Salicylic acid, are lipid-soluble, organic acids that reduce intracellular cohesion between corneocytes by dissolving intercellular cement material and reducing the pH of the stratum corneum, thereby increasing hydration and softening. ...
Article
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Preeya K Gupta,1 Laura M Periman,2 Edward Lain,3 Eric Donnenfeld,4 John Hovanesian,5 Terry Kim,6 William Trattler,7 Elizabeth Yeu,8 Edward Holland9 1Triangle Eye Consultants, Durham, NC, USA; 2Periman Eye Institute, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Sanova Dermatology, Pflugerville, TX, USA; 4Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Garden City, NJ, USA; 5Harvard Eye Associates, Laguna Hills, CA, USA; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Eye Center, Durham, NC, USA; 7Center for Excellence in Eye Care, Miami, FL, USA; 8Virginia Eye Consultants, Norfolk, VA, USA; 9Cincinnati Eye Institute, Edgewood, KY, USACorrespondence: Preeya K Gupta Email preeyakgupta@gmail.comAbstract: Meibomian glands are modified oil-producing glands that produce meibum and can become dysfunctional and negatively affect the lipid layer in the tear film, resulting in ocular surface diseases such as evaporative dry eye. Abnormal keratin production and aggregation at the meibomian gland orifice has been implicated in the pathogenesis of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Current treatments largely ignore the role of keratin proteins. This review paper synthesizes various publications on hyperkeratinization and its role in MGD pathogenesis and proposes a novel treatment strategy for MGD that involves the use of keratolytic agents commonly used in dermatological treatments.Keywords: meibomian gland disease, MGD, hyperkeratinization
... Asam laktat digunakan sebagai agen pengelupasan dan pelembab yang sangat efektif. 1 Penerapannya pada konsentrasi rendah (5% v/v) menurunkan kohesi antar korneosit dan menginduksi pengelupasan kulit. 25 Oleh karena itu, konsentrasi asam laktat yang berbeda menghasilkan hasil kosmetik yang berbeda pada epidermis dan dermis. ...
Article
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Probiotik sebagai mikroorganisme hidup dalam jumlah tertentu mampu memberikan manfaat kesehatan pada kulit. Penggunaan probiotik di beberapa negara Asia berkembang pesat, mulai dari penggunaan probiotik dalam industri pangan hingga industri kosmetik. Studi klinis terbaru melaporkan bahwa probiotik mampu mengobati eksim atopik, dermatitis atopik, menyembuhkan luka bakar, menghilangkan bekas luka, mengobati jerawat, mencegah penuaan dini, dan meregenerasi kulit. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk membahas manfaat probiotik pada kulit sehingga dapat dikembangkan sebagai zat aktif pada produk kosmetik. Metode yang digunakan dalam penyusunan artikel yaitu study literatur berbagai jurnal internasioanal yang diakses dari situs Google Scholar dan ScienceDirect. Hasil review artikel menunjukkan probiotik yang paling banyak digunakan dalam produk kosmetik yaitu Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, dan Bifidobacterium. Probiotik memiliki aktivitas sebagai antibakteri, antijerawat, antioksidan, mencegah kerusakan kulit akibat radiasi UV, menurunkan sensitivitas kulit, mengurangi ketombe dan mampu menghasilkan asam hialuronat untuk meningkatkan kelembaban kulit dan mengurangi munculnya garis-garis halus dan kerutan. Dari review artikel ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa probiotik dapat digunakan sebagai ingredients pada produk kosmetik.
... To minimize these ageing manifestations, the action of different active ingredients on the skin have been studied in recent years. Hydroxy acids, also called fruit acids, are among the organic acids used in the treatment of skin disorders [3]. Other well-known active ingredients are antioxidants, which are commonly used to improve skin conditions by preventing or treating photodamage [4]. ...
... ey are dispensed in 5-12% concentration, [38] whereas, concentrations up to 20% are considered safe for selfapplication. [39] ...
Article
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A cosmetic is “intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance” while a drug is “intended for use in diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, i.e. it affects the structure and function of the body.” Cosmeceuticals attempt to interface between a pure cosmetic and a drug. ey are those which lie between a prescription and a non-prescription over-the-counter product. ey are medical products, which are cosmetics, with functional benefits for the skin, hair, and nails. Cosmeceuticals are disease-treating and disease-modifying. Dermatologists form a unique interface between products with perceived advantages and those with proven efficacy. In an attempt to hard-sell products with minimal side effects, certain compounds may contain sub-therapeutic doses of topical agents hence rendering them ineffective. On the other hand, certain products may form a useful bridge with a safety profile better than cosmetics in their class. is article reviews commonly available and evolving cosmeceuticals, their rationale, side effects, and use in dermatology practice with the aim to sensitize dermatologists about their perceived usefulness.
... This active ingredient is used for moderate photodamage, actinic damage, acne, seborrheic skin, rosacea and pigmentary disorders [35]. Therefore, glycolic acid applications are intended to reduce wrinkles, stretch marks, scars, acne, lack of luminosity or skin damaged by the sun [36,37]. ...
Article
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The adsorption of retinol, niacinamide and glycolic acid active ingredients on the internal surface of halloysite in an aqueous environment was explored at the molecular level by means of calculations based on quantum mechanics and force fields from empirical interatomic potentials. These active ingredients are stably adsorbed on the internal surface of halloysite forming hydrogen bonds between the hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms with the hydroxyl groups of the inner surface of the halloysite. In addition, electrostatic interaction between these active ingredients with the water molecules was observed. Therefore, the theoretical results indicate that the adsorption of these active principles is favourable in the halloysite nanotube, which allows directing future experimental investigations for the development and design of retinol, niacinamide and glycolic acid with halloysite nanotubes systems, which may be topical formulations for skincare.
... Rehydration in ante-mortem skin has been studied and is largely based on humectants and emollients [36,37]. The degree of effectiveness for rehydration of mummified tissue and restoration of ridge detail, using D Sol or other solutions of similar composition, may thus be attributed to three synergistic aspects: (1) increased turgor as provided by water and a penetrating humectant such as sodium acetate or acetic acid; (2) softening and pliability as a result of pH and any additional specific chemical interaction that affects calcium in collagen (calcium sequestration); (3) ridge detail definition, mainly as a function of turgor and softening, with some additional corrosive dependency related to pH. ...
Article
Mummified tissue presents challenges for fingerprinting due to rigidity, shrinkage, and other features obscuring epidermal ridge detail. A new cost‐effective in‐house solution was developed to obtain good quality fingerprints from mummified remains. The simplified procedure uses a sodium carbonate:sodium acetate mixture easily prepared using commonly available chemical products. An overview of the methods and solutions utilized to date for rehydration and restoration illustrates the main benefits of the developed formulation: the solution provided better tissue pliability and turgor than the sodium carbonate:ethanol formulation of Rüffer previously employed; the prepared solution proved stable for weeks at room temperature and poses minimum hazard risk to users. It functions as a weak base (pH 9.3) and is sufficiently corrosive to allow tissue softening over a flexible timeframe of 1–5 days without causing any damage. The degree of effectiveness for rehydration of mummified tissue and restoration of ridge detail is attributed to three synergistic aspects: increased turgor as provided by a penetrating humectant and water; softening and pliability as a result of pH and any specific chemical interaction that affects calcium in collagen; ridge detail definition as a function of turgor and softening, with some secondary corrosive dependency related to the pH of a solution.
... It is involved in over-the-counter skin care products and professional treatments where it is exploited as anti-aging ingredient. It also serves to exfoliate the skin, lighten dark spots, and improve the look of fine lines and wrinkles [18,19]. Citric acid would have similar abilities as previous acids. ...
Article
Shea press cake is a subproduct of shea butter production. It generally serves as animal food or as fuel, in shea areas. This study demonstrated its ability as edible organic bank of bioactive molecules useful for human. Therefore, the hydroalcoholic extract was screened through GC-MS analysis, and antinutritional compounds were quantified. Chromatogram revealed a wide range of molecules belonging to various famillies. Hence, many amino acids involving EAA (Threonine, Valin and pre-tryptophan) were detected. Peaks related to organic acids like quinic, lactic, malic, citric, gluconic, galactaric, succinic and phosphoric acids were also identified. These acids would be widely exploited in either food or cosmeto-pharmaceutical, or in both industries. Also appeared on the chromatogram, peaks of oses (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and phenolic acids. Phenolic acids consisted in various catechins and gallic acids which would have antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticancer powers. Some other benefic molecules like glycerol and myo-inositol counted among the identified molecules. Above all, shea press cake contents in oxalates (564.66±49.60 mg/100 g DM) and phytates (148.45±0.03 mg/100 g DM) were at far, lower than those of many therapeutic teas. Thus, shea press cake might be considered as a valuable edible bank of bioactive molecules. It could be involved in cosmetics, in drugs and be recommended to consumption as teas leaves, coffee, cinnamon, etc. in prevention to diseases related to metabolic disturbances and oxidative stress (tumor, cancer and degenerative diseases).
... Citric acid is an example of an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) that is renowned for its exfoliant properties. The capabilities of AHA-containing products range from skin moisturizing for reduction of wrinkles to skin exfoliation (Babilas et al. 2012). Similarly, research on the antimicrobial activity of 3,10-dihydroxydecanoic acid demonstrated that it could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus (S.) epidermidis at 18/0.25 of the zone of inhibition/minimum inhibitory concentration (mg/mL) (Melliou and Chinou 2005). ...
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Royal jellies (RJs) possess moisturizing, emulsifying, and stabilizing properties, and several pharmacological activities have also been found to be present, which make them an ideal component for cosmetic and skin care products. However, despite the abundant efficacies, there is a lack of studies that explore the chemical composition of RJ using metabolome analysis. Furthermore, an evaluation of the chemical composition of Indonesian RJs collected from different regions has yet to be carried out. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify any differences in the chemical composition of such RJs. Chemical profiling was also carried out to enable more targeted utilization based on the actual compositions. Chemical profiling is also important given the rich Indonesian biodiversity and the high dependence of the RJ compositions on the botanical source. In this research, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used as part of an untargeted metabolomics approach. From the chemical profiling, >30 compounds were identified across four RJ samples. The major constituents of the samples were found to be oligosaccharides, fatty acids, and adenosine monophosphate derivatives. Meanwhile, sucrose and planteose were found to be highest in the samples from Banjarnegara and Kediri, whereas dimethyloctanoic acid was found to be unique to the sample from Banjarnegara. It was also discovered that the RJs from Demak and Tuban contained more organic fatty acids and oligosaccharides than the other samples. Although the sample from Demak demonstrated good potential for use in the cosmetic, skin care, and bio-supplement industries, the higher abundance of fatty acids and oligosaccharides in the sample from Tuban indicated that it is perhaps the most suitable RJ for use in this field.
... 11 Glycolic and citric acids are members of the α-hydroxy acids (AHAs). 17 Low concentrations of AHA (5%-10%) act on the superficial layers of the skin-by augmenting the healing response by subcorneal epidermolysis, opening comedones, and unroofing pustules. 18 Salicylic acid is a β-hydroxy acid with comedolytic properties. ...
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Background Acne is a chronic disease that affects the pilosebaceous follicle and is characterized by the presence of non‐inflammatory and/or inflammatory lesions, affecting both adolescents and adults. Inflammatory acne lesions are capable to increase their melanin production and promote a post‐inflammatory hyperchromia. Aims To assess the efficacy of a serum containing dioic acid, glycolic acid, salicylic acid, LHA, citric acid and HEPES in treating post‐inflammatory hyperpigmentation and controlling skin oiliness in Brazilian patients with acne vulgaris. Patients/Methods A single‐center, prospective, open‐label clinical study included 42 subjects, from both genders, presenting acne (grade I or II), oily skin and a clinical diagnosis of acne post‐inflammatory hyperpigmentation. The study was conducted for 56 days, with clinical (skin quality and the number of post‐inflammatory hyperchromic lesions) and instrumental (Sebumetry) evaluations after 7, 28 and 56 days of treatment. Standardized pictures were obtained using a VISIA‐6® device. Results A significant decrease in the grade of post‐inflammatory hyperchromic lesions was observed after 28 and 56 days, while the number of lesions decrease by 29,4% after 56 days (P<0.001). Sebumetry values showed a significant decrease of 30.7% in the oiliness after 7 days of treatment, and then stable during the study conduction period of 56 days (P<0.001 for all measurements). Conclusions The daily treatment using the investigational product showed an interesting decrease both in the grade and the number of post‐inflammatory hyperchromia acne lesions after 56 days, and in the oiliness after 7 days, being stable for all study period.
... Depolymerized cellulosic and lignocellulosic biomasses are rich sources of cellobiose, glucose, xylose, and other sugars that can be used as microbial substrates to produce valuable compounds like glycolic acid (GA) [1,2]. GA has been gaining popularity due to its versatile industrial applications [3,4]. It contains a primary alcohol and a carboxylic acid, thus, can be polymerized into biodegradable polymers, such as poly-glycolic acid (PGA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with broad applications in packaging and medical industries [5,6]. ...
Article
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Microbial biorefinery is a promising route toward sustainable production of glycolic acid (GA), a valuable raw material for various industries. However, inherent microbial GA production has limited substrate consumption using either d-xylose or d-glucose as carbon catabolite repression (CCR) averts their co-utilization. To bypass CCR, a GA-producing strain using d-xylose via Dahms pathway was engineered to allow cellobiose uptake. Unlike glucose, cellobiose was assimilated and intracellularly degraded without repressing d-xylose uptake. The final GA-producing E. coli strain (CLGA8) has an overexpressed cellobiose phosphorylase (cep94A) from Saccharophagus degradans 2–40 and an activated glyoxylate shunt pathway. Expression of cep94A improved GA production reaching the maximum theoretical yield (0.51 g GA g−1 xylose), whereas activation of glyoxylate shunt pathway enabled GA production from cellobiose, which further increased the GA titer (2.25 g GA L−1). To date, this is the highest reported GA yield from d-xylose through Dahms pathway in an engineered E. coli with cellobiose as co-substrate.
... Alphahydroxyl acids have important role to eliminate wrinkles and spots and improve dryness (Panwar et al., 2015). These acids are used by cosmetic industries for wrinkles and soften of skin (Babilas et al., 2012). In addition, liposomes of camel milk are beneficial for cosmetic ingredient (Choi et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Camel milk has unique benefits for human health. Protein is the main component which gives special properties to camel milk and effectively influences its nutritional value. Due to lack of β-lactoglobulin in the camel milk, it may be as a proper alternative for human milk. Camel milk is rich in vitamins C, manganese and iron. There are high amount of unsaturated fatty acids, immunoglobulin's, insulin like protein and protective enzymes like lactoferrin and lysozyme in the camel milk. The lactoferrin has the effects or properties of antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatorry. Also, it has been proven that camel milk has beneficial application in disorders of stomach and intestinal, food allergy, diabetes mellitus, cancer, autism, and viral hepatitis. Camel milk containing insulin like protein and may help to heal diabetes of Type 1 and 2 and gestational diabetes. It contains small size immunoglobulins which strengthens the immune system. In addition, camel milk reduces blood cholesterol amount, avoiding of psoriasis disease, healing of inflammation and improving of tuberculosis patients. Camel milk may be effective as unique miracle in many healthy issues of human and especially cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is not only food, but also it is as amazing remedy for treatment and healthy issues.
... Moreover, alpha hydroxyacids (AHAs) are now widely used exfoliating agents [7][8][9] . However, AHAs have side effects, such as itchiness, redness, sting, and burning, arising from their low-pH acting condition and keratolysis properties [10][11][12][13] . ...
Article
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Carnitine (CAR), an amino acid derivative, has great potential as a facial exfoliating agent owing to its calcium chelating property under weakly acidic or neutral conditions. However, its application is limited by its poor transdermal penetration. To optimise its exfoliation efficacy with minimal concentration, we propose the ion-pair method. The ionic interaction between CAR and a zwitterionic substance was successfully monitored by measuring conductivity. The alterations of penetration and exfoliation efficacy for CAR addition to different types of counter ions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. We found that hydrogenated soya phosphatidylcholine (HSC), an amphiphilic counter ion, significantly increases the stratum corneum penetration and exfoliation efficacy of CAR. The changes of the CAR-HSC ionic interaction in the presence of calcium ions were also investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR spectra for amino groups of CAR first decreased with HSC and then gradually recovered and shifted as calcium ions were added. From the results, a noble exfoliating complex of CAR with high exfoliation efficacy could be proposed. Moreover, the results demonstrate that NMR spectroscopy is useful to obtain direct experimental evidence of the molecular dynamics simulations of the alteration of an exfoliating complex as it penetrates.
... The latter enzyme reduces the glycolaldehyde, derived from the Dahms pathway, to ethylene glycol. Furthermore, glycolic acid, the smallest α-hydroxy acid containing both an alcohol and a carboxyl group, is used in cosmetics, water treatment and industrial and household cleaning applications, as well as in polymers (Babilas et al. 2012). Glycolate production has been demonstrated in engineered microbial hosts, by utilising the glyoxylate cycle in E. coli (Martin et al. 2013), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Koivistoinen et al. 2013), and Kluyveromyces lactis (Koivistoinen et al. 2013). ...
Article
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The oxidative d-xylose pathway, i.e. Dahms pathway, can be utilised to produce from cheap biomass raw material useful chemical intermediates. In vitro metabolic pathways offer a fast way to study the rate-limiting steps and find the most suitable enzymes for each reaction. We have constructed here in vitro multi-enzyme cascades leading from d-xylose or d-xylonolactone to ethylene glycol, glycolic acid and lactic acid, and use simple spectrophotometric assays for the read-out of the efficiency of these pathways. Based on our earlier results, we focussed particularly on the less studied xylonolactone ring opening (hydrolysis) reaction. The bacterial Caulobacter crescentus lactonase (Cc XylC), was shown to be a metal-dependent enzyme clearly improving the formation of d-xylonic acid at pH range from 6 to 8. The following dehydration reaction by the ILVD/EDD family d-xylonate dehydratase is a rate-limiting step in the pathway, and an effort was made to screen for novel enolase family d-xylonate dehydratases, however, no suitable replacing enzymes were found for this reaction. Concerning the oxidation of glycolaldehyde to glycolic acid, several enzyme candidates were also tested. Both Escherichia coli aldehyde dehydrogenase (Ec AldA) and Azospirillum brasilense α-ketoglutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Ab AraE) proved to be suitable enzymes for this reaction. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13568-019-0768-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Glycolic acid (GA) is the simplest form of a bifunctional ⍺hydroxy acid with a primary alcohol and a moderately strong carboxylic acid group (Dischert et al. 2012). It has been extensively used in cosmetics and dermatology for its exfoliating and moisturizing properties (Babilas et al. 2012). As a polymer, polyglycolic acid (PGA) has excellent gas barrier properties which makes it a good packaging material. ...
Article
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Glycolic acid (GA) is an ⍺-hydroxy acid used in cosmetics, packaging, and medical industries due to its excellent properties, especially in its polymeric form. In this study, Escherichia coli was engineered to produce GA from D-xylose by linking the Dahms pathway, the glyoxylate bypass, and the partial reverse glyoxylate pathway (RGP). Initially, a GA-producing strain was constructed by disrupting the xylAB and glcD genes in the E. coli genome and overexpressing the xdh(Cc) from Caulobacter crescentus. This strain was further improved through modular optimization of the Dahms pathway and the glyoxylate bypass. Results for module 1 showed that the rate-limiting step of the Dahms pathway was the xylonate dehydratase reaction, and the overexpression of yagF was sufficient to overcome this bottleneck. Furthermore, the appropriate aldolase gene for module 1 was proven to be yagE. The results also show that overexpression of the lactaldehyde dehydrogenase gene, aldA, is needed to increase the GA production while the overexpression of glyoxylate reductase gene, ycdW, was only essential when the glyoxylate bypass was active. On the other hand, the module 2 enzymes AceA and AceK were vital in activating the glyoxylate bypass, while the RGP enzymes were dispensable. The final strain (GA19) produced 4.57 g/L GA with a yield of 0.46 g/g from D-xylose. So far, this is the highest value achieved for GA production in engineered E. coli through the Dahms pathway.
... Ethylene glycol (ethane-1,2-diol) is a component in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics and also widely used as an anti-freezing agent and coolant (Baudot and Odagescu 2004). Glycolic acid has uses in cosmetics, water treatment and industrial and household cleaning applications (Babilas et al. 2012). The polymer of glycolic acid, polyglycolic acid (PGA), has good gas barrier and mechanical properties (Robertson 2012;Gädda et al. 2013), and the copolymer of glycolic acid and lactic acid (poly-lactic-coglycolic acid (PLGA)) has medical applications (Kosinski et al. 2012). ...
Article
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The important platform chemicals ethylene glycol and glycolic acid were produced via the oxidative D-xylose pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of genes encoding D-xylose dehydrogenase (XylB) and D-xylonate dehydratase (XylD) from Caulobacter crescentus and YagE or YjhH aldolase and aldehyde dehydrogenase AldA from Escherichia coli enabled glycolic acid production from D-xylose up to 150 mg/L. In strains expressing only xylB and xylD, 29 mg/L 2-keto-3-deoxyxylonic acid [(S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2-oxopentanoic acid] (2K3DXA) was produced and D-xylonic acid accumulated to ca. 9 g/L. A significant amount of D-xylonic acid (ca. 14%) was converted to 3-deoxypentonic acid (3DPA), and also, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid was formed. 2K3DXA was further converted to glycolaldehyde when genes encoding by either YagE or YjhH aldolase from E. coli were expressed. Reduction of glycolaldehyde to ethylene glycol by an endogenous aldo-keto reductase activity resulted further in accumulation of ethylene glycol of 14 mg/L. The possibility of simultaneous production of lactic and glycolic acids was evaluated by expression of gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase ldhL from Lactobacillus helveticus together with aldA. Interestingly, this increased the accumulation of glycolic acid to 1 g/L. The D-xylonate dehydratase activity in yeast was notably low, possibly due to inefficient Fe–S cluster synthesis in the yeast cytosol, and leading to D-xylonic acid accumulation. The dehydratase activity was significantly improved by targeting its expression to mitochondria or by altering the Fe–S cluster metabolism of the cells with FRA2 deletion.
... This is also accomplished by increasing the skin's water holding capacity due to the charges in the acids applied. 26 Mild side effects of α-hydroxy acid use include stinging, burning, pain, and erythema. More serious side effects include blistering, purpura, crusting, hyper-or hypopigmentation, atrophia, ulceration, keloid formation, hypertrophic scarring, and significant pain. ...
Article
A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin and rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but the patients are in control of this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the first in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. The authors focus on patient-directed facial rejuvenation. It is important, however, to emphasize that even in a patient-directed modality, a physician's involvement through education and guidance is integral to its success.
... Common ingredients of moisturizers with potential biological activities are α-hydroxy acids (AHAs), β-hydroxy acids (BHAs), retinoic acid, vitamins, and antioxidants 22 . As functional ingredients of moisturizers, AHAs have been widely used to improve dry skin as humectants, and also for hyperkeratotic skin as keratolytic agents 23 . Lactic acid, a monocarboxylic acid AHA, has been widely used to relieve itch as an ingredient of moisturizers for AD patients 19 . ...
Article
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Background: Moisturizers with anti-inflammatory or anti-itch activity should be developed for the safe and effective management of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of a newly developed moisturizer, CSP0510 lotion (Twolines Inc., Korea), containing citric acid (CA) and trisodium phosphate (TSP) as active ingredients, in mild to moderate AD. Methods and results: CSP0510 lotion applied twice daily for 4 weeks to eczematous lesions improved objective and subjective (itch) symptoms of AD. The physician's global assessment (PGA) score for objective symptoms decreased from 2.5±0.6 before application to 1.3±0.5 after application in the CSP0510-treated group (n=42, p<0.001). Also, the PGA score decreased from 2.3±0.6 to 1.9±0.5 by vehicle-treated (without CA and TSP) control group (p=0.001), but there was no statistical difference between CSP0510-treated and vehicle-treated groups (p=0.089). The visual analogue scale score for itch decreased from 4.8±1.3 to 2.0±0.9 in the CSP0510-treated group (p<0.001), and from 4.6±1.1 to 3.5±0.9 in the control group (p=0.075), showing a statistical significance between two groups (p=0.002). Our results in humans were further supported by in vitro and animal experiments. In HaCaT cells treated with compound 48/80 (7.5 µg/ml), CA:TSP (1:1, vol:vol) synergistically suppressed the compound 48/80-induced upregulation of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, nerve grow factor, and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Application of CSP0510 to the dorsal skin of hairless mice for 3 weeks suppressed the oxazolone-induced allergic skin inflammation. Conclusion: In conclusion, CSP0510 lotion has anti-itch and anti-inflammatory activity in the skin, which improves both objective and subjective symptoms of AD.
... A proper regulation of skin pH is crucial for physiological skin functions such as integrity/cohesion of the stratum corneum (SC), homeostasis of the epidermal Topical α-hydroxy acid (e.g. glycolic acid)-containing O/W formulations are widely used in cosmetics and dermatology [14] . In a previous study, we showed that the application of a 10% glycolic acid-containing O/W emulsion with pH 4 reduced not only the pH SS but also led to a significant decrease of the pH in deeper layers of the SC (pH SC ), very likely even affecting the stratum granulosum [15] . ...
Article
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The skin pH is crucial for physiological skin functions. A decline in stratum corneum acidity, as observed in aged or diseased skin, may negatively affect physiological skin functions. Therefore, glycolic acid-containing water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions adjusted to pH 4 were investigated regarding their effect on normal or increased skin pH. A pH 4 W/O emulsion was applied on three areas with pathologically increased skin surface pH in diabetics (n = 10). Further, a 28-day half-side trial (n = 30) was performed to test the long-term efficacy and safety of a pH 4 W/O emulsion (n = 30). In summary, the application of a pH 4 W/O emulsion reduced the skin pH in healthy, elderly and diabetic subjects, which may improve epidermal barrier functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... A natural organic acid with a long history of application in the food, leather, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries [12], lactic acid has also been described as a very effective exfoliating and moisturizing agent [13]. Its application at low concentration (5% v/v) decreases intercorneocyte cohesion and induces skin peeling [14]. Therefore, different concentrations of lactic acid produce different cosmetic results in the epidermis and dermis [15]. ...
Article
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This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant, whitening, and moisture-retention properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus spent culture supernatant (Lr-SCS) in cosmetic applications. Results reveal that Lr-SCS effectively and gradually scavenges 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl as well as 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cations, and increases reducing power in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Lr-SCS can also suppress tyrosinase activity in vitro and effectively promote moisture retention. Heat treatment at 100 °C for 30 min does not influence the functions of Lr-SCS. We conclude that Lr-SCS can be used effectively in skin care cosmetics.
Article
Photoaging is a complex process of skin changes associated with chronic ultraviolet exposure. Prevention with photoprotection and treatment with topical retinoids are the core components of a topical antiaging regimen. Other topicals such as hydroquinone, vitamin C, niacinamide, and alpha hydroxyl acid can be added based on specific concerns. However, caution must be used with some of these products as the stability and absorption are major considerations. A simple topical regimen will reduce irritability and enhance compliance.
Article
Purpose: We aimed to find active substances to help relieve the symptoms caused by increased photosensitivity after alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) peeling. Methods: A questionnaire survey was provided to 66 patients who received AHA peeling therapy to understand if increased photosensitivity existed and its specific symptoms. We verified increased photosensitivity after AHA peeling by monitoring cell viability to detect the combined toxicity of glycolic acid (GA) and UVB in HaCaT cells. The ELISA method was used to determine the expression of KLK7, FLG, IL-1β, and IL-8 to correlate damage to the skin barrier and inflammation induced by GA and UVB and the relieving effects of Portulaca oleracea extract. Results: Our survey results showed that 6.06% of people were more sensitive to sunlight after AHA peeling than before. Experiments at the cellular level showed that UVB induced cytotoxicity on HaCaT cells pre-treated with GA. Combined exposure of GA and UVB induced up-regulation of KLK7 and down-regulation of FLG and increased inflammatory cytokines of IL-1β and IL-8. P. oleracea extract inhibited the reduction of FLG and increased KLK7, IL-1β, and IL-8 expression caused by combined exposure. Conclusions: Our study found that combined exposure to GA and UV disrupted the skin barrier and induced significant inflammation. These results provided a theoretical basis for increased photosensitivity after chemical peeling. P. oleracea extract ameliorated GA and UVB-induced impaired skin barrier function and inflammation in HaCaT cells and may have the potential to relieve photosensitivity after AHA peeling.
Article
The complexes of europium(III) ions in binary and ternary systems with α-hydroxy acids and biogenic amine - spermine were investigated. Studies have been performed in aqueous solution using the potentiometric method with computer analysis of the data. Analysis of the equilibrium constants of the reactions and spectroscopic data have allowed us to determine the type of coordination and effectiveness of the carboxyl groups in the process of complex formation in the systems studied. Furthermore, the results confirmed the occurrence of non-covalent interactions of protonated spermine with coordinated α-hydroxy acid. The effect of biogenic polyamine concentration was clearly confirmed, and their influence on the stability and coordination mode of ternary complexes was found.
Article
The efficacy and safety of commercial low‐concentration glycolic acid products on acne were evaluated by recruiting volunteers accompanying mild to moderate acne of different ages and genders, which is a clinical practice for acne. We recruited a total of 30 volunteers according to the inclusion criteria, conducting clinical evaluation and skin physiological index testing, VISIA skin analysis, distributing products, and informing the trial method. Clinical testing and assessment will be carried out in weeks 0, 1, 2, and 4. 27 acne volunteers finished the entire trial. After 4 weeks of using low‐concentration glycolic acid products, most subjects experienced significant improvement in their skin lesions and the GAGS score. At the same time, the VISIA test showed that the subjects had an obvious amelioration in facial porphyrins, which was statistically significant, and there was a slight improvement in residual spots and erythema. The skin physiological indexes showed that the skin hydration value increased from 236.2 ± 98.05 to 278.2 ± 90.26 after 14 days. At the end of the test, the skin hydration value dropped to 234.6 ± 81.88. Regarding the melanin and erythema, the value decreased in the 4th week significantly. Repeated use of 5% low‐concentration glycolic acid improves the appearance and chromaticity of the treatment site. It increases the brightness L* and reduces the redness a*. This study shows that low concentrations of glycolic acids have a good effect on the treatment of mild to moderate acne. It may pay the way to carry out further large‐scale clinical research.
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Antihiperpigmentasi pada produk kosmetik (hidrokionon) memiliki efek samping yang membahayakan kulit apabila digunakan dalam tempo waktu yang lama. Alternatif lain antihiperpigmentasi dari bahan alam berupa dedak padi dan susu kuda Sumbawa disinyalir dapat berpotensi sebagai antihiperpigmentasi yang aman dan memiliki efektivitas yang lebih baik untuk kesehatan kulit jangka panjang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan krim ekstrak dedak padi dan susu kuda Sumbawa sebagai krim antihiperpigmentasi yang aman terhadap kulit. Uji standarisasi pada dedak padi dan susu kuda Sumbawa dilakukan sesuai dengan regulasi standard dari kementerian kesehatan. Uji antihiperpigmentasi dilakukan dengan secara eksperimental secara in vitro pada penghambatan (% inhibisi) enzim tironase. Pengembangan krim formulasi dedak padi dan susu kuda Sumbawa dilakukan uji inhibisi dan uji keamanan melalui indeks iritasi pada kelinci. Standarisasi ekstrak dedak padi menunjukkan ekstrak tersebut memenuhi persyaratan mutu yang baik (cemaran logam negatif ) dan hasil yang sama pada susu kuda Sumbawa (total coliform memenuhi standard). Hasil kombinasi antara ekstrak dedak padi dan susu Sumbawa menunjukkan inhibisi yang lemah sebesar 224,01 μg/mL. Uji keamanan krim kombinasi pada kelinci mendapatkan hasil indeks iritan 0,11 yang termaksud kategori aman bagi kulit. Pengembangan krim dari kombinasi ekstrak dedak padi dan susu kuda Sumbawa terbukti efektif dan aman sebagai antihiperpigmentasi.
Article
Physiological oxygen concentration (physioxia) ranges from 1 to 8% in human tissues while many researchers cultivate mammalian cells under an atmospheric concentration of 21% (hyperoxia). Oxygen is one of the significant gases which functions in human cells including energy production in mitochondria, metabolism in peroxidase, and transcription of various genes in company with HIF (Hypoxia-inducible factors) in the nucleus. Thus, mammalian cell culture should be deliberated on the oxygen concentration to mimic in vivo physiology. Here, we studied if the cultivation of human skin cells under physiological conditions could affect skin significant genes in barrier functions and dermal matrix formation. We further examined that some representative active ingredients in dermatology such as glycolic acid, gluconolactone, and salicylic acid work in different ways depending on the oxygen concentration. Taken together, we present the importance of oxygen concentration in skin cell culture for proper screening of novel ingredients as well as the mechanistic study of skin cell regulation.
Article
Improvement in skin luminosity and dyschromia such as post‐inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and actinic photodamage are leading causes for cosmetic consultation. Formulation of topical at home treatment are challenging, using a range of modalities, to help hinder or prevent inflammatory mediators without further irritating the skin. Glycolic acid is a known antioxidant, in various free acid levels it has been introduced as a topical therapy aimed at reducing pigmentation and improving skin texture, tone, and luminosity. Methods In a 12‐week clinical study, a novel, topical facial emulsion containing 10% Glycolic Acid, 2% Phytic acid, and Soothing Complex in emulsion was evaluated for its effectiveness in treating skin quality in American female volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types II‐IV. Efficacy evaluations were performed at pre‐treatment baseline, weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12, and included expert clinical grading, and self‐assessment questionnaires. Cutaneous tolerability was also evaluated by assessing subjective and objective irritation of the treatment area. Results Significant improvement in the appearance of skin PIH, hyperpigmentation, texture, and tone homogeneity was observed beginning at week 4 and continued through week 12. Conclusions The findings suggest that the test product is well suited for at home skincare. It was both well‐tolerated and an effective treatment option for addressing hyperpigmentation and overall skin luminosity.
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The demand for halal cosmetic products among the 2.4 billion Muslim consumers worldwide is increasing. However, the demand for halal cosmetics remains unmet because cosmetics production is dominated by non-halal cosmetic manufacturers, whose production methods may not conform with the requirements of halal science. The development of halal cosmetics and the assessment of their product performance is still in its infancy. The integration of halal science in the manufacture of most cosmetic products remains inadequate. Moreover, there is a global dearth of guiding documents on the development and assessment techniques in the production of comprehensively halal cosmetics. This paper aims to abridge existing literature and knowledge of halal and cosmetic science in order to provide essential technical guidance in the manufacture of halal cosmetics. In addition, the adoption of these methods addresses the unique ethical issues associated with conformance of cosmetics’ product performance to religious practices and halal science. It highlights the applicability of established methods in skin science in the assessment of halal cosmetics.
Chapter
Hydroxy acids (HAs) represent useful substances for skin care and chemical peelings and have been used typically in concentrations ranging from 2% to 70%, depending on the indication, pH, formulation, and application schedule. The higher the concentration and the lower the pH of the product, the greater the exfoliative, epidermolytic, and even toxic and corrosive action. The most widely used hydroxy acids are glycolic, mandelic, and salicylic acids. Recently, other substances like β-lipohydroxy acids (BLHAs) and gluconolactone have been developed in order to enhance efficacy and diminish irritation. The main effects of hydroxy acids in the skin are hydration, exfoliation, acceleration of collagen synthesis and modulation of matrix degradation, epidermal turnover regulation, inhibition of tyrosinase activity, and free radical neutralization. The uses of hydroxy acids include the treatment of dry skin, hyperkeratinization, acne, rosacea and sensitive skin, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and photoaging, with a high tolerance and good safety profile.
Chapter
Hydroxy acids (HAs) represent useful substances for skin care and chemical peelings and have been used typically in concentrations ranging from 2 % to 70 %, depending on the indication, pH, formulation, and application schedule. The higher the concentration and the lower the pH of the product, the greater the exfoliative, epidermolytic, and even toxic and corrosive action. The most widely used hydroxy acids are glycolic, mandelic, and salicylic acids. Recently, other substances like β-lipohydroxy acids (BLHAs) and gluconolactone have been developed in order to enhance efficacy and diminish irritation. The main effects of hydroxy acids in the skin are hydration, exfoliation, acceleration of collagen synthesis and modulation of matrix degradation, epidermal turnover regulation, inhibition of tyrosinase activity, and free radical neutralization. The uses of hydroxy acids include the treatment of dry skin, hyperkeratinization, acne, rosacea and sensitive skin, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and photoaging, with a high tolerance and good safety profile.
Chapter
Metalloproteins, those which require a metal ion cofactor for function, make up roughly 30% of the human proteome; inhibitors of metalloproteins have been developed as potential therapeutics for a wide variety of diseases including cancer, hypertension, and pathogenic infections. The clinical success of these inhibitors has not reached their full potential, at least in part, due to issues of poor pharmacokinetics which are often attributed to the presence of a metal-binding group (MBG). Given the wide variety of molecules capable of binding metal ions, the diversity of MBGs used in metalloprotein inhibitor design is remarkably small. This chapter reviews crystallographic data from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) of inhibitor–metalloprotein complexes, with a descriptive focus on the metal ion and MBG interactions. This analysis indicates that although metal binding is generally thought of as an anchoring force in metalloprotein inhibitor design, other interactions between the inhibitor and the target active site can have a significant effect on metal coordination. Understanding the interplay between these forces will greatly aid in the development of more potent and selective metalloprotein inhibitors.
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Ternary complexes of Cu(II) and Zn(II) with the amino acid, glycine (gly), as a primary ligand, and hydroxy acids i.e. salicylic acid (HL1), lactic acid (HL2) and glycolic acid (HL3), as a secondary ligand, were synthesized in a slightly acidic medium and isolated in a ratio of (1:1:1). The ternary complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, spectral (UV-vis, IR) studies, thermal techniques, magnetic measurements, ESR and their biological activity were investigated. A square planar geometry for Cu (II) and Zn (II) was proposed. In order to evaluate the biological activity of hydroxy acids and to assess the role of metal ion on biological activity, the hydroxy acids and their metal complexes have been studied in vitro antibacterial against Staphylococcus Aureus, Escherichia Coli, and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. In most cases, a higher activity was exhibited upon coordination with metal ions.
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The effects of a 10% α-hydroxy acid (AHA) oil/water (O/W) emulsion on the pH of human skin surface (pH(ss)) and stratum corneum (SC; pH(sc)) were evaluated in vivo. The AHA O/W emulsion was applied to an area on the volar forearm of male volunteers (n = 12), and then wiped off after 10 min. Prior to application and over the following 3 h, the pH(ss) was measured. We used glass electrode measurements and time domain dual lifetime referencing (tdDLR) with luminescent sensor foils. In another experiment (n = 5), the impact of the AHA O/W emulsion on the pH(sc) gradient was measured by tape stripping of the SC of the volar forearm after application of the AHA O/W emulsion. Compared with pH(ss) values prior to treatment [5.2 ± 1.7 (tdDLR) or 4.8 ± 0.5 (electrode)], the pH(ss) was significantly reduced 10 min after application [4.0 ± 0.3 (tdDLR) or 4.1 ± 0.1 (electrode)] and the pH(ss) remained significantly reduced over the measurement period of 3 h [after 3 h: 4.4 ± 0.2 (tdDLR) or 4.5 ± 0.3 (electrode)]. The AHA O/W emulsion significantly reduced the pH(sc) even down to deep layers of the SC. After a 10-min application time, the 10% AHA O/W emulsion reduces the pH(ss) (for at least 3 h) and pH(sc) in deep layers of the SC.
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Skin care with alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) is another facet of facial rejuvenation. Photoaging, acne, and melasma are common clinical problems that are treated successfully by AHAs when they are part of the treatment protocol. Review of the chemistry, mechanism of action, clinical strategies, and complications of AHAs provides a scientific approach to the incorporation of AHAs into clinical practice.
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Backgroound: alpha-Hydroxy acids (AHAs) have been reported to improve aging skin. The mechanisms of action of AHAs on epidermal and dermal compartments need clarification. Objective: Our purpose was to determine the effects of AHAs on photoaged human skin by clinical and microanalytic means. Methods: Patients applied a lotion containing 25% glycolic, lactic, or citric acid to one forearm and a placebo lotion to the opposite forearm for an average of 6 months. Thickness of forearm skin was measured throughout the study. Biopsy specimens from both forearms were processed for analysis at the end of the study. Results: Treatment with AHAs caused an approximate 25% increase in skin thickness. The epidermis was thicker and papillary dermal changes included increased thickness, increased acid mucopolysaccharides, improved quality of elastic fibers, and increased density of collagen. No inflammation was evident. Conclusion: Treatment with AHAs produced significant reversal of epidermal and dermal markers of photoaging.
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The treatment of mild-moderate acne with topical drugs in association with appropriate cosmetics is currently the golden standard. The tolerability and efficacy of a cream formulated with a new mix of alpha-hydroxy acids (Hyseac AHA cream) in 248 patients with mild-moderate acne (comedonic, inflammatory, or mixed) have been investigated in a multicenter, non-randomized, open study by 10 dermatologists from different Italian areas during their routine practice. The medication with Hyseac AHA cream was prescribed at first consultation for 60 days, twice a day, either as a monotherapy (49.2% patients) or in association with a pharmacological treatment (50.2%). The tolerability was good to excellent in 92.3% patients, without significant differences between patients using AHA cream in monotherapy (90.0%) or associated with concomitant pharmacological treatment (97.6%). The efficacy was overall high in 64.2% patients, again without significant differences related to concomitant pharmacological treatment or not (64.8% vs. 63.3%) and/or the acne clinical type (comedonic vs. inflammatory vs. mixed: 69.2% vs. 66.7% vs. 58%). The results of this study, while confirming the high tolerability and efficacy of this AHA cream in the treatment of mild/moderate acne, reasonably suggest its possible use also in monotherapy. Furthermore, its use can be reasonably hypothesized as a maintenance treatment after specific pharmacological treatment even in more severe acne types.
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Alpha hydroxy acids and alpha keto acids applied topically in lower concentrations reduce the thickness of hyperkeratotic stratum corneum by reducing corneocyte cohesion at lower levels of the stratum corneum. This property permits efficient clinical control of dry skin, ichthyosis, follicular hyperkeratosis, and other conditions characterized by retention of stratum corneum. Applied topically in higher concentrations, these acids cause epidermolysis. This property provides a new alternative for treating seborrheic keratoses, keratoses commonly known as "age spots," actinic keratoses, and verrucae vulgares; all of which lesions involve distinct epidermal hyperplasia as well as retention of stratum corneum. Facial wrinkles can be modified with topical alpha hydroxy acids, applied in higher concentrations as office procedures, and concomitant daily home application of lower concentrations.
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Hyperkeratinization is a primary or fundamental event in a majority of today's skin disorders. Hyperkeratinization is usually the result of decreased desquamation due to increased corneocyte cohesion. Strength of corneocyte cohesion is determined by strength of intercellular bonding. Intercellular bonding is weakened by water and diminished by retinoids and alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs). Conversely, bonding is strengthened or enhanced by dehydration, vitamin A deficiency, and some alpha acetoxy acids (AAAs). Agents that control or modify keratinization can be useful in treatment of many skin disorders.
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Although not surgery in the traditional sense, skin care offers the ability to treat patients with a wide range of skin pathology. Skin care is another facet in facial rejuvenation, whose magnitude will increase as the pathophysiology and treatment of photoaging and other skin conditions becomes better understood. Patient satisfaction has been overwhelming for physician-directed skin care, but as the number of products, regimens, and adjuncts increase exponentially, we must emphasize a well-founded, scientific approach to the individual patient's pathology.
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Although there is increasing interest in the use of glycolic acid in the treatment of photoaged skin, to our knowledge, no controlled study has been done to assess the efficacy or the mode of this agent. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50% glycolic acid can improve photoaged skin and to study the histological basis for this improvement. Forty-one volunteers were recruited into this double-blind vehicle-controlled study. Glycolic acid (50%) or vehicle was applied topically for 5 minutes to one side of the face, forearms, and hands, once weekly for 4 weeks. Punch biopsies were taken at pretherapy and at 5 weeks for histologic study. Significant improvement noted included decrease in rough texture and fine wrinkling, fewer solar keratoses, and a slight lightening of solar lentigines. Histology showed thinning of the stratum corneum, granular layer enhancement, and epidermal thickening. Some specimens showed an increase in collagen thickness in the dermis. The results of this study demonstrate that the application of 50% glycolic acid peels improves mild photoaging of the skin.
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alpha-Hydroxy acids (AHAs) have been reported to improve aging skin. The mechanisms of action of AHAs on epidermal and dermal compartments need clarification. Our purpose was to determine the effects of AHAs on photoaged human skin by clinical and microanalytic means. Patients applied a lotion containing 25% glycolic, lactic, or citric acid to one forearm and a placebo lotion to the opposite forearm for an average of 6 months. Thickness of forearm skin was measured throughout the study. Biopsy specimens from both forearms were processed for analysis at the end of the study. Treatment with AHAs caused an approximate 25% increase in skin thickness. The epidermis was thicker and papillary dermal changes included increased thickness, increased acid mucopolysaccharides, improved quality of elastic fibers, and increased density of collagen. No inflammation was evident. Treatment with AHAs produced significant reversal of epidermal and dermal markers of photoaging.
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Glycolic acid peeling is known to improve photoaging processes such as wrinkling and roughness, but this effect has not been clearly defined, even though functional activation of fibroblasts has been suggested. The study was aimed to determine the effects of glycolic acid and malic acid (AHA: alpha hydroxy acid) on cultured dermal fibroblasts. Whether it directly increases cell proliferation may be an important factor influencing the production of extracellular matrix such as type I collagen. Cultured human skin fibroblasts were treated for 24 hours with glycolic acid and malic acid at different concentrations (10(-4), 10(-5), 10(-6) M), and cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Then quantitative analysis of collagen synthesis was performed by PICP (Procollagen Type I C-peptide) enzyme immunoassay and radioisotope (3H-proline) labelled collagen assay. The results showed increased cell proliferation and collagen production in response to glycolic acid in a dose dependent manner. The range of cell proliferation and collagen production were significantly higher with glycolic acid treatment than with malic acid or control. It was suggested that the favorable effects of glycolic acid treatment on aging skin were mediated by increased cell proliferation in addition to functional activation of fibroblasts.
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Alpha-hydroxy acids have been used for rejuvenation since ancient times, and now there are several on the market. Depending on the concentration, some have been shown to be effective as peeling agents and for rejuvenation. Glycolic acid and lactic acid are the alpha-hydroxy acids most frequently used in cosmetics, although there are many others used in combination. Some of the most striking advances in dermatology have followed the off-label use of drugs, which is widespread and unavoidable, but a well founded scientific approach to an individual patient's pathology must be emphasized as the number of products, regimens, and adjuncts increases exponentially in the cosmetic field. In this article the authors review some unapproved uses of alpha-hydroxy acids. More published data on the scientific value of these off-label indications that proves whether they are effective or not is needed.
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Chemical peels are classified as very superficial (exfoliation), superficial (epidermal), medium (papillary dermal) and deep (reticular dermal). A successful peel depends upon a number of variables, such as choice of the peeling agent, its concentration, and the pressure and frequency of the applications; all must be adjusted to the patient's skin condition. Through standardization of the peeling agents, the level of injury can be determined pre-operatively and complications minimized. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is the most popular peeling agent used in different concentrations. It has the broadest spectrum of indications due to its versatility in combination with other peeling agents. Indications for superficial peels include skin resurfacing, wrinkles, actinically damaged skin, actinic keratoses and benign pigmented lesions. Superficial peels have the advantage that they can be used on most regions of the body. The use of different chemical peels, their varying effects and their potential complications are reviewed. There are at present more than 45 chemical peels with different combinations of agents available on the European market.
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Dry skin (xerosis) is a common symptom of a number of chronic skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, but can also be caused by environmental factors, such as cold weather and frequent showering. The condition can cause unsightliness of the skin, discomfort, itching, and can have a negative impact on patients' quality of life. This article will cover recent developments in the understanding of xerosis and its management with emollients. The stratum corneum consists of corneocytes and lipid-enriched intercellular bilayers. These are both produced from keratinocytes in a process called epidermal differentiation. Disturbed epidermal differentiation, resulting in the impairment of stratum corneum intercellular lipid bilayers and natural moisturizing factor, is the root cause of xerosis. The constituent ingredients of emollients should, therefore, address the different factors that contribute to dry skin and, most importantly, attempt to restore epidermal differentiation. The use of lipids, physiological lipids, humectants and antipruritics will help to restore the lipid lamellae, improve skin hydration, skin elasticity and prevent itching. The ideal emollient will include these ingredients plus an agent to support epidermal differentiation. Selecting the correct emollient product and using it regularly are vital factors in the management of xerosis.
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The demand for non-surgical cosmetic treatments has grown considerably in recent years. It appears German dermatology departments now also increasingly seem to offer many of these methods. In 2001 we evaluated the use of different non-surgical cosmetic techniques in German dermatology departments through means of a national questionnaire. Information was requested from 85 departments, of which 63.5% responded. The outcome revealed that 96.3% of the participating departments have lasers at their disposal to treat cosmetic skin lesions, 79.6% carry out injections with botulinum toxin, 59.3% perform chemical peels and 37% perform tissue augmentation with injectable fillers. Overall, the ratio between desired and adverse effects as well as the economic benefit of all evaluated methods was judged as positive by the interviewees. In a comparison of all evaluated modalities, the therapeutic index was considered most favourable with botulinum toxin and most unfavourable with injectable filling agents. With regard to cost-effectiveness, soft tissue augmentation was judged best, while chemical peels alongside lasers were regarded as least advantageous in this respect. Further evaluated topics were indications, substances, organisation and other issues. In summary the survey confirmed that a large number of German dermatology departments employ non-surgical cosmetic procedures matching the international upward trend of cosmetic dermatology.
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The mainstays of modern acne therapy include comedolytic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory substances, as well as antiandrogens. Additionally, traditional or newly developed therapeutic approaches may be considered, including pharmacologic (dapsone, zinc) and physical measures (phototherapy, photodynamic therapy, comedone extraction, abrasives). This article reviews such adjunctive therapies with regard to efficacy and their roles in acne therapy.
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The hydroxy acids are widely used in skin creams because of their exfoliating and rejuvenating effect on photoaged skin. As a member of this family, the salicylic acid derivative known in the literature as 2-hydroxy-5-octanoyl benzoic acid or beta-lipohydroxy acid has also been proposed as an exfoliant and as a treatment of photoaged skin and acne. This article reviews the effects of the hydroxy acids and compares them to those of the salicylic acid derivative. We propose the name C(8)-lipohydroxy acid (C8-LHA) for this derivative to differentiate it from other related compounds. The lipophilic nature of C8-LHA and its relatively slow penetration in the skin afford it an exfoliating effect that is efficient at low concentrations. It appears to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticomedogenic properties, which make it effective against acne. Its antifungal and exfoliating properties are also likely to prove useful in combating dandruff.
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Chemical peeling is an in-office procedure that involves the application of a chemical agent to the skin to induce controlled destruction or exfoliation of old skin and stimulation of new epidermal growth with more evenly distributed melanin. When peel agents reach the dermal layer, important wound-healing activities occur that cause skin remodeling and skin smoothing, both antiaging benefits. There are a number of key factors in selecting a peeling agent and procedure, and each is discussed. Variables to consider are the peeling agent and its formulation, the concentration of the agent, the patient's skin type, the site to be peeled, the skin preparation procedure prior to and immediately preceding the application of the agent, the application method, the duration of contact, and the patient's medical history and lifestyle. Various types of peels are discussed. Of particular interest are superficial chemical peels, which offer great flexibility over a range of skin types and conditions with minimal to no "downtime." Alpha-hydroxyacid (AHA) peels are superficial and can be combined with other cosmetic procedures in the office to maximize benefits. In addition, AHA peels work well when combined with supportive homecare products including AHAs or polyhydroxy acids (PHAs), topical retinoids, and antiacne/antirosacea treatments. Case studies are presented of patients using AHA peels for the treatment of acne and hyperpigmentation in a variety of skin types, including Asian skin.
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Chemical peels are used as adjuvants for treatment of facial acne. No well-controlled studies have compared alpha- and beta-hydroxy acid peels in the treatment of mild to moderately severe facial acne. To compare the efficacy of alpha- and beta-hydroxy acid chemical peels in the treatment of mild to moderately severe facial acne vulgaris. Twenty patients were recruited in this split-face, double-blind, randomized, controlled study. An alpha-hydroxy acid (30% glycolic acid) was applied to one-half of the face and a beta-hydroxy acid peel (30% salicylic acid) was applied contralaterally every 2 weeks for a total of six treatments. A blinded evaluator performed quantitative assessment of papules and pustules. Both chemical peels were significantly effective by the second treatment (p<.05) and there were no significant differences in effectiveness between the two peels. At 2 months posttreatment, the salicylic acid peel had sustained effectiveness. More adverse events were reported with the glycolic acid peel after the initial treatment. The glycolic acid and salicylic acid peels were similarly effective. The salicylic acid peel had sustained effectiveness and fewer side effects. Alpha- and beta-hydroxy acid peels both offer successful adjunctive treatment of facial acne vulgaris.
Clinical improvement of photoaged skin with 50% glycolic acid. A double-blind vehicle-controlled study
  • Newman