Detection and Genogrouping of Noroviruses from Children's Stools By Taqman One-step RT-PCR
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of outbreaks of sporadic acute gastroenteritis worldwide in humans of all ages. They are important cause of hospitalizations in children with a public health impact similar to that of Rotavirus. NoVs are RNA viruses of great genetic diversity and there is a continuous appearance of new strains. Five genogroups are recognized; GI and GII with their many genotypes and subtypes being the most important for human infection. However, the diagnosis of these two genotypes remains problematic, delaying diagnosis and treatment. For RNA extraction from stool specimens the most commonly used method is the QIAmp Viral RNA commercial kit from Qiagen. This method combines the binding properties of a silica gel membrane, buffers that control RNases and provide optimum binding of the RNA to the column together with the speed of microspin. This method is simple, fast and reliable and is carried out in a few steps that are detailed in the description provided by the manufacturer. Norovirus is second only to rotavirus as the most common cause of diarrhea. Norovirus diagnosis should be available in all studies on pathogenesis of diarrhea as well as in outbreaks or individual diarrhea cases. At present however norovirus diagnosis is restricted to only a few centers due to the lack of simple methods of diagnosis. This delays diagnosis and treatment. In addition, due to costs and regulated transportation of corrosive buffers within and between countries use of these manufactured kits poses logistical problems. As a result, in this protocol we describe an alternative, economic, in-house method which is based on the original Boom et al. method which uses the nucleic acid binding properties of silica particles together with the anti-nuclease properties of guanidinium thiocyanate. For the detection and genogrouping (GI and GII) of NoVs isolates from stool specimens, several RT-PCR protocols utilizing different targets have been developed. The consensus is that an RT-PCR using TaqMan chemistry would be the best molecular technique for diagnosis, because it combines high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility with high throughput and ease of use. Here we describe an assay targeting the open reading frame 1 (ORF1)-ORF2 junction region; the most conserved region of the NoV genome and hence most suitable for diagnosis. For further genetic analysis a conventional RT-PCR that targets the highly variable N-terminal-shell from the major protein of the capsid (Region C) using primers originally described by Kojima et al. is detailed. Sequencing of the PCR product from the conventional PCR enables the differentiation of genotypes belonging to the GI and GII genogroups.
Available from: Daniel E Velasquez
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
Human noroviruses are among the most common enteropathogens globally, and are a leading cause of infant diarrhea in developing countries. However, data measuring the impact of norovirus at the community level are sparse.
We followed a birth cohort of children to estimate norovirus infection and diarrhea incidence in a Peruvian community. Stool samples from diarrheal episodes and randomly selected nondiarrheal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for norovirus genogroup and genotype. Excretion duration and rotavirus coinfection were evaluated in a subset of episodes.
Two hundred twenty and 189 children were followed to 1 and 2 years of age, respectively. By 1 year, 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75%-85%) experienced at least 1 norovirus infection and by 2 years, 71% (95% CI, 65%-77%) had at least 1 episode of norovirus-associated diarrhea. Genogroup II (GII) infections were 3 times more frequent than genogroup 1 (GI) infections. Eighteen genotypes were found; GII genotype 4 accounted for 41%. Median excretion duration was 34.5 days for GII vs 8.5 days for GI infection (P = .0006). Repeat infections by the same genogroup were common, but repeat infections by the same genotype were rare. Mean length-for-age z score at 12 months was lower among children with prior norovirus infection compared to uninfected children (coefficient: -0.33 [95% CI, -.65 to -.01]; P = .04); the effect persisted at 24 months.
Norovirus infection occurs early in life and children experience serial infections with multiple genotypes, suggesting genotype-specific immunity. An effective vaccine would have a substantial impact on morbidity, but may need to target multiple genotypes.
Available from: scielo.cl
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
Norovirus (NoV) are RNA viruses highly contagious, stable in the environment, genetically variable, and the most common cause of viral sporadic acute gastroenteritis worldwide. This is the first study carried out in Concepcion, Chile, to investigate the presence of NoV as an etiologic agent of viral diarrheas in hospitalized children. Objective. To detect the presence and genogroup of NoV in children with diarrhea and to compare it with rotavirus (RV) and adenovirus (AdV).
Material and methods:
A one year descriptive, prospective study in children 0-14 years old. A single diarrheic stool sample per patient was analyzed for the presence of NoV, RV and AdV. Clinical data were unknown at the moment of sampling. Real time RT-PCR with Taqman™ probes for NoV and the immunocromatography VIKIA™ kit for RoV /AV detection were used.
Infection for NoV (25.5%) was significantly higher than for RV (15.9%) and AdV (6.2%). It was even greater in infants younger than 2yr. old (n: 103): NoV 34%, RV 17.5%, AdV 7.8%. Children 2-4 yr. old had 11.8% infection of NoV and RV. Children older than 4, only had 12% RV and 4% AdV. Children hospitalized for diarrhea (n: 92) had: 21.7% of both NoV and RV, and 7.6% AdV; whereas children hospitalized for other causes (n: 53) had 32.1% NoV,5.7% RV and 3.8% AV. The proportion of infection due to NoV was significantly higher in males (31.5%) than in females (19.4%). The average frequency during the year was higher for NoV (30.3%) than for RV (14.7%) except in summer.
The presence of NoV was higher than RV in children with diarrhea. NoV infection showed defined characteristics regarding age, gender, seasonal occurrence and nosocomial transmission that are important epidemiological features.
Available from: David L Blazes
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Successful vaccination strategies against norovirus will require understanding the burden of disease and relevant genotypes in populations. However, few data are available from cohort studies of adults living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).
We conducted a nested case-control study within a Peruvian military cohort to characterize the burden of norovirus infection, predominant genotypes, and associated symptoms from 2004 through 2011. Randomly selected case and control stools were tested for norovirus, bacteria, and parasites. The odds ratio of the association between norovirus infection and diarrhea was estimated using multiple logistic regression and co-infection adjusted attributable fractions were calculated.
Of the 3,818 cohort study participants, 624 developed diarrhea. Overall and norovirus-associated diarrhea incidence rates were 42.3 and 6.0 per 100 person-years, respectively. The most prevalent norovirus genogroup was GII (72.5%, 29/40), which was associated with diarrhea (AOR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3-8.7, P = 0.012). The co-infection adjusted GII attributable fraction was 6.4%.
Norovirus was a frequent cause of diarrhea in an adult population followed longitudinally in an LMIC setting. Vaccine strategies should consider targeting adults in endemic settings and special populations that could serve as community transmission sources.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.