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Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers

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Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora , a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required.
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Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 732816, 7pages
doi:10.1155/2012/732816
Research Article
Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of
Kaempferia parviflora
on Health-Related Physical Fitness
and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers
Jintanaporn Wattanathorn,1, 2 Supaporn Muchimapura,1, 2 Ter dth ai Ton g-Un, 1, 2
Narisara Saenghong,3Wipawee Thukhum-Mee,1, 2 and Bungorn Sripanidkulchai3
1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
2Integrative Complementary Alternative Medicine Research and Development Group, Khon Kaen University,
Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
3Center for Research and Development of Herbal Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Correspondence should be addressed to Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, jinwat05@gmail.com
Received 18 June 2012; Accepted 26 June 2012
Academic Editor: Yukihiro Shoyama
Copyright © 2012 Jintanaporn Wattanathorn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this
phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the eect of Kaempferia parviflora,
a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant eects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative
status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses
of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test,
hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the
activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments
were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in
30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA
level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is
the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required.
1. Introduction
Health-related physical fitness is defined as fitness related to
some aspect of health. It is regarded as a major marker of
health status at any age. It comprises of 4 main domains
including strength and endurance of skeletal muscles, joint
flexibility, body composition, and cardiorespiratory endur-
ance [1]. Physical fitness is varied depending on the age.
It has been reported that physical fitness achieves the peak
performance during late teens and begins a slow decline in
their early 20s. Therefore, the definition of physical fitness
must be defined with consideration for an individual’s age. It
is defined as a physical condition that allows an individual
to work without becoming overly fatigued, perform daily
chores, and have enough energy left over to engage in
leisure activities in younger person, whereas it is defined as
the physical condition that allows an individual to conduct
daily activity without becoming exhausted or tired. Thus,
the decreased health-related physical fitness produces great
impact on quality of life and disability condition of the
elderly. Therefore, the ultimate goal in ageing society nowa-
days is to maintain the health-related physical fitness of the
elderly.
Recent findings showed that age-related physical decline
might be related to oxidative damage perpetrated by free
radicals [2]. Free radicals disrupt the homeostasis of biolog-
ical systems by damaging their major constituent molecules,
leading eventually to cell death [3,4]. It has been reported
2 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
that oxidative damage may play a crucial role in the
decline of functional activity in human skeletal muscle with
normal aging [5,6]. Recent findings showed that plasma
antioxidant concentrations correlate positively with physical
performance and strength. Higher dietary intakes of most
antioxidants, especially vitamin C, are associated with higher
skeletal muscular strength in elderly persons [7]. In addition
to the muscle strength, oxidative stress also plays an impor-
tant role on cardiopulmonary performance, which can be
assessed via 6 min walk test [8].
Since the health-related quality of life produces great
impact on quality of life and it is under the influence of many
factors, various strategies have been implemented to enhance
and maintain the health-related quality of life. Among vari-
ous strategies, phytomedicine or herbal therapy, which has
been long-term used in traditional folklore to treat various
ailments and to restore physical fitness [9], has gained much
attention.
K. parviflora Wall. ex Baker or Krachai Dam is belonging
to the family of Zingiberaceae. It has been long term used
in Thai traditional medicine for treating various ailments
including allergy, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, and ulcer. In
addition, it is also used as longevity promoting substance
and as nerve tonic. Recent findings showed that K. parviflora
rhizomes extract contained numerous flavonoids [10], which
was previously reported to possess antioxidant activity,
neuroprotective, and cognitive-enhancing eects [11]. Based
on the antifatigue and antioxidant eect of K. parviflora,
we hypothesized that K. parviflora might enhance the
physical fitness and oxidative status in healthy elderly. To
elucidate this issue, we aimed to determine the eect of 8-
week consumption of K. parviflora extract on health-related
physical fitness and on oxidative stress status of healthy
elderly volunteers.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Subjects. A total 45, healthy elderly volunteers were
initially recruited to take part in a randomized trial designed
to investigate the eects of an 8-week consumption of K.
parviflora on health-related physical fitness. Subjects were
volunteers who were older than 60 years, healthy, and with-
out history of cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases,
neuropsychological diseases, head injury, diabetes, cancer,
alcohol addiction, and smokers of more than 10 pieces per
day. Any persons taking prescribed and nonprescribed drugs
or nutraceutical compounds influencing the function of the
nervous system were also excluded. All participants were also
requested and agreed to abstain from caeine-containing
products, throughout each study day, and alcohol for a
minimum of 12 h prior to the test sessions. This study was
approved by the Khon Kaen University Ethics Committee of
Human Research.
Prior to the participation, each volunteer had signed
an informed consent form and completed a medical health
questionnaire. All recruited subjects were screened for
healthy status again by the physician. In addition, the blood
was also collected for the determination of oxidative stress
markers.
2.2. Kaempferia parviflora Preparation. A standardized ex-
tract of K. parviflora was prepared by the Center for Research
and Development of Herbal Health Product, Faculty of Phar-
maceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University. All K. parviflora
used in this study was obtained from Loei Province. The
plant was authenticated and kept as voucher specimen at
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University.
Standardization and conformity of the extract is assured by
strict in-process controls during manufacture and complete
analytical control of the resulting dry extract. A-day capsule
contained a specialized rhizome extract containing 5,7
dimethoxyflavone (2.1%), 5,7,4-trimethoxyflavone (3.1%),
and 3,5,7,3,4-pentamethoxyflavone (2.3%). Each K. parvi-
flora capsule contained crude extract of K. parviflora at doses
of 25 and 90 mg.
Placebo tablets were manufactured using the same phar-
maceutical excipient and replicated the active in appear-
ance, odor, and texture. Packaging and randomization was
performed by Integrative Complementary and Alternative
Medicine Research and Development Group, Khon Kaen
University, the study coordinator.
2.3. Procedures and Intervention. In this study, we deter-
mined the health-related physical fitness by using modified
method of Fan `
o et al., which focused on muscular strength
and cardiopulmonary endurance [6]. In addition to the
domain just mentioned, we also focused on the postural
control because it produced great influence on risk to fall
of the elderly. Therefore, our tests were consisted of 30-
second chair stand test, hand grip strength test, 6-minute
walk test, and tandem test. The 30-second chair stand test
was used to assess the strength of skeletal muscle especially
muscle of the lower extremity whereas hand grip strength
test was used to assess the strength of muscle of the
upper extremity, especially the hand muscle. The cardio-
pulmonary endurance was performed via 6-minute walk test,
whereas the postural control was assessed using tandem test.
Subjects were assessed the physical fitness with the same
sequence in all assessments. The health-related physical fit-
ness and oxidative stress markers were assessed every 4 weeks
throughout the experimental period.
The code for study allocation was only broken when
the last participant completed the entire followup. Stas
involved in the collection of the study’s endpoints were
instructed to follow a rigorous protocol and not to discuss
any issues related to the use of medication. The review of
compliance with medication and side-eects was performed
independently by the investigators, who were also blinded to
group allocation. Adverse eects were assessed during every
study visit. Subjects were requested to call the study center
if they experienced any medical problems during the 8-week
study period.
2.4. Health-Related Physical Fitness Assessment. To assess the
health-related physical fitness in the elderly, we used the
battery test as follows.
30-Second Chair Stand Test. This test was used to evaluate
lower-body muscular strength. According to this test, the
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3
number of times within 30 second that an individual can rise
to a full stand from a seated position with back straight and
feet flat on the floor, without pushing owith the arms, was
recorded.
Handgrip Strength Test. This test was the upper-body mus-
cular strength by using a digital dynamometer. Subjects
performed (alternately with both hands) the test twice
allowing a 1-minute rest period between measures. The best
value of 2 trials for each hand was chosen, and the average of
both hands was registered.
6-Minute Walk Test. This test involves the determination of
the maximum distance (meters) that can be walked in 6 min
along a 45.7 meters rectangular course. It reflects the cardio-
pulmonary endurance.
Ta n d e m S t a n c e Te s t . This test was performed with both eyes
opened and with eye closed while one foot placed in front of
the other foot when both feet touching each other. Standing
duration without swaying was recorded.
2.5. Determination of Oxidative Stress Markers. Fasting
venous blood sample was collected in all subjects and care
was taken. Serum was separated and analyzed for oxidative
stress parameters including the level of malondialdehyde
(MDA) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),
catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). MDA
was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
assay (TBRAS) method [12]. SOD activity was measured
using the xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction as a source of
substrate (superoxide) and reduced nitroblue tetrazolium
as an indicator of superoxide [13]. The activity of CAT
was assayed based on the decomposition of substrate H2O2,
which was monitored via spectrophotometrically at 340 nm
for 5 minutes [14], whereas the activity of GSH-Px was
performed using t-buthylhydroperoxide as the substrate
[15].
2.6. Statistical Analysis. Alldataareexpressedasmean±
S.E.M. Between-group comparisons and the comparison
between baseline data and the changes observed at various
time points of physical fitness and biochemical parameters
were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Post
hoc, Dunnett test was used after using one-way analysis
of variance. Statistical significance was regarded at Pvalue
<0.05.
3. Results
3.1. Demographic Data of Subjects. The baseline data about
demographic data of subjects in all groups were shown in
Tab l e 1. No significant dierences of all parameters among
variousgroupswereobserved.
3.2. Eect of K. parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness.
Eects of various doses of K. parviflora on various param-
eters indicating physical fitness were shown in Table 2.It
was found that subjects who consumed K. parviflora at dose
of 90 mg/day significantly increased 30-second chair stand
test (Pvalue <0.05; compared to baseline data). In addition,
it was found that subjects who consumed the extract at
dose of 90 mg/may increase 6 min walk test (Pvalue <0.05
all; compared to either baseline or placebo treated group).
However, no other significant eects were observed.
3.3. Eect of K. parviflora on Oxidative Stress Markers. The
eect of K. parviflora on various oxidative stress markers
including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and
glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and the level of
malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were shown in Figures 1
4. Our data showed that subjects who consumed K. parviflora
extract at dose of 25 mg/day showed the significant increase
in SOD activity at 4-week (Pvalue <0.01 compared to
placebo-treated group; Pvalue <0.05 compared to baseline
data) and 8-week period (Pvalue <0.001 all; both compared
to placebo treated group and compared to baseline data).
However, subjects who consumed the low dose of extract
failed to show significant changes of CAT and GSH-Px
activities and MDA level at 4-week intervention period.
It was found that at 4-week study period, subjects who
consumed K. parviflora extractatdoseof90mgshowed
the significant elevation of SOD activity (Pvalue <0.05;
compared to baseline data and Pvalue <0.001 compared
to placebo-treated group). The significant elevation of CAT
activity was also observed (Pvalue <0.001; compared to
placebo treated group), whereas no significant changes of
GSH-Px activity and MDA level were not observed at this
duration. When the consumption period was increased fur-
ther to 8 weeks, it was found that subjects who consumed K.
parviflora at dose of 90 mg showed the significant elevation
of SOD (Pvalue <0.001 all; both compared to placebo
treated group and compared to baseline data), CAT (Pvalue
<0.001 all; both compared to placebo-treated group and
compared to baseline data), and GSH-Px activities (Pvalue
<0.05 compared to placebo treated group and Pvalue <0.01
compared to baseline data). In addition, the decreased MDA
level was also observed (Pvalue <0.01 compared to placebo
treated group; Pvalue <0.05 compared to baseline data).
4. Discussion
This study has clearly revealed that K. parviflora significantly
enhanced the performance in 30-second chair stand test and
6 min walk test which reflect the enhanced strength of muscle
of lower extremities and the enhanced cardiopulmonary
endurance together with the improved oxidative stress status.
Current trend in the dramatically increased elderly
population enhances the importance of sustaining physical
fitness of this group of population. It has been reported that
as the age advances, the physical fitness declines. Both muscle
area and fiber numbers are decreased since the fourth decade
[16]. A parallel decrease in muscle strength (knee extension)
also occurs with the decrease in muscle mass. In addition to
the decreased muscle mass, the decreased muscle eciency
such as decreased oxygen uptake [17] and the decreased
muscle mitochondria ATP production [18], the decreased
ratio between type I and type II [19], are also observed. All
4 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Tab le 1: Demographic data of subjects (n=15/group).
General characteristic Placebo KP25 KP90
62.66 ±6.33
Age (years) 64.2±6.95 61.53 ±6.39 F(0.05, 2, 42) =0.6236,
P=0.5409
7.33 ±2.96
Education (years) 7.73 ±2.65 7.53 ±2.82 F(0.05, 2, 42) =0.0754,
P=0.9275
91.26 ±4.31
Full-scale IQ 90.6±7.66 89.2±63.55 F(0.05, 2, 42) =0.4160,
P=0.6624
120.20 ±5.94
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 122.26 ±8.22 121.20 ±6.63 F(0.05, 2, 42) =0.3270,
P=0.7229
84.80 ±6.47
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81.53 ±6.84 83.26 ±7.64 F(0.05, 2, 42) =0.8165,
P=0.4489
23.04 ±1.67
Body mass index 21.92 ±2.06 23.27 ±1.34 F(0.05, 2, 42) =2.6763,
P=0.50805
Data were present as mean ±SEM.
Tab le 2: Eect of various doses of K. parviflora on health related physical fitness.
Measured parameters Group Pre-dose 1 month 2 month
Placebo 24.53 + 2.55 24.33 + 2.28 24.33 + 2.46
Grip strength (Rt) (kg) KP25 25.06 + 3.01 25 + 2.97 24.86 + 3.18
KP90 23.93 + 3.30 24.6+3.13 24.8+3.14
Placebo 21.06 + 1.83 21.33 + 1.58 21.2+1.56
Grip strength (Lt) (kg) KP25 22.06 + 1.86 21.66 + 1.521.26 + 1.48
KP90 20.86 + 2.72 21.6+2.02 21.6+1.84
Placebo 19.13 + 2.79 19.26 + 1.43 18.93 + 1.70
30-second chair stand test. (sec) KP25 18.33 + 2.58 19 + 2.77 20 + 3.11
KP90 18.6+2.52 19.6+2.13 20.66 + 2.28#
Placebo 567.33 + 33.52 598.73 + 31.57 571.26 + 32.05
6 min. walk test (m.) KP25 571.26 + 33.68 570.33 + 38.32 575.53 + 36.04
KP90 572.8+32.65 575.46 + 34.29 601.26 + 33.70#
Placebo 164.8±12.34 163.06 ±10.35 165.06 ±9.80
Tandem test(Opened Eye, Right leg is in front) (sec) KP25 161.8±11.16 164.06 ±9.63 162.26 ±8.93
KP90 164 ±10.50 166.6±6.81 168.46 + 6.90
Placebo 112.33 ±11.00 110.66 ±10.01 109 + 10.20
Tandem test (Opened Eye, Left leg is in front) (sec) KP25 111.93 ±7.77 112.33 ±11.39 111.8+10.16
KP90 108.2±11.32 109.33 ±13.62 110.46 + 13.31
Placebo 33.8±9.22 30.8±10.74 31.66 + 10.41
Tandem test (Closed Eye, Right leg is in front) (sec) KP25 31.86 ±10.12 32.6±7.44 32.73 + 7.67
KP90 31.26 ±11.09 31.86 ±9.33 33.4+8.94
Placebo 18.8+3.60 19.86 + 5.01 21.2+4.57
Tandem test (Closed Eye, Left leg is in front) (sec) KP25 20.93 + 3.41 21.33 + 3.79 21.26 + 3.19
KP90 20.46 + 4.24 21.26 + 4.58 22.06 + 3.93
Data were present as mean ±SEM (n=15/group).
Pvalue <0.05 compared to placebo, #Pvalue <0.05 compared to baseline.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 5
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Baseline 4-week 8-week
KP 90 mg
KP 25 mg
Placebo
Superoxide dismutase
(U/mg. protein)
###
#
∗∗∗
###
###
∗∗
∗∗∗
∗∗∗
Figure 1: Eect of various doses of K. parviflora on level of
superoxide dismutase in serum. Data were present as mean ±SEM
(n=15/group). ∗∗,∗∗∗Pvalue <0.01; 0.001 compared with placebo
group, respectively. #,###Pvalue <0.05; 0.01 compared to baseline,
respectively.
25
20
15
10
5
0
Baseline 4-week 8-week
Catalase (U/mg. protein)
∗∗∗
###
∗∗
∗∗∗
###
KP 90 mg
KP 25 mg
Placebo
Figure 2: Eect of various doses of K. parviflora on level of catalase
in serum. Data were present as mean ±SEM (n=15/group).
∗∗,∗∗∗Pvalue <0.01; 0.001 compared with placebo group, respec-
tively. ###Pvalue <0.001 compared to baseline.
factors mentioned earlier are also essential for the strength of
muscle limb and aerobic or cardiopulmonary endurance.
A recent finding has shown that the enhanced blood
flow plays the crucial role on the metabolic implications,
which in turn influenced on the functional capacity of the
muscle [20], and oxidative stress interferes ATP production
of mitochondria [21]. Since we also found the enhanced
antioxidant enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level
in this study, we suggested that the enhanced performance
of muscle of lower extremities in subject following 8-week
consumption of K. parviflora at dose of 90 mg/day might be
associated with the enhanced blood flow [22,23] and the
decreased oxidative stress [24] of this medicinal plant.
Our data showed the improved muscle strength only in
the lower extremities while no significant changes of muscle
of extremities were observed. Since muscle of the lower
extremities contained more type I muscle fiber, a muscle
with high vascular supply, than the muscle of the upper
extremities, we did suggest that the eect of K. parviflora
Baseline 4-week 8-week
KP 90 mg
KP 25 mg
Placebo
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Glutathione peroxidase
(U/mg. protein)
###
Figure 3: Eect of various doses of K. parviflora on level of glu-
tathione peroxidase in serum. Data were present as mean ±SEM
(n=15/group). Pvalue <0.05 compared with placebo group. ##P
value <0.01 compared to baseline.
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Malondialdehyde
(µmol/mg. protein)
Baseline 4-week 8-week
KP 90 mg
KP 25 mg
Placebo
#
∗∗
Figure 4: Eect of various doses of K. parviflora on level of mal-
ondialdehyde (MDA) in serum. Data were present as mean ±SEM
(n=15/group). ∗∗Pvalue <0.01 compared with placebo group. #P
value <0.05 compared to baseline.
selectively depended on types of muscle and the main
principal action of K. parviflora might be associated with
its vasodilation eect resulting in the enhanced blood flow
especially in muscle of lower extremities.
It has been clearly demonstrated that 6 min walk test
is a valid and reliable measurement of physical endurance
in elderly [25]. The aerobic endurance, which reflect the
function, of cardiopulmonary function, is under the influ-
ence of antioxidant. Substance possessing antioxidant has
been previously reported to enhance oxygen utilization [26].
Theoretically, improved oxygen usage could improve aerobic
endurance performance. Recent finding also showed that
flavonoid could increase muscle oxidative capacity and
endurance in mice [27]. Therefore, K. parviflora,whichcon-
tained flavonoid and possessed antioxidant eect, might
enhance oxygen usage and oxidative capacity and resulting in
the increased performance in aerobic endurance manifesting
by enhanced capability in 6-minute walk test.
Taken all data together, K. parviflora could enhance blood
flow to muscle, enhance oxygen utilization, and decrease
6 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
SOD, CAT,
GSH-Px
MDA
ATP synthesis
Aerobic
endurance
K. parviflora
Vasorelaxation
Blood flow to
type I muscle
Oxygen supply
Muscle strength
Figure 5: Schematic diagram illustrated the possible action of
K. parviflora on muscle strength of lower extremities and aerobic
endurance.
oxidative stress which in turn enhanced ATP production
capacity of mitochondria and resulted in the increased
muscle strength especially in lower extremities and enhanced
aerobic endurance as shown in Figure 5. In addition, unpub-
lished data of our colleagues also showed that subchronic
toxicity of K. parviflora extract is safe up to 500 mg/kg.
Therefore, the safety range of this extract is quite wide and
may be possible to develop as food supplement for elderly.
5. Conclusions
K. parviflora or Thai ginseng is the potential food supple-
ment to enhance muscle strength and aerobic endurance,
the important components of health-related physical fitness.
Therefore, it may also improve health quality of life and
decrease risk to fall in the elderly. However, further study is
required.
Acknowledgments
This study was supported in part by the National Research
Council of Thailand, Faculty of Medicine and the Inte-
grative Complementary Alternative Medicine Research and
Development Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen,
Thailand.
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... Of these, 15 that were eliminated were conference abstracts (n = 8), included unhealthy subjects (e.g., patients with cancer, arthritis, peripheral artery disease) (n = 3), included subjects aged < 40 years (n = 2), and used non-botanical food (n = 2). The remaining 13 studies were eligible for qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43]. One study included two separate trials of different age groups, and these trials were included as independent randomized control trials (RCTs) in this analysis [40]. ...
... Eleven studies included healthy older subjects (both men and women), and three studies included only female subjects (obese or postmenopausal women). In six studies [32,34,35,38,41,43], some subjects were assigned to an exercise group (e.g., aqua exercise program, resistance training program, walking exercise program) during the intervention period, while the other eight conducted phytochemical interventions without exercise programs [31,33,36,37,39,40,42]. The locations of the nine studies conducted in Asia, were Korea (n = 4), Japan (n = 3), India (n = 1), and Thailand (n = 1) [31-36, 38, 41, 42], while two each were based in the USA [39,40] and Canada [37,43]. ...
... The locations of the nine studies conducted in Asia, were Korea (n = 4), Japan (n = 3), India (n = 1), and Thailand (n = 1) [31-36, 38, 41, 42], while two each were based in the USA [39,40] and Canada [37,43]. The duration of intervention was 6 [39], 8 [36,42], 12 [31, 33-35, 38, 40, 41], 16 [32], and 24 weeks [37,43]. As an indicator of muscle health, MM was measured in eight studies [32,34,35,37,[40][41][42][43], MS was measured in twelve studies [31-36, 38-41, 43], and physical performance was assessed in ten studies [31, 32, 34-36, 38, 40, 41, 43]. ...
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The decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength, also called sarcopenia, accelerates with age, leading to negative health outcomes and poor quality of life. Diet is important to promote health and plays a key role in muscle aging. Plant-based foods have recently received attention as sources of phytochemical components to attenuate loss of muscle mass and strength in older adults. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the benefits of botanical extracts and their phytochemical compounds for muscle health in older adults. Randomized controlled trials were identified via systematic searches of four electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and KoreaMed) up to June 2021 and were quality assessed. The results of muscle strength, mass, and physical performance were pooled using a random-effects model. Fourteen studies involving 528 subjects aged between 50 and 80 years met the inclusion criteria. Dietary phytochemicals significantly increased handgrip strength [0.90 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26–1.53, p = 0.01] and physical performance (timed up-and-go test: − 0.5 s, 2.73 times; 95% CI − 0.84 to − 0.15, p < 0.01; 30-s chair stand test: 95% CI 0.88–4.59, p < 0.01; 6-min walk test: 29.36 m; 95% CI 14.58–44.13, p < 0.0001) but had no effect on improvement in muscle mass. Publication bias evaluated by funnel plots and Egger’s regression test demonstrated no evidence of substantial publication bias ( p > 0.05). The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that phytochemicals are a potential nutritional strategy to improve muscle health in older adults.
... Kaempferia parviflora (black ginger [BG]) has multiple effects, including antiglycation, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and energy production-enhancing effects via increasing mitochondrial activity [18][19][20][21]. In particular, Wattanathorn reported that administration of BG for 8 weeks enhances physical performance by decreasing oxidative stress in healthy elderly individuals [22]. Therefore, these supplements may be used to maintain muscle health via various molecular mechanisms. ...
... Recommended intakes of HMB (Kobayashi Perfumery Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) and BG (Maruzen Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Hiroshima., Japan) in humans are 1.5 g/day and 90 mg/day, respectively [22,26]. We converted the recommended amounts in humans to animals for BG; however, because the taste of HMB is bitter, one-third of the amount (500 mg) was converted for continuous intake. ...
Preprint
Muscle mass and strength decrease with aging, but habitual exercise can maintain muscle health. β-Hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate calcium (HMB) and black ginger (BG) are anti-oxidants that have been reported to improve muscle protein metabolism and energy production; these molecules may have synergistic effects. The senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) model is a useful model of muscle aging. Therefore, in this study, we explored how the combination of habitual exercise, HMB, and BG affected muscle aging. We used 28-week-old SAMP8 mice divided into five groups: control, exercise (Ex), Ex+BG, Ex+HMB, and Ex+BG+HMB (Ex+Comb). Mice were required to run on a treadmill for 16 weeks at 5 days per week. In 44-week-old mice, grip strength tests and dissection were conducted. Muscle weight was measured, and the gastrocnemius muscle was subjected to quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Muscle mass and strength were preserved in the Ex+Comb group, and mitochondrial function was preserved through suppressing oxidative stress. Muscle protein synthesis signaling was improved in the Ex+Comb group. Autophagy and the ubiquitin system were normalized by Ex+Comb treatment. Overall, habitual exercise and HMB plus BG treatment maintained muscle health by suppressing oxidative stress, preserving mitochondrial function, and maintaining muscle protein metabolism in SAMP8 mice.
... Hypolipidemic activity A study showed that the oral administration of ethanol extract at a concentration of 20 mg/kg BW every day was effective in decreasing serum total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, and increasing serum high density lipoprotein levels in white Wistar rats fed high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks. Thus, the ethanol extract of K. galanga showed hypolipidemic activity but no active compound has been found to be responsible for this activity (66). ...
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Kaempferia galanga included in the Zingiberaceae family is one of the potential medicinal plants with aromatic rhizome. In traditional medicine in Asian countries, this plant is widely used by local practitioners. This plant is widely cultivated in most Southeast Asian countries such as Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Ethyl-para-methoxycinnamate and ethyl-cinnamate are found as the main compounds in hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts of K. galanga. This plant is traditionally used as an expectorant, stimulant, diuretic, carminative, and antipyretic remedy. In addition, K. galanga is used for treatment of diabetes, hypertension, cough, asthma, joint fractures, rheumatism, urticaria, vertigo, and intestinal injuries. Therefore, this study aimed to give a sneak peek view on galangal’s ethnobotany, toxicology, pharmacology, and phytochemistry.
... The decline in function activity of skeletal muscle [60] affects the balance and walking ability of the elderly [61]. It is noted that physical fitness reaches a peak at the age of 20 [62]. Civil servants are more available to mental disorders. ...
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Purpose We examined the reliability and validity of the Healthy Fitness Measurement Scale Version 1.0 (HFMS V1.0) specifically on elderly people in China. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study in December 2020 and enrolled 800 elderly people through stratified sampling technique, including 777 valid samples (with a mean age of 71.81 ± 8.36 years), of which 382 cases (49.2%) were women. The level of healthy fitness was measured using the HFMS V1.0. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, exploratory factor and confirmatory factor were calculated for assessing the reliability and validity of HFMS V1.0. Results HFMS V1.0 consists of 8 dimensions and 38 items. The scale had acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.920, split-half = 0.946, test-retest = 0.878). Exploratory factor analysis showed KMO value =0.927, and uncovered 10 factors with the cumulative contribution rate of 65.71% and all factor loads over 0.40. The item distribution was consistent with the initial expectation of the scale. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit: CMIN/DF = 2.796, RMSEA = 0.048, IFI =0.914, TLI = 0.902, CFI = 0.913. Conclusion HFMS V1.0 was shown to have acceptable reliability and validity indices for this sample. Collectively, HFMS V1.0 is reliable and efficient to measure the healthy fitness of elderly people. It is recommended to use it among the elderly in other Chinese cities in the future to ensure uniformity and objectivity. This scale can be carried out to evaluate of the effectiveness of public health measures in improving the healthy fitness level of the elderly and optimizing public health policies.
... One of the most interesting Thai traditional plants is Kaempferia parviflora (KP), categorized in the Zingiberaceae family, which is commonly known as black ginger or "Krachaidum". KP extract was considered safe with no alterations in human blood and urine chemistry parameters and has been used as a dietary supplement in traditional medicine for a long time (Wattanathorn et al., 2012;Promthep et al., 2015;Saokaew et al., 2017;Yoshino et al., 2018;Chivapat et al., 2018). Pharmacotoxic and histopathological effects were not reported in rats (Songpol et al., 2010). ...
Article
Objective: Aims of this study were to (1) compare anti-proliferative activity between aqueous and ethanol Kaempferia parviflora (KP) extracts in both cancer (Human urinary bladder cancer cell, T24) and normal cell lines (Human umbilical vein endothelial cell, HUVEC). (2) confirm selective cytotoxicity of ethanol KP extract to normal and different cancer cell lines (3) investigate its cellular mechanism through p53 and SIRT1 gene expression. Methods: Phytochemical difference between aqueous and ethanol extract was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Screening for cytotoxic activity in human cell lines was performed by cell viability assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reagent. P53 and SIRT1 gene expression were quantified using RT-PCR. Results: Results from the cell viability assay were shown as follows: (1) ethanol extract possessed higher toxicity to cancerous cells than aqueous extract (2) ethanol extract exhibited higher cytotoxicity to cancerous cells than normal cells (3) ethanol extract also showed cytotoxicity, with different levels, to three prostate cancer cell lines varying in aggressiveness. (4) ethanol KP extract induced cell death in T24 via p53 gene expression and prolonged cell survival in HUVEC through SIRT1 gene expression. Conclusion: These findings implied that ethanol KP extract might possibly be an alternative for cancer adjuvant therapy through the mechanism of selective p53 and SIRT1 gene expression.
... Physical tness is related to age. The decline in function activity of skeletal muscle [50] affects the balance and walking ability of the elderly [51] . It is noted that physical tness reaches a peak at the age of 20 [52] . ...
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Full-text available
Purpose. We examined the reliability and validity of the Healthy Fitness Measurement Scale Version 1.0 (HFMS V1.0) specifically on elderly people in China. Methods. We carried out a cross-sectional study in December 2020 and enrolled 800 elderly people through stratified sampling technique. The level of healthy fitness was measured using the HFMS V1.0. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient, split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant construct validity, exploratory factor and confirmatory factor were calculated for assessing the reliability and validity of HFMS V1.0. Results. The valid samples were comprised of 777 samples (with a mean age of 71.81 ±8.36 years), 382(49.2 %) were women. HFMS V1.0 consists of 8 dimensions and 38 items. The scale had acceptable reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.920, split-half = 0.946, test-retest = 0.878). The correlation of each item, dimension and subscales ranged from 0.528 to 0.888 (p < 0.001). Exploratory factor analysis uncovered 11 factors with the cumulative contribution rate of 68.09% and all factor loads over 0.40. The item distribution was consistent with the initial expectation of the scale. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit: CMIN/DF=2.773, RMSEA=0.048, IFI=0.915, TLI=0.904, CFI=0.915. Conclusion. HFMS V1.0 was shown to have acceptable reliability and validity. Collectively, HFMS V1.0 is reliable and efficient to measure the healthy fitness of elderly people.
... One such way may be through K. parviflora supplementation. For example, in a sample of elderly volunteers, 8 weeks of K. parviflora supplementation was found to enhance cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength (12). However, among a sample of young adults (i.e., 19 -24 years old), K. parviflora supplementation did not affect glucose endurance, nor did it increase physical fitness; however, it did increase lactate threshold (13). ...
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Background: Kaempfera (K.) parviflora (i.e., Thai ginseng) is believed to have medicinal properties associated with good health (e.g., increased vitality, metabolism booster) because it expands blood vessels, which allows for increased blood flow. These effects might extend into the realm of improving physical performance, specifically that of the cardiovascular system. Objectives: A randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design study was conducted to determine the effects of 12 weeks of K. parviflora supplementation on the cardiovascular endurance of healthy male adults. Methods: Participants included 57 Thai air force cadets who were undergoing physical training for sports competition. Participants were randomly divided into either the treatment group (n = 30) (Age = 20.30 + 0.65 yrs.) or control group (n = 27) (Age = 20.37 + 0.68 yrs.). Treatment group participants received 360 mg of K. parviflora extract in capsule form, and those in the control group received a placebo capsule. Measurements included lactate threshold and heart rate recovery, assessed at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Group differences were assessed using a 2 (group) × 3 (time) repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: No main or interaction effects were observed for the lactate threshold (all P > 0.05). No group differences were observed for heart rate recovery (P > 0.05); however, a significant time effect was observed for heart rate recovery at weeks 6 and 12 (P < 0.05), which also marked the beginning of an interaction effect showing that those in the experimental group improved more than those in the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: In this set of observations, 12-weeks of K. parviflora supplementation had no effect on the lactate threshold; however, it does appear that it might have improved heart rate recovery.
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Kaempferia spp. have traditionally played a role in treating various ailments and are attracting increasing economic and scientific interest. This review evaluates the traditional use, phytochemical compounds, and biological properties of Kaempferia parviflora, Kaempferia galanga, Kaempferia rotunda, Kaempferia pulchra, and Kaempferia angustifolia. The health benefits associated with consuming Kaempferia spp. and their active components, namely flavonoids and other volatile compounds, include antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, cardiovascular protective, immunoregulatory, neuroprotective, and skin-whitening effects, suggesting the use of Kaempferia spp. as a potential health aid for the aging population. As agricultural production is important to ensure consistent quality of Kaempferia produce, resource management techniques related to species identification, cultivation, storage, and processing were also highlighted. It was suggested that the value-added concept in agricultural production may be limited. Investigations into plant biology and physiology are required to provide a solid theoretical basis for the sustainable production of Kaempferia.
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Muscle mass and strength decrease with aging; however, habitual exercise can maintain muscle health. β-Hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate calcium (HMB) and black ginger (BG) improve muscle protein metabolism and energy production. Combining these two molecules, which have similar effects, may have a synergistic effect. Senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) is a useful model of muscle aging. Therefore, we explored how the combination of habitual exercise, HMB, and BG affected muscle aging. We used 28-wk-old (28w) SAMP8 mice divided into six groups: 28 wk (28w), 44 wk (44w, Con), exercise (Ex), Ex+BG, Ex+HMB, and Ex+BG+HMB (Ex+Comb). Mice were required to run on a treadmill for 16 wk for 5 d per week. In 28w and 44w mice, grip strength tests and dissection were conducted. Muscle weight was measured, and qPCR and immunoblotting were conducted. Muscle mass and strength were declined in the 44w group. Exercise with HMB or BG alone had no effect, whereas muscle mass and strength were augmented in the Ex+Comb group. Similarly, levels of mitochondrial function- and biogenesis-related genes were increased. Autophagy-related protein (Atg3, 7, 16L1 and Beclin1) were altered in the Ex+Comb group. These results suggest that Ex+Comb affects autophagy. Overall, the combination of habitual exercise and HMB+BG may enhance muscle mass and strength by affecting the mitochondrial and autophagy systems in SAMP8.
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Kaempferia parviflora is widely cultivated in Southeast Asia as food, cosmetics and medicine. It has also been cultivated as a medicinal plant for a long time in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, China. Rhizome is an important medicinal part of K. parviflora, mainly containing flavonoids. Pharmacological studies showed that black ginger had anti-cancer, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, neuroprotective, vascular relaxant and cardioprotective, and transdermal permeable activities, etc. The advances in chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and toxicology of black ginger were reviewed, which would provide help for further research, development and utilization of K. parviflora resource.
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The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a 6-min walk test as a measure of physical endurance in older adults. Seventy-seven subjects, ages 60-87, performed three separate 6-min walk tests and a treadmill test and completed questionnaire items assessing physical activity level and functional status. The 6-min walk had good test-retest reliability (.88 < R < .94), particularly when a practice trial preceded the test trial. Convergent validity of the 6-min walk was demonstrated by its moderate correlation (.71 < r < .82) with treadmill performance. Construct validity was assessed by determining the ability of the test to detect differences between different age and activity level groups. As expected, walking scores decreased significantly across decades and were significantly lower for low-active subjects compared to high-active subjects. There was a moderate relationship between 6-min walk scores and self-reported functional ability. It was concluded that the 6-min walk can be used to obtain reasonably reliable and valid measures of physical endurance in older adults and that it moderately reflects overall physical functional performance.
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The ethanolic extract of Kaempferia parviflora (KPE) has been reported to contain a range of flavonoids and to enhance endothelial synthesis of NO. We investigated the vascular relaxant, antioxidant and cardioprotective activities of KPE. Vascular function was assessed in rat aortic rings and superoxide generation determined using lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence. Ischaemia and reperfusion were induced in rat isolated, perfused hearts. KPE caused vasorelaxation (R(max) 102 ± 2%), which was partly inhibited by removal of the endothelium (R(max) 91 ± 1%) or by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (L-NNA, R(max) 83 ± 3%) or 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ, R(max) 80 ± 2%). In addition KPE caused concentration-dependent inhibition of the contractile response to exogenous Ca(2+). KPE (10(-3)M) also significantly inhibited superoxide radical generation induced by of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (2.3 ± 0.4% of control) to a similar extent to the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol (10(-4)M, 1.6 ± 0.5%) or by rat isolated aorta in the presence of NADPH (30.0 ± 6.3% of control) similarly to the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium (5 × 10(-6)M, 23.1 ± 5.6%). In the presence of oxidant stress generated by pyrogallol endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aortic rings was impaired (ACh R(max) control 99 ± 1%; pyrogallol 44 ± 5%), an effect that was significantly reduced by KPE (10(-4)M, ACh R(max) 82 ± 4%). In addition, KPE was found to attenuate the ventricular dysfunction caused by 20 min global ischaemia and 30 min reperfusion (I/R) in rat isolated hearts (dP/dt IR 1016 ± 242, IR+KPE 2238±233 mm Hg/s). KPE is an effective vasodilator and antioxidant that is able to prevent myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. We suggest that KPE may be useful as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy in the management of reperfusion injury.
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The neuroprotective actions of dietary flavonoids involve a number of effects within the brain, including a potential to protect neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins, an ability to suppress neuroinflammation, and the potential to promote memory, learning and cognitive function. This multiplicity of effects appears to be underpinned by two processes. Firstly, they interact with important neuronal signalling cascades leading to an inhibition of apoptosis triggered by neurotoxic species and to a promotion of neuronal survival and differentiation. These interactions include selective actions on a number of protein kinase and lipid kinase signalling cascades, most notably the PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways which regulate pro-survival transcription factors and gene expression. Secondly, they induce peripheral and cerebral vascular blood flow in a manner which may lead to the induction of angiogenesis, and new nerve cell growth in the hippocampus. Therefore, the consumption of flavonoid-rich foods, such as berries and cocoa, throughout life holds a potential to limit the neurodegeneration associated with a variety of neurological disorders and to prevent or reverse normal or abnormal deteriorations in cognitive performance.
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Quercetin is one of a broad group of natural polyphenolic flavonoid substances that are being investigated for their widespread health benefits. These benefits have generally been ascribed to its combination of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but recent in vitro evidence suggests that improved mitochondrial biogenesis could play an important role. In addition, the in vivo effects of quercetin on mitochondrial biogenesis exercise tolerance are unknown. We examined the effects of 7 days of quercetin feedings in mice on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and brain, and on endurance exercise tolerance. Mice were randomly assigned to one of the following three treatment groups: placebo, 12.5 mg/kg quercetin, or 25 mg/kg quercetin. Following 7 days of treatment, mice were killed, and soleus muscle and brain were analyzed for mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC-1alpha) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and cytochrome c. Additional mice underwent a treadmill performance run to fatigue or were placed in voluntary activity wheel cages, and their voluntary activity (distance, time, and peak speed) was recorded. Quercetin increased mRNA expression of PGC-1alpha and SIRT1 (P < 0.05), mtDNA (P < 0.05) and cytochrome c concentration (P < 0.05). These changes in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were associated with an increase in both maximal endurance capacity (P < 0.05) and voluntary wheel-running activity (P < 0.05). These benefits of querectin on fitness without exercise training may have important implications for enhancement of athletic and military performance and may also extend to prevention and/or treatment of chronic diseases.
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This chapter describes the malondialdehyde (MDA) as index of lipid peroxidation. The determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) has attracted widespread interest, because it appears to offer a facile means of assessing lipid peroxidation in biological materials. Malondialdehyde occurs in biological materials in free state and in various covalently bound forms. Urine also contains small amounts of MDA adducts with guanine, the phospholipid bases serine and ethanolamine, and other unidentified reactants. Free MDA is a minor and variable excretory product. It is apparent from the occurrence of these derivatives in urine that MDA forms adducts with proteins, nucleic acids, and other substances in vivo, and this compromises the assessment of lipid peroxidation in the tissues based on the determination of free MDA. The pH required for maximum yield of MDA varies among biological materials depending on the nature of the derivatives present. MDA may be generated during hydrolysis by the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the sample and by the degradation of preexisting oxidation products. Pigments present in the sample, or generated during hydrolysis, also can interfere in the colorimetric assessment of MDA. These problems, and possibilities for their resolution, are discussed in the chapter.