Effects of Emotional Exposure on State Anxiety after Acute Exercise
Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, 2351 SPH Building, College Park, MD, 20742-2611, USA. Medicine and science in sports and exercise
(Impact Factor: 3.98).
08/2012; 45(2). DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31826d5ce5
Despite the well-known anxiolytic effect of acute exercise, it is unknown if anxiety reductions after acute exercise conditions survive in the face of a subsequently experienced arousing emotional exposure. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of moderate-intensity cycle ergometer exercise to a seated rest control condition on state anxiety symptoms after exposure to a variety of highly arousing pleasant and unpleasant stimuli.
Thirty-seven healthy and normally physically active young adults completed two conditions on separate days: 1) 30 min of seated rest and 2) 30 min of moderate-intensity cycle ergometer exercise (RPE = 13; "somewhat hard"). After each condition, participants viewed 90 arousing pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System for 30 min. State anxiety was measured before and 15 min after each condition, and again after exposure to the affective pictures.
State anxiety significantly decreased from baseline to after the exercise and seated rest conditions (P = 0.003). After the emotional picture-viewing period, state anxiety significantly increased to baseline values after the seated rest condition (P = 0.001) but remained reduced after the exercise condition.
These findings suggest that the anxiolytic effects of acute exercise may be resistant to the potentially detrimental effects on mood after exposure to arousing emotional stimuli.
Available from: Hanna Karen Moreira Antunes
- "Physical exercise performed under normoxia has been described as an approach that improves many body functions, including sleep, mood and cognition      . To our knowledge, however, the effects of physical exercise performed under hypoxia on sleep, mood and cognition have not been simultaneously evaluated. "
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time.
Available from: Nicole Jennifer Hegberg
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ABSTRACT: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to benefit mental health. While research on non-human animal species indicates that PA may confer protective effects on mental health by increasing resilience to stress via regulation of the stress response, the human literature offers inconsistent evidence regarding this idea. To help reconcile these inconsistencies, the present study of human adults tested the hypothesis that PA’s protective effects, as indexed by self-perceived resilience, vary according to individual differences in trait anxiety, which has been linked to a dysregulated stress response and risk for developing mental health problems. Specifically, we predicted that individuals reporting high trait anxiety (and thus presumably more stress response dysregulation) would show a stronger association between PA and self-perceived resilience, than would peers with lower reported trait anxiety.Methods
Undergraduate students (n=222) completed online self-report measures regarding their PA level, trait anxiety, and self-perceived resilience.ResultsHierarchical linear regression analyses yielded evidence of a significant interaction between trait anxiety level and PA, such that PA and self-perceived resilience were significantly and positively associated among individuals with high trait anxiety, but not among individuals with low and moderate trait anxiety.DiscussionIn conclusion, individuals with high trait anxiety, which may be a risk factor for developing clinically significant mental health problems, may preferentially show psychological, as well as physiological, benefits from PA.
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ABSTRACT: One prominent and well-cited meta-analysis published nearly 25 years ago reported that an acute or single bout of exercise reduced state anxiety by approximately ¼ standard deviation. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published after that meta-analysis for updating our understanding of the acute effects of exercise on state anxiety.
We searched PubMed, EBSCOHost, Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, and ScienceDirect for RCTs of acute exercise and state anxiety as an outcome. There were 36 RCTs that met inclusion criteria and yielded data for effect size (ES) generation (Cohen's d). An overall ES was calculated using a random effects model and expressed as Hedge's g.
The weighted mean ES was small (Hedge's g = 0.16, standard error (SE) = 0.06), but statistically significant (P < 0.05), and indicated that a single bout of exercise resulted in an improvement in state anxiety compared with control. The overall ES was heterogeneous and post hoc, exploratory analyses using both random- and fixed-effects models identified several variables as moderators including sample age, sex and health status, baseline activity levels, exercise intensity, modality and control condition, randomization, overall study quality, and the anxiety measure (P < 0.05).
The cumulative evidence from high quality studies indicates that acute bouts of exercise can yield a small reduction in state anxiety. The research is still plagued by floor effects associated with recruiting persons with normal or lower levels of state anxiety, and this should be overcome in subsequent trials.
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