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Clave de identificación para las llamadas de ecolocación de los murciélagos de la Península Ibérica

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These are a key identification for bats' echolocation calls of Iberian Peninsula. This book is based in my experience.
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... Más aún si tenemos en cuenta el elevado grado de diversidad críptica para el grupo dentro de la península (Ibáñez et al. 2006). En la Región de Murcia durante la última década se ha producido un considerable incremento en el conocimiento de la biodiversidad y la distribución de las especies de murciélagos (Lisón et al. 2010Lisón et al. , 2011), así como en otros aspectos de su biología y ecología (Lisón 2012, 2014, 2014, 2014a, b). En la actualidad se conoce la existencia de al menos 20 especies en la Región de Murcia, donde gran parte de ellas se encuentran amenazadas y han sufrido una declive en sus poblaciones o áreas de distribución, mientras que otras parecen mantenerse estables (). ...
... Murciélagos de Yecla 135 sado en el tipo de pulso de ecolocación, la frecuencia de máxima energía, la duración del pulso, el intervalo entre pulsos y en algunos casos la detección de cantos sociales (Barataud 1996, Russo & Jones 2002, Pfalzer & Kusch 2003, Obrist et al. 2004, Papadatou et al. 2008, Lisón 2011). También se han comparado con señales acústicas de la fonoteca particular de uno de los autores de este artículo (FL). ...
... Se ha constatado la presencia de al menos 14 especies de murciélagos en el término municipal de Yecla. Estos resultados suponen la incorporación de 42 nuevas cuadrículas UTM de 10x10 km (Figura 1 y Apéndice) a las mencionadas en Lisón et al. (2011). De las 19 visitas a los refugios potenciales inspeccionados , únicamente encontramos evidencias de su uso por parte de murciélagos en 5 de ellos. ...
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This study provides 42 new records of bats (UTM squares of 10x10 km) from Yecla (SE Spain). We identified at least 14 bat species and our results allow increasing the distribution area of some rare bat species. The records were obtained between 2011 and 2014 using different methodologies. In total, we made 19 visits potential roosts, 59 listening points and 5 photo-trapping sessions. Our results showed that bat species with high records were Pipistrellus pipistrellus and Pi. pygmaeus. Also, we recorded the presence of rare bat species as Rhinolophus euryale, R. hipposideros, Myotis emarginatus and My. escalerai. Finally, we discussed about their conservation status and which are the conservation and management measures that we must implement.
... Estas técnicas nos permiten escuchar los ultrasonidos emitidos por los murciélagos, y almacenarlos con un sistema de grabación adaptado al rango de frecuencias audibles. Cada una de estas técnicas tiene sus ventajas, sin embargo la de expansión de tiempo es la que mejor conserva las características de los sonidos de ecolocación, por lo tanto, es el que se emplea para analizar e identificar a los murciélagos (Lisón 2011). ...
... Para ello, es necesario representar las señales en gráficos de amplitud-tiempo (oscilograma), frecuencia-tiempo (espectrograma) o frecuencia-amplitud (espectro de energía), lo cual requiere a veces, como el caso de los espectros, analizar las señales mediante técnicas matemáticas (Parsons et al. 2000). Los principales parámetros que se miden para describir los pulsos de ecolocación de los murciélagos son la estructura del pulso, la frecuencia inicial y final, la frecuencia de máxima energía, la duración, el intervalo interpulsos, el ancho de banda, la amplitud y los armónicos (Lisón 2011). ...
... Estas técnicas nos permiten escuchar los ultrasonidos emitidos por los murciélagos, y almacenarlos con un sistema de grabación adaptado al rango de frecuencias audibles. Cada una de estas técnicas tiene sus ventajas, sin embargo la de expansión de tiempo es la que mejor conserva las características de los sonidos de ecolocación, por lo tanto, es el que se emplea para analizar e identificar a los murciélagos (Lisón 2011). ...
... Para ello, es necesario representar las señales en gráficos de amplitud-tiempo (oscilograma), frecuencia-tiempo (espectrograma) o frecuencia-amplitud (espectro de energía), lo cual requiere a veces, como el caso de los espectros, analizar las señales mediante técnicas matemáticas (Parsons et al. 2000). Los principales parámetros que se miden para describir los pulsos de ecolocación de los murciélagos son la estructura del pulso, la frecuencia inicial y final, la frecuencia de máxima energía, la duración, el intervalo interpulsos, el ancho de banda, la amplitud y los armónicos (Lisón 2011). ...
... Estas técnicas nos permiten escuchar los ultrasonidos emitidos por los murciélagos, y almacenarlos con un sistema de grabación adaptado al rango de frecuencias audibles. Cada una de estas técnicas tiene sus ventajas, sin embargo la de expansión de tiempo es la que mejor conserva las características de los sonidos de ecolocación, por lo tanto, es el que se emplea para analizar e identificar a los murciélagos (Lisón 2011). ...
... Para ello, es necesario representar las señales en gráficos de amplitud-tiempo (oscilograma), frecuencia-tiempo (espectrograma) o frecuencia-amplitud (espectro de energía), lo cual requiere a veces, como el caso de los espectros, analizar las señales mediante técnicas matemáticas (Parsons et al. 2000). Los principales parámetros que se miden para describir los pulsos de ecolocación de los murciélagos son la estructura del pulso, la frecuencia inicial y final, la frecuencia de máxima energía, la duración, el intervalo interpulsos, el ancho de banda, la amplitud y los armónicos (Lisón 2011). ...
... Ultrasonic calls were automatically identified using Kaleidoscope PRO 5.3.9 with Bat Classifiers Europe 5.1 (Wildlife Acoustics Inc). The identifications were manually checked to improve the results as recommended by previous studies (Rydell et al. 2017) based on Russo & Jones (2002), Lisón (2011), Russ (2012), and Barataud (2015). Calls were identified to species level whenever possible. ...
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Forest-dwelling bats are a poorly studied group in Iberia. Little information is available about their abundance, conservation status, and, for some regions, even their distribution. This is the case in the western sector of the Sistema Central mountain range, an interesting area from a biogeographical point of view that potentially could host rich bat communities. However, there is almost no published information about forest bats in the region. From 2017 to 2019 we carried out acoustic and mist-netting surveys in the province of Salamanca (Western Spain), intending to fill this gap in the faunistic knowledge of the area. Our work has revealed a very diverse bat community, reaching 19 species out of the 31 known in Iberia. We obtained new data for forest-specialist species, including many records of the rare Myotis bechsteinii, Barbastella barbastellus and Nyctalus lasiopterus. Most interestingly, we also found a high abundance of Myotis mystacinus which is rarely captured. This study provides novel information about the distribution, status, and ecology of bats in the forests of one western sector of Sistema Central and highlights the importance of the area for conserving these species in the Iberian context. The large number of new records emphasizes the lack of sampling in the region and the need to get better knowledge to develop informed management and conservation decisions. Forest bats in Southern Salamanca (Spain): rare or understudied? Insights from a highly diverse community
... (Kalko 2004). Modulated frequency signals to Phyllostomidae individuals show from two to four harmonics (Hill and Smith 1985), however due to factors that have been already mentioned, in many cases it is only possible to record the first and the second one (Lisón 2011). The seven individuals that this study has taken into account as a sample to perform an acoustic characterization, are of different species, but belong to the same family and in general, when comparing the harmonics of these individuals and according to the mentioned authors, we have reported two Harmonics by species, taking into account that the report has been made in a flight cage except for Phyllostomus hastatus whose ultrasonic records showed four harmonics. ...
... Para a análise dos registos obtidos utilizou-se a chave de identificação de vocalizações dos morcegos de Portugal continental (Rainho et al., 2011). As vocalizações de ecolocalização do morcego-negro são únicas devido aos pulsos bitonais, um pulso de frequência constante que têm maior potência próximo de 32 kHz, com pouca inclinação, e o segundo mais fraco, com forma de arco, entre 35 e 40 kHz (Rydell, 1997;Lisón 2011 ...
... software (http://audacity.sourceforge.net), and identified them, whenever possible, to the species level, using a reference collection of bat calls and dichotomous keys for Portuguese (Rainho et al. 2011) and Iberian (Lisón 2011) bats. Species whose echolocation calls are similar, and therefore not distinguishable, were paired, forming two-species complexes. ...
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Spectral and temporal features of echolocation calls emitted by 22 bat species from Italy (three rhinolophids, 18 vespertilionids and the molossid Tadarida teniotis) are described. Time-expanded recordings of calls from 950 bats of known identity were examined. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale and T. teniotis could be identified by measuring the call frequency of highest energy (FMAXE). Quadratic discriminant function analysis with cross-validation was applied to calls from the remaining 18 species. A function based on start frequency (SF), end frequency (EF), FMAXE and duration (D) provided a correct overall classification of approximately 82%. A classification model at genus level that also comprised middle frequency (MF) and inter-pulse interval (IPI) reached 94% correct classification. Two separate discriminant functions were devised for species emitting FM (frequency modulated) and FM/QCF calls (i.e. calls consisting of a frequency-modulated component followed by a terminal part whose frequency is almost constant) respectively. The former function included SF, EF, FMAXE and D and provided an overall classification rate of 71%; the latter comprised EF, MF, D and IPI, and reached 96%. The functions may be applied to bat habitat surveys in southern Italy since they cover most of the species occurring in the area.
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From 1999 to 2005, we sampled the bat fauna of Catalonia (northeastern Spain, Mediterranean region) using 3 methods (bat detectors, mist nets, and roost surveys) and determined the total number of bat species present (S = 22). Twelve bat species and 5 acoustic groups (>= 5 different species) were identified using bat detectors, 17 species were found during roost inspections, and 13 species were trapped using mist nets. However, mist nets yielded the highest species richness per number of individuals sampled, as demonstrated by rarefaction. Some species were always either over- or undersampled according to the sampling method used. We also evaluated 3 guilds of bats defined by summer roost preferences, documenting a significant correlation between guild and detection method; cavity-roosting bats were underrepresented when only bat detectors and mist-net surveys were used, whereas rock crevices or man-made structure and tree guilds were underrepresented when only roosts were surveyed. Different techniques should be used to assess the richness of bat communities and we recommend combining all the methods described above in future bat surveys.
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