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One-Year Outcomes of Prenatal Exposure to MDMA and Other Recreational Drugs

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 08/2012; 130(3):407-13. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-0666
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A widely used illicit recreational drug among young adults, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy, is an indirect monoaminergic agonist/reuptake inhibitor affecting the serotonin system. Preclinical studies found prenatal exposure related to long-term learning and memory impairments. There are no studies of sequelae of prenatal MDMA exposure in humans, despite potential harmful effects to the fetus.
A total of 96 women in the United Kingdom (28 MDMA users; 68 non-MDMA) were interviewed about recreational drug use during pregnancy. Their infants were seen at 12 months using standardized assessments of cognitive, language, and motor development (Preschool Language Scale, Bayley Mental and Motor Development and Behavior Rating Scales [Mental Development Index, Psychomotor Development Index, Behavioral Rating Scale]). Mothers completed the Child Domain Scale of the Parenting Stress Index, The Home Observation of the Environment Scale (in interview), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Drug Abuse Screening Test. Women were primarily middle class with some university education, in stable partner relationships, and polydrug users. MDMA and other drug effects were assessed through multiple regression analyses controlling for confounding variables, and analysis of covariance comparing heavier versus lighter and nonexposed groups.
Amount of prenatal MDMA exposure predicted poorer infant mental and motor development at 12 months in a dose-dependent manner. Heavily exposed infants were delayed in motor development. Lighter-exposed infants were comparable to nonexposed infants. There were no effects on language, emotional regulation, or parenting stress.
Findings document persistent neurotoxic effects of heavier prenatal MDMA exposure on motor development through the first year of life.

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    • "The effects of MDMA could not be attributed to other drug or alcohol exposures nor to sociodemographic factors. Motor skill deficits/delays had been apparent as early as four months of age (Singer et al., 2012a) and also at 12 months, when the heavier MDMA-exposed cohort exhibited deficits in standing and walking progressions compared to non-exposed infants (Singer et al., 2012b), Thus, the current study indicates a pervasive and continuing deficit in motor skills over the first 2 years of life compared to lighter and non-exposed children. There were no effects on MDI. "
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    • "Psychiatric symptoms were found to be associated with MDMA use ( e . g . Daumann et al . , 2001 ; Dughiero et al . , 2001 ; Singer et al . , 2012 ) , and especially with regular or problematic MDMA use ( e . g . Parrott et al . , 2000 ; Parrott et al . , 2001 ; Morgan et al . , 2002 ; Soar et al . , 2006 ) . The association between the severity of psychiatric symptoms and the frequency of cocaine use ( Velasquez et al . , 2007 ) and metamphetamine use ( Booth et al . , 2006 ; Mer"
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