Annular Rash Outbreak in a Family

ArticleinThe Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 31(9):998, 1002 · September 2012with3 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182562c2e · Source: PubMed
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fungal infections of the skin and nails are a common global problem. The high prevalence of superficial mycotic infections shows that 20-25% of the world's population has skin mycoses, making these one of the most frequent forms of infection. Pathogens responsible for skin mycoses are primarily anthropophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes from the genera Trichophyton (T.), Microsporum (M.) and Epidermophyton (E.). There appears to be considerable inter- and intra-continental variability in the global incidence of these fungal infections. Trichophyton rubrum, T. interdigitale (mentagrophytes var. interdigitale), M. canis, M. audouinii, T. tonsurans and T. verrucosum are the most common, but the attack rates and incidence of specific mycoses can vary widely. Local socio-economic conditions and cultural practices can also influence the prevalence of a particular infection in a given area. For example, tinea pedis (athlete's foot) is more prevalent in developed countries than in emerging economies and is likely to be caused by the anthropophilic germ T. rubrum. In poorer countries, scalp infections (tinea capitis) caused by T. soudanense or M. audouinii are more prevalent. This review summarises current epidemiological trends for fungal infections and focuses on dermatomycosis of glabrous skin on different continents.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The zoophilic dermatophyte species Microsporum canis belongs to the Arthroderma otae complex and is known to mate with tester strains of that teleomorph species, at least in the laboratory. Human infections are likely to be acquired from the fur of cats, dogs and horses. Epidemiological studies to reveal sources and routes of infection have been hampered by a lack of polymorphic molecular markers. Human cases mainly concern moderately inflammatory tinea corporis and tinea capitis, but, as cases of highly inflammatory ringworm are also observed, the question arises as to whether all lineages of M. canis are equally virulent to humans. In this study, two microsatellite markers were developed and used to analyse a global set of 101 M. canis strains to reveal patterns of genetic variation and dispersal. Using a Bayesian and a distance approach for structuring the M. canis samples, three populations could be distinguished, with evidence of recombination in one of them (III). This population contained 44 % of the animal isolates and only 9 % of the human strains. Population I, with strictly clonal reproduction (comprising a single multilocus genotype), contained 74 % of the global collection of strains from humans, but only 23 % of the animal strains. From these findings, it was concluded that population differentiation in M. canis is not allopatric, but rather is due to the emergence of a (virulent) genotype that has a high potential to infect the human host. Adaptation of genotypes resulting in a particular clinical manifestation was not evident. Furthermore, isolates from horses did not show a monophyletic clustering.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microsporum canis is the causative organism in less than 10% of all tinea capitis infections in the UK. Transmission is generally via contact with an infected family pet and there are only rare reports of case clustering. This article describes an outbreak of M. canis in a primary school classroom demonstrating human-to-human spread from an index case who was presumed to have acquired the infection prior to arriving in the UK. There was no suggestion of clinical improvement following 4 weeks of oral terbinafine 125 mg daily and treatment was changed to griseofulvin. The Health Protection team screened class members and confirmed cases (either clinically or mycologically) were also treated with griseofulvin 10-20 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks. Classmates and siblings of classmates were recommended to use selenium sulphide or ketoconazole-containing shampoo twice weekly.
    Article · Jun 2007
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