Long-term comparison of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to open surgery for the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has become a widely established treatment for a variety of thoracic aortic pathologic diseases despite limited long-term data to support its use. We compared the long-term outcomes of TEVAR with the 3 commercially available stents grafts for thoracic aortic aneurysms to results in control subjects undergoing open surgery. Demographic, clinical radiographic parameters were collected prospectively on patients enrolled in trials assessing the Gore TAG (55), Medtronic Talent (36) and Cook TX2 (15) devices. Outcomes were compared with 45 contemporaneous open controls. Detailed clinical and radiographic information was available for analysis. Standard univariate, survival, and regression methods were used. During the study period (1995-2007) 106 patients were enrolled in TEVAR trials and there were 45 open controls. TEVAR patients were older and had significantly more comorbidities including diabetes and renal failure. TEVAR patients had 2.3 ± 1.3 devices implanted. Mortality (2.6% TEVAR, 6.7% open; P = .1), paralysis/paraparesis (3.9% TEVAR, 7.1% open; P = .2), and prolonged intubation more than 24 hours (9% TEVAR, 24% open; P = .02) tended to be more common in the open controls. Overall survival at 10 years was similar between groups (log rank P = .5). Multivariate predictors of late mortality included age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and chronic renal failure. Use of TEVAR versus open surgery did not influence mortality (hazard ratio, 0.9 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.6). Over 5 years of radiographic follow-up in the TEVAR group, mean aortic diameter decreased from 61 to 55 mm. Freedom from reintervention on the treated segment was 85% in TEVAR patients at 10 years. TEVAR is a safe and effective procedure to treat thoracic aortic aneurysms with improved perioperative and similar long-term results as open thoracic aortic repair. TEVAR-treated aneurysm diameters initially decrease and then stabilize over time.