Mouse models of mitocondrial complex I dysfunction
Diseases of the mitochondria generally affect cells with high-energy demand, and appear to most profoundly affect excitatory cells that have localized high energy requirements, such as neurons and cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. Complex I of the mammalian mitochondrial respiratory chain is a very large, 45 subunit enzyme, and functional deficiency of complex I is the most frequently observed cause of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) disorders. Impairment of complex I results in decreased cellular energy production and is responsible for a variety of human encephalopathies, myopathies and cardiomyopathies. Complex I deficiency may be caused by mutations in any of the seven mitochondrial or 38 nuclear genes that encode complex I subunits or by mutations in various other nuclear genes that affect complex I assembly or function. Mouse models that faithfully mimic human complex I disorders are needed to better understand the role of complex I in health and disease and for evaluation of potential therapies for mitochondrial diseases. In this review we discuss existing mouse models of mitochondrial complex I dysfunction, focusing on those with similarities to human mitochondrial disorders. We also discuss some of the noteworthy murine genetic models in which complex I genes are not disrupted, but complex I dysfunction is observed, along with some of the more popular chemical compounds that inhibit complex I function and are useful for modeling complex I deficiency in mice. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Bioenergetic dysfunction, adaptation and therapy.
Available from: Klaus Wimmers
- "So the biological process of mitochondria as well as the way of glucose metabolism play a significant role in the muscle cell and finally impact on meat quality. Indeed, mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in decreased cellular energy production is also responsible for a variety of human myopathies and cardiomyopathies [30-33]. "
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ABSTRACT: Physiological processes aiding the conversion of muscle to meat involve many genes associated with muscle structure and metabolic processes. MicroRNAs regulate networks of genes to orchestrate cellular functions, in turn regulating phenotypes.
We applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify co-expression modules that correlated to meat quality phenotypes and were highly enriched for genes involved in glucose metabolism, response to wounding, mitochondrial ribosome, mitochondrion, and extracellular matrix. Negative correlation of miRNA with mRNA and target prediction were used to select transcripts out of the modules of trait-associated mRNAs to further identify those genes that are correlated with post mortem traits.
Porcine muscle co-expression transcript networks that correlated to post mortem traits were identified. The integration of miRNA and mRNA expression analyses, as well as network analysis, enabled us to interpret the differentially-regulated genes from a systems perspective. Linking co-expression networks of transcripts and hierarchically organized pairs of miRNAs and mRNAs to meat properties yields new insight into several biological pathways underlying phenotype differences. These pathways may also be diagnostic for many myopathies, which are accompanied by deficient nutrient and oxygen supply of muscle fibers.
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ABSTRACT: Isoniazid (INH) is an antituberculosis drug that has been associated with idiosyncratic liver injury in susceptible patients. The underlying mechanisms are still unclear, but there is growing evidence that INH and/or its major metabolite, hydrazine, may interfere with mitochondrial function. However, hepatic mitochondria have a large reserve capacity, and minor disruption of energy homeostasis does not necessarily induce cell death. We explored whether pharmacologic or genetic impairment of mitochondrial complex I may amplify mitochondrial dysfunction and precipitate INH-induced hepatocellular injury. We found that INH (<3000μM) did not induce cell injury in cultured mouse hepatocytes although it decreased hepatocellular respiration and ATP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, co-exposure of hepatocytes to INH and non-toxic concentrations of the complex I inhibitors, rotenone (3μM) or piericidin A (30nM) resulted in massive ATP depletion and cell death. Although both rotenone and piericidin A increased MitoSox-reactive fluorescence, Mito-TEMPO or N-acetylcysteine did not attenuate the extent of cytotoxicity. However, preincubation of cells with the acylamidase inhibitor, bis-p-nitrophenol phosphate provided protection from hepatocyte injury induced by rotenone/INH (but not rotenone/hydrazine), suggesting that hydrazine was the cell-damaging species. Indeed, we found that hydrazine directly inhibited the activity of solubilized complex II. Hepatocytes isolated from mutant Ndufs4(+/-) mice, although featuring moderately lower protein expression levels of this complex I subunit in liver mitochondria, exhibited unchanged hepatic complex I activity and were therefore not sensitized to INH. These data indicate that underlying inhibition of complex I, which alone is not acutely toxic, can trigger INH-induced hepatocellular injury.
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ABSTRACT: Wild-type Murphy Roth Large (MRL) mice have long been investigated for their superior healing ability when subjected to various wound and disease models. Despite this long history, the mechanisms causing their extraordinary healing ability remain undefined. As we have recently demonstrated that MRL mice with muscular dystrophy are resistant to the associated fibrosis and the Heber-Katz group has demonstrated MRL mitochondrial mutations, we decided to investigate the skeletal muscle metabolic characteristics of the MRL mouse strain compared to the commonly utilized C57BL/6J control mouse strain. We now have evidence demonstrating an altered metabolism in the MRL quadriceps, triceps brachii, and diaphragm of 8-week-old animals compared to tissues from control animals. The MRL skeletal muscles have increased activated phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK). The increased pAMPK signaling coincides with increased skeletal muscle mitochondrial content. These metabolic changes may compensate for insufficient oxidative phosphorylation which is demonstrated by altered quantities of proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and ex vivo metabolic investigations. We also demonstrate that the MRL muscle cells have increased metabolic physiologic reserve. These data further the investigations into this important and unique mouse strain. Why the MRL mice have increased pAMPK and how increased pAMPK and the resultant metabolic alterations affect the healing ability in the MRL mouse strain is discussed. Understanding the molecular mechanisms surrounding the super healing characteristics of these mice will lead to relevant clinical intervention points. In conclusion, we present novel data of increased mitochondrial content, pAMPK, and glycolytic indicators in MRL skeletal muscles.
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