2011 Colposcopic Terminology of the International Federation for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy

Article (PDF Available)inObstetrics and Gynecology 120(1):166-72 · July 2012with170 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318254f90c · Source: PubMed
Abstract
New colposcopy terminology was prepared by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy after a critical review of previous terminologies, online discussions, and discussion with national colposcopy societies and individual colposcopists. This document has been expanded to include terminology of both the cervix and vagina. The popular terms "satisfactory colposcopy" and "unsatisfactory colposcopy" have been replaced. The colposcopic examination should be assessed for three variables: 1) adequate or inadequate, with the reason given; 2) squamocolumnar junction visibility; and 3) transformation zone type. Other additions were the localization of the lesion to either inside or outside the transformation zone and determinants of size as well as location of cervical lesions. Two new signs were included in the terminology-the "inner border sign" and "ridge sign." The following definitions have been added: congenital transformation zone, polyp (ectocervical or endocervical), stenosis, congenital anomaly, and posttreatment consequence. In addition, the terminology includes standardization of cervical excision treatment types and cervical excision specimen dimensions. The International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy recommends that the 2011 terminology replace all others and be implemented for diagnosis, treatment, and research.

Figures

Current Commentary
2011 Colposcopic Terminology of the
International Federation for Cervical
Pathology and Colposcopy
Jacob Bornstein,
MD
,
MPA
, James Bentley,
MB
,
ChB
, Peter Bösze,
MD
, Frank Girardi,
MD
,
Hope Haefner,
MD
, Michael Menton,
MD
, Myriam Perrotta,
MD
, Walter Prendiville,
MD
,
Peter Russell,
MD
, Mario Sideri,
MD
, Björn Strander,
MD
, Silvio Tatti,
MD
, Aureli Torne,
MD
,
and Patrick Walker,
MD
New colposcopy terminology was prepared by the No-
menclature Committee of the International Federation of
Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy after a critical review
of previous terminologies, online discussions, and discus-
sion with national colposcopy societies and individual
colposcopists. This document has been expanded to
include terminology of both the cervix and vagina. The
popular terms “satisfactory colposcopy” and “unsatisfac-
tory colposcopy” have been replaced. The colposcopic
examination should be assessed for three variables: 1)
adequate or inadequate, with the reason given; 2) squamo-
columnar junction visibility; and 3) transformation zone
type. Other additions were the localization of the lesion to
either inside or outside the transformation zone and deter-
minants of size as well as location of cervical lesions. Two
new signs were included in the terminology—the “inner
border sign” and “ridge sign.” The following definitions
have been added: congenital transformation zone, polyp
(ectocervical or endocervical), stenosis, congenital anomaly,
and posttreatment consequence. In addition, the terminol-
ogy includes standardization of cervical excision treatment
types and cervical excision specimen dimensions. The In-
ternational Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colpos-
copy recommends that the 2011 terminology replace all
others and be implemented for diagnosis, treatment, and
research.
(Obstet Gynecol 2012;120:166–72)
DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318254f90c
S
ince its description in 1925,
1
colposcopy has
served as a tool that has helped in saving the lives
of many women with cervical precancer and cancer.
To describe and interpret the colposcopic findings,
colposcopists use the terminology of the International
Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy.
The current nomenclature committee was established
at the 2008 International Federation of Cervical Pa-
thology and Colposcopy World Congress in Auck-
land, New Zealand. The committee examined the
past three International Federation of Cervical Pa-
thology and Colposcopy terminologies from 1975,
2
1990,
3
and 2002
4
by reviewing publications that crit-
See related editorial on page 9.
From the Nomenclature Committee of the International Federation for Cervical
Pathology and Colposcopy, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Western
Galilee Hospital, and the Bar-Ilan University Faculty of Medicine, Nahariya,
Israel; the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dalhousie University,
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, Saint Stephen Hospital, Budapest, Hungary,
L4000 Women’s Hospital, the University of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor,
Michigan, the University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, Institute of Clinical
Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden,
and the Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom; the Austrian Society of
Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, Vienna, Austria; the German Society of
Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, Reutlingen, Germany; the Gynecology
Department, Lower Genital Tract Disease and Gynecologic Oncology Unit,
Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, and the University of Buenos Aires, Buenos
Aires, Argentina; the School of Medicine Hospital Italiano, Milano, Italy; the
Beacon Hospital, Sandyford, Dublin, Ireland; Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology,
Macquarie Park, New South Wales, Australia; the Preventive Gynecology Unit,
Gynecology Division, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; and the
Institut Clinic of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Neonatology, Hospital Clinic-
Institut d’investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Faculty of
Medicine-University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
The authors thank Drs. Alfonso Alba, Montserrrat Cararach, Hanoch Levavi,
Claudia Ester Marchitelli, Rami Mushonov, Olaf Reich, Eduardo Schejter,
Efraim Siegler, Albert Singer, and Jeffrey Tan for providing useful comments
during the discussions of the nomenclature committee.
Corresponding author: Jacob Bornstein, MD, MPA, Department of Obstetrics
and Gynecology, Western Galilee Hospital, PO Box 21, Nahariya, 22100,
Israel; e-mail: mdjacob@gmail.com.
Financial Disclosure
The authors did not report any potential conflicts of interest.
© 2012 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published
by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
ISSN: 0029-7844/12
166 VOL. 120, NO. 1, JULY 2012 OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY
ically analyzed each colposcopic sign, aiming to cre-
ate an evidence-based terminology.
5–21
The commit-
tee was chaired by Jacob Bornstein, MD, MPA, and
was composed of 13 colposcopists from Argentina,
Austria, Canada, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the
United States and one pathologist from Australia. The
discussions were carried out through meetings, a
dedicated web site, and e-mails. The terminology
tables have been presented at several national and
regional colposcopy congresses and on the Interna-
tional Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colpos-
copy web site (www.ifcpc.com). Criticisms from the
International Federation of Cervical Pathology and
Colposcopy-affiliated national societies and from in-
dividuals were discussed. The final terminology was
reviewed and approved by all committee members,
by the International Federation of Cervical Pathology
and Colposcopy board, and finally by the Interna-
tional Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colpos-
copy general assembly at the World Congress in Rio
de Janeiro on July 5, 2011.
As the representative body of the national societ-
ies of colposcopy and cervical pathology, the Interna-
tional Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colpos-
copy recommends that the 2011 terminology replace
all other terminologies and be implemented without
delay for diagnosis, treatment, and research.
THE STRUCTURE OF THE NEW
NOMENCLATURE
The new nomenclature encompasses terminology re-
lated to the cervix and the vagina (Tables 1 and 2).
Additionally, an addendum to terminology of the
cervix is included (Table 3).
GLOSSARY
In the glossary, only those terms that have been
changed from the 2002 terminology are defined.
2011 COLPOSCOPIC TERMINOLOGY OF
THE CERVIX: GENERAL ASSESSMENT
“Adequate or inadequate for the reason”: this should
be the opening statement of every colposcopic exam-
ination. The examination may be inadequate because
the cervix is obscured by inflammation, bleeding, or
scarring.
Squamocolumnar junction visibility: the squamo-
columnar junction may be completely visible when
360° of the squamocolumnar junction is seen and
partially visible when most of the squamocolumnar
junction is visible but a section of it is inside the
Table 1. 2011 International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy Colposcopic Terminology
of the Cervix
Section Pattern
General assessment Adequate or inadequate for the reason (eg, cervix obscured by inflammation, bleeding, scar)
Squamocolumnar junction visibility: completely visible, partially visible, not visible
Transformation zone types 1, 2, 3
Normal colposcopic
findings
Original squamous epithelium: mature, atrophic
Columnar epithelium; ectopy/ectropion
Metaplastic squamous epithelium; nabothian cysts; crypt (gland) openings
Deciduosis in pregnancy
Abnormal colposcopic
findings
General principles
Location of the lesion: Inside or outside the transformation zone; location of the lesion by clock
position
Size of the lesion: number of cervical quadrants the lesion covers
Size of the lesion as percentage of cervix
Grade 1 (minor):
Fine mosaic; fine punctation; thin acetowhite epithelium; irregular, geographic border
Grade 2 (major):
Sharp border; inner border sign; ridge sign; dense acetowhite epithelium; coarse mosaic; coarse
punctuation; rapid appearance of acetowhitening; cuffed crypt (gland) openings
Nonspecific:
Leukoplakia (keratosis, hyperkeratosis), erosion
Lugol’s staining (Schiller’s test): stained or nonstained
Suspicious for invasion Atypical vessels
Additional signs: fragile vessels, irregular surface, exophytic lesion, necrosis, ulceration
(necrotic), tumor or gross neoplasm
Miscellaneous findings Congenital transformation zone, condyloma, polyp (ectocervical or endocervical),
inflammation, stenosis, congenital anomaly, posttreatment consequence, endometriosis
VOL. 120, NO. 1, JULY 2012 Bornstein et al Colposcopy Terminology 167
endocervical canal or when a lesion covers the squa-
mocolumnar junction with its inner border in the
endocervical canal. The squamocolumnar junction
may be not visible when all or most of the squamo-
columnar junction cannot be seen because it is in the
endocervical canal.
ABNORMAL COLPOSCOPIC FINDINGS
Location of the Lesion Inside or Outside the
Transformation Zone
Location of the lesion is relative to the original
squamocolumnar junction. “Inside” location means
medial to the original squamocolumnar junction (to-
ward the cervical os) and vice versa. The border of a
lesion is a sharp border that is a straight edge of an
acetowhite cervical lesion. Other edge definitions are
feathered or geographical margin, usually associated
with a low-grade lesion, and rolled peeling edges that
may be associated with a high-grade lesion.
5,8
The
inner border sign
22
is a sharp demarcation between a
thin and a dense acetowhite areas within the same
lesion (Fig. 1). The ridge sign
23
is an opaque protu-
berance at the area of a white epithelium within the
transformation zone (Fig. 2).
MISCELLANEOUS FINDINGS
Posttreatment Effect
This may or may not be an adverse feature: for
example, stenosis, deformation or distortion, scarring,
thickening or increased fragility of the mucosa, cervi-
cal endometriosis.
2011 INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF
CERVICAL PATHOLOGY AND COLPOSCOPY
COLPOSCOPIC TERMINOLOGY OF THE
CERVIX—ADDENDUM: EXCISION
TREATMENT TYPES
The excision types corresponding to the International
Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy
transformation zone-type classification describe three
types of transformation zone mentioned in Table 1,
which are classified according to the site, size, and
visibility of the transformation zone. The excision
itself may be carried out by any of the accepted
methods: large loop excision of the transformation
zone, which is identical to loop electrosurgical exci-
sion procedure, by needle excision of the transforma-
Table 2. 2011 International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy Clinical and Colposcopic
Terminology of the Vagina
Section Pattern
General assessment Adequate or inadequate for the reason (eg, inflammation, bleeding, scar) transformation zone
Normal colposcopic
findings
Squamous epithelium: mature or atrophic
Abnormal colposcopic
findings
General principles:
Upper third or lower two-thirds
Anterior, posterior, or lateral (right or left)
Grade 1 (minor):
Thin acetowhite epithelium, fine punctuation fine mosaic
Grade 2 (major):
Dense acetowhite epithelium, coarse punctuation coarse mosaic
Suspicious for invasion:
Atypical vessels
Additional signs: fragile vessels, irregular surface, exophytic lesion, necrosis ulceration (necrotic),
tumor or gross neoplasm
Nonspecific:
Columnar epithelium (adenosis)
Lesion staining by Lugol’s solution (Schiller’s test): stained or nonstained, leukoplakia
Miscellaneous findings Erosion (traumatic), condyloma, polyp, cyst, endometriosis, inflammation, vaginal stenosis,
congenital transformation zone
Table 3. 2011 International Federation of Cervical
Pathology and Colposcopy Colposcopic
Terminology of the Cervix—Addendum
Section Pattern
Excision treatment
types
Excision type 1, 2, 3
Excision specimen
dimensions
Length—the distance from the distal or
external margin to the proximal or
internal margin
Thickness—the distance from the
stromal margin to the surface of the
excised specimen.
Circumference (optional)—the perimeter
of the excised specimen
168 Bornstein et al Colposcopy Terminology OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY
tion zone, by straight wire excision of the transforma-
tion zone, or by cold knife conization. Type 1 excision
resects a completely ectocervical or type 1 transfor-
mation zone. Type 2 excision resects a type 2 trans-
formation zone. It will resect a small amount of
endocervical epithelium that is visible with a colpo-
scope. Type 3 excision (Fig. 3)- resects a type 3
transformation zone. It will resect a longer and larger
amount of tissue than type 1 or type 2 excisions and
will include a significant amount of endocervical
epithelium. It may also be used to treat glandular
disease or microinvasive disease or women who have
had previous treatment.
EXCISION SPECIMEN DIMENSIONS
Length is the distance from the distal or external
margin to the proximal or internal margin of the
excised specimen (Fig. 4). Thickness is the distance
from the stromal margin to the surface of the excised
specimen. Circumference (optional) is the distance
surrounding the perimeter of the excised specimen.
DISCUSSION
The 2011 colposcopic terminology of the cervix table
starts with “General Assessment.” This section replaces
the 2002 nomenclature’s section IV,
4
which used the
established term “unsatisfactory colposcopy.” Placing
this section at the beginning of the cervix colposcopy
terminology table serves to emphasize that the colpo-
scopic examination should start with a general assess-
ment of the cervix to immediately recognize the level of
reliability of the examination. The popular terms “satis-
factory colposcopy” and “unsatisfactory colposcopy”
were abandoned, because they have the connotation of
an inadequate examination that needs to be repeated.
Instead, the colposcopic examination is now assessed by
three variables. The first is the “adequate or inadequate
for the reason…” in which the cause of inadequacy
should be explained; for example, the cervix is obscured
by inflammation, bleeding, or scarring. The second
variable is “squamocolumnar junction visibility,” which
can be described as “completely visible,” “partially
visible,” or “not visible.” The reason that the visibility
and site of the squamocolumnar junction are so impor-
tant is that it dictates both the ability to do a satisfactory
examination and, when treatment is indicated, the ex-
tent and type of excision (as described later). The terms
“adequacy” and “squamocolumnar junction visibility”
are not mutually exclusive. For example, the squamo-
columnar junction may be “partially visible” because a
portion of its inner margin is located high in the endo-
cervical canal, whereas the test is still “adequate” be-
cause the cervix itself is not obscured by blood or
inflammation. The third parameter in that section,
which was already included in the 2002 International
Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy no-
menclature, involves assigning a transformation zone
type.
4
It overlaps to some degree, but not completely,
with the visibility of the squamocolumnar junction. The
transformation zone and the squamocolumnar junction
are not the same thing: the squamocolumnar junction is
the “inner” margin of the transformation zone. Both
types 1 and 2 transformation zone are “completely
visible,” but the differentiation between the two may be
important, mainly for planning treatment.
In the “abnormal colposcopic findings,” we
added the localization of the lesion to either inside or
outside the transformation zone. The localization of
the lesion in relation to the transformation zone was
Fig. 1. Inner border sign. The arrow points to the sharp
demarcation between thin and dense acetowhite areas that
exists within the same lesion.
Bornstein. Colposcopy Terminology. Obstet Gynecol 2012.
Fig. 2. Ridge sign. The arrow points to the opaque protu-
berance that is present at the area of a white epithelium
within the transformation zone.
Bornstein. Colposcopy Terminology. Obstet Gynecol 2012.
VOL. 120, NO. 1, JULY 2012 Bornstein et al Colposcopy Terminology 169
part of the 1990 International Federation of Cervical
Pathology and Colposcopy colposcopic terminology
3
but not the 2002 terminology.
4
However, a lesion
within the transformation zone, as opposed to one
outside, since has been shown to be an independent
predictor of a high-grade lesion or carcinoma (odds
ratio 8.60, 95% confidence interval 1.2–63.4).
5
The size of the cervical lesion was not included in
the 2002 International Federation of Cervical Pathol-
ogy and Colposcopy colposcopic terminology but has
been found to have a predictive value for a high
histologic grade (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence in-
terval 2.1–6.3).
19,21
Therefore, several determinants of
size as well as of location of cervical lesions were
included for the first time in International Federation
of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy terminology:
the number of cervical quadrants the lesion covers,
size of the lesion as a percentage of the cervix, and
location of the lesion by clock position(s). All three
parameters were incorporated into the terminology
because the parameters of size and location do not
overlap; for example, a lesion can occupy three
quadrants but be composed of a thin layer of abnor-
mal epithelium that occupies only 5% of the cervix. It
may extend from the 2 o’clock to the 8 o’clock
positions. Introduction of the two new signs, “inner
border sign” and “ridge sign” to the grade 2 (major
lesions) section, was the result of their significant
validity as markers of high-grade cervical intraepithe-
lial neoplasia.
22,23
Sharp border has also been associ-
ated with a more severe lesion. The term leukoplakia
or keratosis was considered a major lesion in the first
and second International Federation of Cervical Pa-
thology and Colposcopy terminologies
2,3
but was
reclassified in 2002 in the third International Federa-
tion of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy terminol-
ogy,
4
under “miscellaneous findings,” to diminish its
significance. However, because leukoplakia or kera-
tosis was shown to have a 25% independent predictive
value of containing high-grade or invasive neoplasia,
5
we returned it to the abnormal colposcopic finding
section, but to the nonspecific category, because it
may represent either a benign or a severe intraepithe-
lial lesion. Moving the test of Lugol’s staining (Schil-
ler’s test) from the “minor grade” category to the
“nonspecific” category of the “abnormal colposcopic
findings” section is because several studies such as
those associated with the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study
showed poor reliability of Lugol’s staining.
14,24,25
A
cervical polyp is a common finding and has remained
in the “miscellaneous findings,” including its origin as
being ectocervical or endocervical.
Upper limit of visibility
Transformation zone
Excision line
Fig. 3. Type 3 excision. Resection of a type 3 transformation
zone. It includes a longer and larger amount of tissue than
type 1 or type 2 excisions and a significant amount of
endocervical epithelium.
Bornstein. Colposcopy Terminology. Obstet Gynecol 2012.
Fig. 4. Line drawing of large loop excision of the transfor-
mation zone specimen after removal, with dimensions used
to designate thickness, length, and circumference.
Bornstein. Colposcopy Terminology. Obstet Gynecol 2012.
170 Bornstein et al Colposcopy Terminology OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY
2011 International Federation of Cervical
Pathology and Colposcopy Colposcopic
Terminology of the Cervix—Addendum
The reason for adding an “excision treatment types”
addendum (although it is not a colposcopic pattern
recognition issue) is to avoid using the terms: “coniza-
tion,” “cone biopsy,” “big loop excision,” and “small
loop excision.” Each of these may mean different
things to different health care providers, whereas
using the new International Federation of Cervical
Pathology and Colposcopy excision treatment types
will standardize the description of excisions of the
transformation zone. The excision of each of the
transformation zone types is associated with a differ-
ent technique as well as with altered risk of incom-
plete excision and subsequent morbidity. The ratio-
nale for inclusion of the excised specimen dimensions
in the 2011 International Federation of Cervical Pa-
thology and Colposcopy terminology is similar. Sev-
eral studies have shown that the size of the excised
specimen of the cervix has implications on future
pregnancy outcome. Therefore, there is a need to
standardize the description of the excised specimen
dimensions. The committee recognized that there is a
lack of consensus in the published literature concern-
ing the terms “length,” “depth,” and “height” of the
specimen. In some publications “length” means the
distance from the ectocervical margin to the endocer-
vical margin. In other articles this parameter is termed
“depth” or even “height.” To clarify this, the proposed
terminology advises abandoning the terms “depth”
and “height” and instead proposes the terms “length”
and “thickness.” When multiple excision specimens
are obtained, as is the case with an endocervical
top-hat specimen, each specimen will be measured
separately.
2011 International Federation of Cervical
Pathology and Colposcopy Clinical and
Colposcopic Terminology of the Vagina
The current nomenclature committee is the first that
presents an International Federation of Cervical Pa-
thology and Colposcopy terminology dedicated to
colposcopy of the vagina. Various human papilloma-
virus lesions and intraepithelial neoplasia may occur
in the vagina as a primary lesion or in continuum with
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Although a transfor-
mation zone may occur, for example in diethylstilbes-
trol-exposed patients, where islands of columnar epithe-
lium may be found within the squamous epithelium
(adenosis), the cervical transformation zone types are
irrelevant in the vagina.
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172 Bornstein et al Colposcopy Terminology OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY
    • "She had no substance abuse or significant medical or family history. A 2-cm vascularised tumour outgrowth, indurated and bleeding, was found on investigation (Figure 1); colposcopy revealed an area of type 1 changes [7], with a vascularised lesion approximately 2 cm in diameter, extending from the cervical canal to the posterior labium; this was biopsied. A histopathological analysis of the specimen showed it to be a clear cell adenocarcinoma (Figure 2) with a Ki67 index of 60%, low-to-moderate nuclear immunoreactivity for p53 and cytokeratin 7, and negative hormone receptors. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition that has shown an increase in incidence, especially in the 20- to 34-year-old group. Adenocarcinoma represents about 5-10% of all tumours in this area, and, among these, the clear cell type accounts for 4-9%. This type of tumour affects mainly postmenopausal women but also occurs in young women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). The prognosis for adenocarcinoma of the cervix is poor overall and worse for the clear cell variety. This article discusses a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix, unrelated to intrauterine exposure to DES, in a woman of childbearing age who wished to preserve her fertility and was therefore treated by radical vaginal trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
    • "The “see and wait” policy requires the complete mapping of the lesion, and the evaluation of the HPV DNA or of the p16 immunostaining (3-5). Colposcopic examination allows to evaluate lesions and their progression or regression (6-10) but, it has its own limitation when the examination is unsatisfactory (or inadequate, according to the new colposcopic terminology), that is when the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) is not completely evaluable or the lesion extends inside the cervical canal (11). A different and frequent condition is the adequate and negative colposcopy in patients with abnormal cytology. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated indications' validity of cervicoscopic and microcolposcopic examination in LSIL patients with unsatisfactory or negative colposcopy. In the cervico-vaginal pathology unit of the "San Giovanni Calibita Fatebenefratelli" University of Rome "Tor Vergata", 119 patients with a positive cervical cytology (LSIL), were submitted to the exam for the following two indications: 1) unsatisfactory colposcopy 37 (31.1%); 2) negative colposcopy 82 (68.9%). Cervicoscopy allowed the SCJ visualization in 115 (9.6%) patients. In 4 patients 3.4%, the SCJ visualization was not possible due to cervical stenosis. Cervicoscopy without staining, revealed endocervical squamous columnar junction in 33 (28.7%) patients. The blue dye in panoramic view detected endocervical SCJ in 41 (35.7%), out of 115 patients (>5 mm in 34 (29.6%) patients and >10 mm in 7 (6.1%)). Cervicoscopic examination revealed 7.8% of CIN2-3 in LSIL patients with inadequate or negative colposcopy. In patients with negative colposcopy the percentage of undiagnosed lesions inside the cervical canal was very low. The blue dye added sensitivity to the exam.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013
    • "In the area of basic training, we are considering the idea of training sessions specifically tailored to the needs of non-experienced colposcopists who are candidates to replace those going to retire. From many points of view, however, the most interesting perspective is to undertake a large interobserver agreement study among Italian colposcopists in which the focus is on the IFCPC classification of 2011 [39]. The first QA session took place between December 2010 and February 2011. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colposcopy, the key step in the management of women with abnormal Pap smear results, is a visual technique prone to observer variation, which implies the need for prolonged apprenticeship, continuous training, and quality assurance (QA) measures. Colposcopy QA programmes vary in level of responsibility of organizing subjects, geographic coverage, scope, model, and type of actions. The programmes addressing the clinical standards of colposcopy (quality of examination and appropriateness of clinical decisions) are more limited in space and less sustainable over time than those focused on the provision of the service (resources, accessibility, etc.). This article reports on the protocol of a QA programme targeting the clinical quality of colposcopy in a population-based cervical screening service in an administrative region of northern Italy.Methods/design: After a situation analysis of local colposcopy audit practices and previous QA initiatives, a permanent web-based QA programme was developed. The design places more emphasis on providing education and feedback to participants than on testing them. The technical core is a log-in web application accessible on the website of the regional Administration. The primary objectives are to provide (1) a practical opportunity for retraining of screening colposcopists, and (2) a platform for them to interact with colposcopists from other settings and regions through exchange and discussion of digital colposcopic images. The retraining function is based on repeated QA sessions in which the registered colposcopists log-in, classify a posted set of colpophotographs, and receive on line a set of personal feedback data. Each session ends with a plenary seminar featuring the presentation of overall results and an interactive review of the test set of colpophotographs. This is meant to be a forum for an open exchange of views that may lead to more knowledge and more diagnostic homogeneity. The protocol includes the criteria for selection of colpophotographs and the rationale for colposcopic gold standards. This programme is an ongoing initiative open to further developments, in particular in the area of basic training. It uses the infrastructure of the internet to give a novel solution to technical problems affecting colposcopy QA in population-based screening services.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013
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