Luoto, T.P., Nevalainen, L., Kubischta, F., Kultti, S., Knudsen, K.L. and Salonen, V.-P., 2011: Late Quaternary ecological turnover in high arctic Lake Einstaken, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard (80° N). Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 93, 337–354. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-0459.2011.00435.x
Multiproxy palaeolimnological analyses of a sediment core record from Lake Einstaken, Nordaustlandet, ... [Show full abstract] give insight into long-term ecological and environmental dynamics in the High Arctic Svalbard during the last c. 13 000 cal yr bp. Fossil remains of foraminifera, chironomidae, cladocera and diatoms (Bacillariophyta) revealed several distinct ecological turnovers during the late Quaternary. The foraminiferal assemblages in a marine interval in the lower part of the core indicated one distinct faunal turnover and two subsequent minor changes. The foraminiferal assemblages reflected high-arctic, shallow-water conditions in an area of changing salinity conditions. A development of gradually more restricted marine conditions, presumably related to a decrease in water depth during the isostatic uplift, was evident from the foraminiferal assemblages. The Holocene was characterized by a freshwater environment in the isolated Lake Einstaken. The cladoceran assemblages experienced two complete faunal turnovers in the early part of the lacustrine sediment sequence, most likely related to inlake processes. The chironomid assemblages went through five distinct Holocene faunal changes that were probably mostly related to climate development and changes in nutrient conditions. The freshwater diatoms revealed four distinct episodes of change in their assemblages that could be related to their sensitivity to pH and nutrient status. The most distinct common feature in the Holocene faunal and floral assemblages was the pioneer phase during the early Holocene. The recent environmental changes, which were most visibly reflected in the chironomid records, are possibly related to a coupled effect of elevated nutrient conditions and increased temperatures.