Article

Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) May Provide Antidepressant Activity in Anxious, Depressed Humans: An Exploratory Study

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Abstract

Anxiety and depression are the most commonly reported psychiatric conditions and frequently occur as comorbid disorders. While the advent of conventional drug therapies has simplified treatment, a large segment of the population goes untreated or declines conventional therapy for financial, cultural, or personal reasons. Therefore, the identification of inexpensive and effective alternative therapies for anxiety and depression is of relevance to public health. The current study explores data from a 2009 clinical chamomile trial in humans to determine if chamomile provides clinically meaningful antidepressant activity versus a placebo. In the 2009 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the research team examined the antianxiety and antidepressant action of oral chamomile (Matricaria recutita) extract in participants with symptoms of comorbid anxiety and depression. In the 2009 study, all of participants' evaluations took place at the Depression Research Unit at the University of Pennsylvania. The study drew participants from patients at the Department of Family Medicine and Community Health's primary care clinic at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Of the 57 participants in the 2009 trial, 19 had anxiety with comorbid depression; 16 had anxiety with a past history of depression; and 22 had anxiety with no current or past depression. The intervention and placebo groups in the 2009 trial received identically appearing 220-mg capsules containing either pharmaceutical-grade chamomile extract standardized to a content of 1.2% apigenin or a placebo (ie, lactose monohydrate NF), respectively. In the current study, the research team used generalized estimating equations analysis to identify clinically meaningful changes over time in scores from the Hamilton Depression Rating (HAM-D) questionnaire among treatment groups. In the current study, the research team observed a significantly greater reduction over time in total HAM-D scores for chamomile vs placebo in all participants (P < .05). The team also observed a clinically meaningful but nonsignificant trend for a greater reduction in total HAM-D scores for chamomile vs placebo in participants with current comorbid depression (P = .062). When the team examined the HAM-D core mood item scores, it observed a significantly greater reduction over time for chamomile vs placebo in all participants (P < .05) and a clinically meaningful but nonsignificant trend for a greater reduction over time for chamomile vs placebo in participants without current or past depression (P = .06). Chamomile may provide clinically meaningful antidepressant activity that occurs in addition to its previously observed anxiolytic activity.

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... A wide variety of flavonoids was assessed in the research reports included in this review. The majority of clinical studies assessed the effect of flavonoids consumed via tablets or dry extract capsules [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][56][57][58][59][60][61][62]64], liquids [38,46,55,63] and powder [37]. The observational studies looked at flavonoids consumed in their biological whole food form. ...
... The BDI was used in seven intervention trials [34,44,45,[47][48][49]61]. The BDI is a 21-item, multiplechoice inventory designed to assess the level of key depressive symptoms (e.g., guilt, low self-worth and suicidal ideation) in adults [77]. Another popular scale was the HAM-D, which was used in five of the studies [30,31,43,56,62]. This scale consists of 17 items that are rated by the observer, rather than the patient [78]. ...
... Overall, dietary flavonoids were associated with an improvement in depressive symptoms. The majority of trials (n = 22) found significant effects of consuming flavonoids on the symptoms of depression [29][30][31][33][34][35][36]41,42,44,[46][47][48][49]51,52,56,58,[60][61][62]64]. Zarghami et al. observed a significant decrease in the depression score after flavonoid intervention but the antidepressant drug fluoxetine had a greater anti-depressant activity than flavonoids [57]. ...
Article
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Recent evidence suggests that diet modifies key biological factors associated with the development of depression. It has been suggested that this could be due to the high flavonoid content commonly found in many plant foods, beverages and dietary supplements. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the effects of dietary flavonoids on the symptoms of depression. A total of 46 studies met the eligibility criteria. Of these, 36 were intervention trials and 10 were observational studies. A meta-analysis of 36 clinical trials involving a total of 2788 participants was performed. The results showed a statistically significant effect of flavonoids on depressive symptoms (mean difference = −1.65; 95% C.I., −2.54, −0.77; p < 0.01). Five of the 10 observational studies included in the systematic review reported significant results, suggesting that a higher flavonoid intake may improve symptoms of depression. Further studies are urgently required to elucidate whether causal and mechanistic links exist, along with substantiation of functional brain changes associated with flavonoid consumption.
... Clinical trials show that most patients do not like to take the medication due to their side effects. Studies also show that some available drugs are effective only in half of the patients and others do not achieve complete remission (6). Therefore, finding effective treatments for depression with adequate efficacy, fewer side effects and lower cost is one of the active fields of research today (4). ...
... There are different varieties of chamomile, but two species of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) are the most widely used species throughout the world. German chamomile has been shown to improve the symptoms of depression in animal models as well as human (6). In a double-blind clinical trial by Amsterdam et al, 57 patients with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) were treated with placebo or chamomile capsules (220 mg/d) for 8 weeks. ...
... After 8 weeks of treatment, the depression scores decreased significantly in the chamomile group compared to the placebo group. In addition, patients with MADD responded more strongly to chamomile than other patients (6). In another controlled trial, the consumption of chamomile tea significantly improved the quality of sleep and depression in women during the postpartum period (31). ...
Article
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Depression is a life-threatening chronic illness which affects people worldwide. Drugs used to treat this disease have multiple side effects and may cause drug-drug or drug-food interactions. Additionally, only 30% of patients respond adequately to the existing drugs and the remaining do not achieve complete recovery. Thus, finding effective treatments that have adequate efficacy, fewer side effects and lower cost seem to be necessary. The purpose of this study was to review animal and double-blind clinical studies on the anti-depressant effects of medicinal herbs. In this study, validated scientific articles indexed in PubMed, SID, Web of Science and Scopus databases were reviewed. A database search was performed using the following terms: clinical trials, depression, major depressive disorder, essential oil, extract and medicinal plant. Positive effects of a number of herbs and their active compounds such as St John’s-wort, saffron, turmeric, ginkgo, chamomile, valerian, Lavender, Echium amoenum and Rhodiola rosea L. in improvement of symptoms of mild, moderate or major depression have been shown in clinical trials. The above plants show antidepressant effects and have fewer side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, they have the potential to treat patients with depression.
... Based upon these clinical observations, and findings from in vitro and in vivo animal studies, [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] a post hoc exploratory analysis examining the putative antidepressant effect of chamomile oral extract in subjects with comorbid GAD and depression was performed. 23 In that analysis, 57 subjects received either chamomile extract or placebo therapy: 19 subjects had comorbid GAD and depression, 16 had GAD and a history of depression, and 22 had GAD and no current or history of depression. A significantly greater reduction in mean total depression rating scores ( p < 0.05) and in core depression symptom scores ( p < 0.05) was observed for chamomile versus placebo in all subjects, and a trend level decline in core depression symptom scores for chamomile versus placebo in subjects with current comorbid GAD and depression ( p = 0.062). ...
... A significantly greater reduction in mean total depression rating scores ( p < 0.05) and in core depression symptom scores ( p < 0.05) was observed for chamomile versus placebo in all subjects, and a trend level decline in core depression symptom scores for chamomile versus placebo in subjects with current comorbid GAD and depression ( p = 0.062). 23 Given the prior observation of a possible antidepressant action for chamomile, 23 in the current exploratory analysis it was hypothesized that chamomile would produce a similar anxiolytic effect in GAD subjects with and without comorbid depression, but a greater reduction in depression symptoms in subjects with GAD and comorbid depression. ...
... A significantly greater reduction in mean total depression rating scores ( p < 0.05) and in core depression symptom scores ( p < 0.05) was observed for chamomile versus placebo in all subjects, and a trend level decline in core depression symptom scores for chamomile versus placebo in subjects with current comorbid GAD and depression ( p = 0.062). 23 Given the prior observation of a possible antidepressant action for chamomile, 23 in the current exploratory analysis it was hypothesized that chamomile would produce a similar anxiolytic effect in GAD subjects with and without comorbid depression, but a greater reduction in depression symptoms in subjects with GAD and comorbid depression. ...
Article
Objectives: This exploratory analysis examined the putative antidepressant effect of Matricaria chamomilla L. (chamomile) extract in subjects with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) with or without comorbid depression. It was hypothesized that chamomile extract would demonstrate similar anxiolytic activity in both subgroups, but superior antidepressant activity in GAD subjects with comorbid depression. Design: As part of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of chamomile extract for relapse prevention of GAD, 179 subjects received initial therapy with open-label chamomile extract 1500 mg daily for 8 weeks. Linear mixed-effect models were used to identify clinically meaningful changes in anxiety and depression symptoms between diagnostic subgroups. Settings/Location: The study took place at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA. Subjects: Subjects were ≥18 years old with a primary DSM IV-TR diagnosis of GAD. They were subcategorized into two diagnostic groups: GAD without comorbid depression (n = 100) and GAD with comorbid depression (n = 79). Interventions: Open-label chamomile extract 1500 mg was given daily for 8 weeks. Outcome measures: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7), Hamilton rating scale for anxiety, Beck anxiety inventory, Hamilton rating scale for depression (HRSD), the six-item core HRSD (items 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, and 13), and the Beck depression inventory (BDI). Results: The authors observed similar anxiolytic effects over time in both diagnostic subgroups. However, there was a greater reduction in HRSD core symptom scores (p < 0.023), and a trend level reduction in HRSD total scores (p = 0.14) and in BPI total scores (p = 0.060) in subjects with comorbid depression. Conclusions: M. chamomilla L. may produce clinically meaningful antidepressant effects in addition to its anxiolytic activity in subjects with GAD and comorbid depression. Future controlled trials in subjects with primary major depressive disorder are needed to validate this preliminary observation.
... Chamomile was safe and significantly reduced moderate-to-severe GAD symptoms. Amsterdam et al. [105] used chamomile extract in the treatment of GAD in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Chamomile extract was standardized to a content of 1.2% apigenin. ...
... Sci. 2019, 20, x FOR PEERREVIEW 10 Human studies monitoring apigenin supplementation[102][103][104][105][106]. ...
... Human studies monitoring apigenin supplementation[102][103][104][105][106]. ...
Article
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Several plant bioactive compounds have exhibited functional activities that suggest they could play a remarkable role in preventing a wide range of chronic diseases. The largest group of naturally-occurring polyphenols are the flavonoids, including apigenin. The present work is an updated overview of apigenin, focusing on its health-promoting effects/therapeutic functions and, in particular, results of in vivo research. In addition to an introduction to its chemistry, nutraceutical features have also been described. The main key findings from in vivo research, including animal models and human studies, are summarized. The beneficial indications are reported and discussed in detail, including effects in diabetes, amnesia and Alzheimer's disease, depression and insomnia, cancer, etc. Finally, data on flavonoids from the main public databases are gathered to highlight the apigenin's key role in dietary assessment and in the evaluation of a formulated diet, to determine exposure and to investigate its health effects in vivo.
... Della Loggia and collaborators [2] observed sedative effects of chamomile lyophilized infusion in animals, at the doses ranging from 90 to 360 mg/kg. Later on, controlled clinical trials demonstrated that chamomile dry extracts (standardized to a content of 1.2% apigenin) may have anxiolytic activity in patients with mild to severe generalized anxiety disorder, as well as antidepressant activity [3][4][5][6]. The sedative effect was attributed to the flavonoid apigenin present in the chamomile extracts and that binds to benzodiazepine receptors in the brain [7,8]. ...
... The active chemical compound responsible for the sedative action of the lyophilized infusion was not identified by the authors. In humans, controlled clinical trials demonstrated that chamomile dry extracts (standardized to a content of 1.2% apigenin) may have anxiolytic activity in patients with mild to severe generalized anxiety disorder, as well as antidepressant activity [3][4][5][6]. Despite its widespread use, the exact mode of action of chamomile to perform these physiological effects is still uncertain. ...
Article
Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind and among its traditional uses are the calming effects. However, few studies explored its effects on the central nervous system (CNS). In this study we further proceed with structural elucidation of polysaccharides from chamomile tea. A highly substituted 4-O-methyl-glucuronoxylan (fraction SN-50R) was purified and chemically characterized, presenting Xyl:GlcA ratio of 1.7:1, Mw of 500 kDa and total sugar content of 98%. Its bioactivity on pain and on CNS was explored. Animals treated with SN-50R presented antinociceptive effect and a dose-dependent decrease in the number of crossings in the activity chamber and in the open field test, as well as a significant reduction in the number of marbles buried when compared to control. These results suggest that SN-50R presented sedative and anxiolytic-like effects and may be contributing for the calming effects obtained by chamomile tea ingestion.
... Research by Jeschke et al. [4] showed that the family Asteraceae has at least 420 known medicinal species and these include Arnica montana L. [5][6][7][8][9][10][11], Artemisia annua L. [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19], Calendula officinalis L. [20][21][22][23][24][25], Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. [26][27][28][29][30], Inula helenium L. [31][32][33][34][35][36], and Matricaria recutita L. [37][38][39][40][41][42][43]. Another important source of herbal medicines among Asteraceae taxa is the genus Helichrysum Mill. ...
Article
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Helichrysum cymosum is a valuable and well-known medicinal plant in tropical Africa. The current study critically reviewed the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of H. cymosum. Information on medicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of H. cymosum, was collected from multiple internet sources which included Scopus, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Science Direct, Web of Science, PubMed, SciFinder, and BMC. Additional information was gathered from pre-electronic sources such as journal articles, scientific reports, theses, books, and book chapters obtained from the University library. This study showed that H. cymosum is traditionally used as a purgative, ritual incense, and magical purposes and as herbal medicine for colds, cough, fever, headache, and wounds. Ethnopharmacological research revealed that H. cymosum extracts and compounds isolated from the species have antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and cytotoxicity activities. This research showed that H. cymosum is an integral part of indigenous pharmacopeia in tropical Africa, but there is lack of correlation between medicinal uses and existing pharmacological properties of the species. Therefore, future research should focus on evaluating the chemical and pharmacological properties of H. cymosum extracts and compounds isolated from the species.
... In addition, due to the sedative effects of chamomile, a person's mental state as well as mood disorders such as irritability is likely to improve (51)(52)(53). In the study of Janabi on primary dysmenorrhea, menstrual pain, anxiety and emotions in the chamomile tea group had a signi cant difference from the control group (25). ...
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Background Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common pelvic pains in women, impairing their quality of life.This study investigated the effects of chamomile sachet and mefenamic acid on primary dysmenorrhea, associated symptoms and bleeding. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 200 female students with primary dysmenorrhea from Arak universities were randomly assigned to two groups. The group (A) received mefenamic acid (250 mg) and group (B) received chamomile (5000 mg) plus one teaspoonful of honey )as a flavoring( for two days before up to the first three days of menstruation, three times a day in two consecutive cycles. Pain severity, associated symptoms and bleeding were assessed using visual analog scale, Andersch-Milsom Verbal Scale and Higham chart, respectively. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical tests by SPSS 21. Results Severe pain during two months after intervention was in 6 (6.3%) of group (B) and 6 (6.3%) in group (A) (p = 0.351, p = 0.332). Mean severity of associated symptoms two months after the treatment was( 4.93 ± 3.54) in group (B) and (5.62 ± 3.54 ) in group (A), indicating further reduction in group (B) but not significant (p = 0.278). Mean of bleeding was (88.71 ± 66.4 vs. 70.54 ± 53. 34) in group (B) and (A) respectively, in two months later. therefore decrease in the two groups but was not significant between groups(p = 0.567). Conclusions It seems chamomile sachet can reduce the severity of pain and bleeding similar to mefenamic acid and even further mitigate the symptoms associated with dysmenorrhea. Trial registration This study was performed with the proposal approval code of 2611, ethics code of (ARAKMU.REC.1395.164) at Arak University of medical sciences and code of IRCT 2016100825031N5 on 2016.11.08.
... In this regard, it has been suggested that structural and functional changes in the hippocampus are involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as depression [6]. Considering the multiple complications of existing antidepressants, it has also shown that some patients are not well-response to these drugs [7]. Therefore, finding more effective agents with low side effects is one of the most active areas of research [2]. ...
Article
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Background and Aim Depression is a mood disorder with high global prevalence. Depression is associated with a reduction in the hippocampal volume and change in its neurotransmitters function. Trigonelline is an alkaloid with neuroprotective activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the antidepressantlike effect of trigonelline considering histopathological modifications of the hippocampus. Methods 60 Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) male mice were divided into 6 groups including group 1 (normal saline), groups 2, 3 and 4 (trigonelline at doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg), group 5 (effective dose of trigonelline plus NMDA agonist), group 6 (sub-effective dose of trigonelline plus NMDA antagonist). Forced swimming test (FST) was used to assess depressive-like behavior. Hippocampi were separated under deep anesthesia and used for histopathological evaluation as well as NMDA receptor gene expression assessment. Results Trigonelline at doses of 10, 50 and 100 significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST in comparison to the control group. The administration of the sub-effective dose of trigonelline plus ketamine (a NMDA receptor antagonist) potentiated the effect of the subeffective dose of trigonelline. In addition, co-treatment of effective dose of trigonelline with NMDA mitigated the antidepressant-like effect of trigonelline. Trigonelline at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly increased the diameter of the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Conclusion Trigonelline showed an antidepressant-like effect in mice probably via attenuation of NMDA receptor activity and increase in the CA1 region of the hippocampus.
... Chamomile has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic and sedative properties, being used in the treatment of anxiety, because it is a good antidepressant [6][7][8][9][10]. Chamomile is used to heal wounds, skin irritations, eczema, varicella, neuralgia, rheumatic pain, gout, hemorrhoids and foot ulcers [11], while its essential oils are widely used in cosmetics and aromatherapy [12][13][14][15]. ...
Article
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The paper presents a comparative bioaccumulation study between the growth of chamomile (Matricaria Chamomilla L.) exposed to toxic metals (Cd, Ni and Pb) and the growth of same plant species unexposed to metals. The soil was contaminated within three independent experiments with Cd, Ni and Pb at the intervention threshold value for sensitive use. Each of the toxic metal was added by watering the seeds, and subsequently the germinated plants. The experiments targeted the effects of soil pollution on the growth of chamomile during three months period. The results showed that in the first month of the study, all three metals accumulated in plants. After the seeds germination and plant growth, high Cd concentration in chamomile plants was detected. Moreover, Ni and Pb were detected in soil in the percentage of 96%. Overall, it was observed that chamomile plants were Cd accumulators at the tested concentrations of 6 mg/kg with no phytotoxic effects. Matricaria Chamomilla L. could be used in phytoremediation of polluted soils, with limitations of use for human consumption, except for the extracts.
... Indeed, the infusion (58%) and decoction (22%) preparations in this study are the frequently used methods (Fig. 3). This result is in agreement with other ethnobotanical studies where infusion and decoction are the most frequent modes of preparation [4, 41,[73][74][75][76]. ...
Article
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Depression and anxiety represent a major mental health problem in the world. The majority of Moroccan people use traditional medicine for their health needs, including various forms of depression and anxiety. The aim of this work is to make an inventory of plant species used in folk medicine for the management of depression and anxiety in Fez-Meknes regions. Established questionnaires were administered to 243 interviews in 4 communities within Fez-Meknes region. With traditional health practitioners, herbalists and consumer. Plant species belonging to 31 families were reported. The most frequently cited families are Lamiaceae followed by Asteraceae , Apiaceae and Verbenaceae . Leaves were the major plant parts used forming 58% solely and 73 mixed with other parts. This was followed by seeds (17%), flowers (6%), roots (2%) and fruits and bark (1% each). The current survey represents a useful documentation, which can use to preserve knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in this region and to explore the phytochemical and pharmacological potential of medicinal plants.
... Another study further In humans, a double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 57 GAD patients showed significantly greater reductions in anxiety (HAM-A) among those undergoing M. recutita treatment (220 mg, one to four times daily) than those in the control condition, after 8 weeks (Amsterdam et al., 2009). A post hoc analysis of the same sample found that M. recutita may also reduce co-morbid depression (HAM-D) in anxious patients (Amsterdam et al., 2012). ...
Article
Anxiety disorders are chronic and functionally disabling conditions with high psychological stress, characterised by cognitive symptoms of excessive worry and focus difficulties and physiological symptoms such as muscle tension and insomnia. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system and is a key target of pharmacotherapies in the treatment of anxiety. Although current pharmaceutical treatments are often efficacious, they may cause undesirable side effects including cognitive decrements and withdrawal symptoms. Plant-based “phytomedicines” may provide novel treatment options, to act as an adjunctive or alternative to existing anxiolytic medications. As such, we conducted a systematic review to assess the current body of literature on anxiolytic phytomedicines and/or phytoconstituents. An open-ended search to 5 July 2017 was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Cochrane library online databases and performed in a stepped format from preclinical to clinical investigations. Eligible studies must have had (a) in vitro evidence of GABA-modulating activity, (b) animal studies using anxiety models to test an anxiolytic effect, and (c) human clinical trials. Ten phytomedicines were identified as having preclinical investigations showing interaction with the GABA system, in addition to human clinical trials: kava, valerian, pennywort, hops, chamomile, Ginkgo biloba, passionflower, ashwagandha, skullcap, and lemon balm. Collectively, the literature reveals preclinical and clinical evidence for various phytomedicines modulating GABA-pathways, with comparative anxiolytic effect to the current array of pharmaceuticals, along with good safety and tolerability profiles.
... The crude aqueous extract of the aerial parts presented an inhibitory effect on intestinal fluid accumulation and antidiarrheal action when applied in rabbits (in vivo), antispasmodic activity in isolated rabbit jejunum (in vitro) (Mehmood et al. 2015), anxiolytic and protective action in the gastric system against ethanol-induced ulceration (in vivo, in rats) (Al-Hashem 2010). The hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts, tested in vitro in blood plasma and lung tissue and in vivo in rats, presented beneficial antioxidant action in lung lesions in cases of paraquat poisoning (Ranjbar et al. 2014); protected from oxidative damage caused by Paraquat poisoning (in vivo, in rats) (Tavakol et al. 2015); presented evidence of antidepressant effect in humans with anxiety associated with depression (Amsterdam et al. 2012). A standardized German camomile extract containing 1.2 % of apigenin presented an anxiolytic effect in humans with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Amsterdam et al. 2009). ...
Article
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Among the medicinal purposes for which plants have been used is the treatment of “nerves". The objective of this study was to search for species of plants used in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (South Brazil) for the relief of symptoms related to central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Twenty-seven ethnobotanical studies were compiled, in which a total of 94 species were cited. The five most cited species were Cymbopogon citratus (81.5 %), Melissa officinalis (77.7 %), Aloysia citriodora (66.6 %), Matricaria chamomilla (62.9 %) and Passiflora edulis (51.8 %). Scientific studies have corroborated the popular use of these plants as sedatives, but most studies are preclinical and very few have been clinical (M. chamomilla and M. officinalis), and these were mainly exploratory or were performed against placebo. In addition to efficacy data, there are also indications of toxicity for M. chamomilla and P. edulis. In conclusion, there is a great diversity of plant species used in the treatment of symptoms related to CNS disorders, and they are most frequently used as a sedative. Data indicate that M. officinalis possesses clinical efficacy in the treatment of symptoms associated with anxiety without signs of toxicity.
... Chamomile is a well-known medicinal plant from the Asteraceae family used for therapeutical purposes [6]. Recent data indicated that chamomile extract is used in treatment for generalized anxiety disorder [16] and also provides antidepressant activity in anxious and depressed humans [2]. Additionally, antioxidative and cytotoxic effects of chamomile against cancer cells have been reported [18]. ...
Article
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In the present study, we investigated the effects of the Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) hydroalcoholic extract on anxiety and depression using a scopolamine rat model. Behavioural procedures for anxiety and depression were assessed in rats using elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests. The chamomile extract (25 and 75 mg/kg b.w.) was given intraperitoneally once daily for 21 days, and scopolamine (0.7 mg/kg b.w.) was injected 30 minutes before the behavioural tests to induce anxiety and depression. The extract efficacy was matched by those elicited by diazepam (1.5 mg/kg b.w.) and tramadol (10 mg/kg b.w.) for anxiolytic and antidepressant studies. Our results demonstrated that the extract abolishes scopolamine-induced increasing of anxiety and depressive-like responses and exhibited therapeutic benefits for the management of psychological ailments. © 2019, Romanian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.
... Os resultados estão relacionados com estudos envolvendo a atividade da camomila frente a doenças crônicas, tendo por exemplo o controle glicêmico e perfil lipídico sérico em paciente com diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (RAFRAF et al., 2014) e distúrbios do sono e ansiedade, levando em consideração a fundamentação baseada na medicina popular (MAO et al., 2016;ADIB, MOUSAVI, 2017;ZENI et al., 2017;KEEFE et al., 2018) e identificação do teor de aminoácidos livres presentes nas flores de camomila como, alanina, prolina, leucina e outros, utilizando o método cromatográfico muitos estudos vem mostrando a eficiência da camomila sobre infestações parasitárias como a helmintíase e amebíase (HAJAJI et al., 2017;HAJAJI et al., 2018), Da mesma forma, utilizando o descritor "chamomile", a busca revelou 2515 publicações entre 1914 e 2018 (Figura 1). No que se refere aos artigos científicos envolvendo o temo "chamomile", estudos demonstraram sua eficácia quando utilizada como antidepressivo, antialérgico e anti-osteoporose, além de melhorar desordens no trato gastrointestinal AMSTERDAM et al., 2012;SOHGAURA et al., 2012;AGAH et al., 2015), sendo que muitos dos artigos encontrados também eram vistos nos outros bancos de dados, já que o Scopus faz parte de um grande grupo editorial de revistas científicas (Elsevier). ...
Article
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A Matricaria recutita L. (camomila) é uma planta pertencente à família Asteraceae que é bastante utilizada na medicina popular devido às suas várias aplicações biológicas como, por exemplo, atividade antidiarreica, anti-inflamatória, antioxidante, gastroprotetora, antibacteriana, entre outras. O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar uma prospecção científica e tecnológica da planta Matricaria recutita conhecida popularmente como camomila. A prospecção científica foi realizada pesquisando todos os artigos científicos publicados até junho de 2015 nas bases de dados do Pubmed, Web of ScienceTM, Scopus e Scielo utilizando separadamente no descritor o nome científico e o nome popular da planta, e observando o ano da publicação. Já a prospecção tecnológica foi realizada nos bancos de dados USPTO, EPO, WIPO e INPI selecionando as patentes que possuíam o nome científico ou o nome popular da planta no título e/ou resumo, observando a classificação, o ano e os países de depósitos. Desse modo, verificou-se que nas bases de dados de artigos científicos e nos bancos de depósitos de patentes, os trabalhos publicados envolvem principalmente o nome popular da espécie quando comparado ao nome científico, esses resultados podem ser explicados pelo fato da planta ser conhecida mundialmente como camomila. Além disso, a referida prospecção teve como resultados a utilização da planta em diversas finalidades, tais como: formulações farmacêuticas, produtos alimentícios e aplicações industriais na área cosmética. Dessa forma, a planta possui grande relevância para as áreas de ciência e tecnologia. Palavras-chave: Prospecção tecnológica; camomila; Matricaria recutita.
... Os resultados estão relacionados com estudos envolvendo a atividade da camomila frente a doenças crônicas, tendo por exemplo o controle glicêmico e perfil lipídico sérico em paciente com diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (RAFRAF et al., 2014) e distúrbios do sono e ansiedade, levando em consideração a fundamentação baseada na medicina popular (MAO et al., 2016;ADIB, MOUSAVI, 2017;ZENI et al., 2017;KEEFE et al., 2018) e identificação do teor de aminoácidos livres presentes nas flores de camomila como, alanina, prolina, leucina e outros, utilizando o método cromatográfico muitos estudos vem mostrando a eficiência da camomila sobre infestações parasitárias como a helmintíase e amebíase (HAJAJI et al., 2017;HAJAJI et al., 2018), Da mesma forma, utilizando o descritor "chamomile", a busca revelou 2515 publicações entre 1914 e 2018 (Figura 1). No que se refere aos artigos científicos envolvendo o temo "chamomile", estudos demonstraram sua eficácia quando utilizada como antidepressivo, antialérgico e anti-osteoporose, além de melhorar desordens no trato gastrointestinal AMSTERDAM et al., 2012;SOHGAURA et al., 2012;AGAH et al., 2015), sendo que muitos dos artigos encontrados também eram vistos nos outros bancos de dados, já que o Scopus faz parte de um grande grupo editorial de revistas científicas (Elsevier). ...
... Graham et al. (2005a) analyzed the behavior of 55 shelter dogs during exposure to 4 essential oils, namely chamomile, lavender, peppermint and rosemary. According to previous results with studies on humans (Motomura et al., 2001;Amsterdam, 2012) chamomile and, to a greater extent, lavender resulted in dogs spending more time performing behaviors suggestive of relaxation. Specifically, they spent less time moving and more time resting than in any other experimental condition. ...
Article
Millions of dogs enter public and private shelters every year. Shelters are often very stressful environments to dogs, which are kept in very limited space and are impeded to appease their social motivations. Furthermore, the environmental stimuli provided are generally quantitatively - hyper/hypo-stimulation - and qualitatively inadequate. In such conditions dogs are likely to develop abnormal behaviors as maladaptive coping strategies that are not only a symptom of low welfare, but they also drastically decrease their chances of being permanently adopted. Environmental enrichment, such as training sessions, additional cage furniture and food-filled toys have been shown to decrease levels of stress in confined dogs. However, many of these programs require a noticeable financial and time commitment. Unfortunately, many shelter running institutions lack necessary funds, personnel and time to provide their dogs with complex environmental enrichment programs. In this light, sensory stimulation may represent a scientifically valid, low-cost and no time-wasting instrument to enhance the average level of welfare of shelter dogs, limit the development of behavioral problems and increase dog adoptability.
... An 8 week double-blind RCT involving 57 GAD patients showed significantly greater reductions in anxiety from chamomile (220 mg, 1 to 4 times daily) on the HAM-A scale when compared with the placebo group(Amsterdam et al., 2009). A post hoc analysis of the same sample found that chamomile may also reduce comorbid depression (HAM-D rated) in anxious patients(Amsterdam et al., 2012).Two further clinical trials reported both short-and long-term (i.e., 8 and 38 weeks, respectively) effects of anxiety treatment using 1,500 mg of chamomile (500 mg capsule 3 times daily) in 179 patients with GAD. At Week 8, 58% of patients met the criteria for clinical response in the chamomile group, with significant reductions in mean anxiety (GAD-7) across the entire sample. ...
Article
This paper provides a 10‐year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive–compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders. High‐quality evidence was found to exist for the use of Piper methysticum (Kava), Passiflora spp. (passionflower) and Galphimia glauca (galphimia) for anxiety disorders; and Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for major depressive disorder. Other encouraging herbal medicines with preliminary evidence include Curcuma longa (turmeric) in depression, Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) in affective disorders, and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) as an adjunctive treatment in Schizophrenia. Although depression and anxiety are commonly researched, many other mental disorders still require further prospective investigation. Although the previous review suggested increasing the adjunctive study of select herbal medicines with pharmaceuticals, this was still only found to sparingly occur in research designs. Aside from this, future focus should involve the incorporation of more biomarker analysis, in particular pharmacogenomics, to determine genetic factors moderating response to herbal medicines.
... Matricaria recutita (Babunah) is an annual, aromatic herb plant having an erect stem. It possesses active compounds like essential oil, bisabolol, spathulenol, glycosides, polysaccharides, amino acids and tannins etc. [40,41]. In Fig. 1, we have shown the dry mass of Matricaria recutita (Babunah) plant which is used for the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles. ...
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Silver (Ag) nanoparticles comprise a highly selective approach for development of nanosensors for the detection of Hg2 + ions. When Ag nanoparticles mixes with Hg2 + ions, loses its UV–Vis absorption intensity. Here, green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles was done using plant extract of Matricaria recutita (Babunah) under ambient conditions. Biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles are well-dispersed having quasi-spherical shape and average particle size of 11 nm. XRD, SAED and HRTEM analysis showed that nanoparticles are well crystalline in nature and having cubic phase of geometry. We report here highly selective colorimetric detection of mercury ions (Hg2 +) using biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles.
... Many researches investigations showed that Matricaria chamomilla act as anti-inflammatory (Mazokopakis et al., 2005), antispasmodic (Maschi et al., 2008), antibacterial (Shikov et al., 2008), digestive (Kato et al., 2008), antioxidant and antidiabetic (Cemek et al., 2008) activities. In several animal studies, anxiolytic (Amsterdam et al., 2012), antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering, wound healing (Jarrahi et al., 2010). In an animal study, the extracts refrain from producing reactive oxygen species and protecting against hematological parameters (Jabri et al., 2016) Thus, current research conducted to explain the physiological effects of aqueous Metracaria chamomilla extract in a dose of 70 mg/Kg B.W. on some hematological and biochemical parameters and carcass traits in male rabbits. ...
Article
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One of the challenges facing farmers is to ensure efficient integration of natural sources into animal feeds. This research was conducted to estimate the impact of Matricaria chamomilla (MC) flowers aqueous extract on the hematological and biochemical parameters as well as carcass traits in adult male rabbits. Twenty Iraqi local male rabbits growing rabbits have been divided randomly into two groups (10 rabbits per group). The Control group intubated normal saline without adding extract. Rabbits in the treatment group (T-group) was received 70% chamomile flowers extract orally. All rabbits were intubated daily for 60 days. MC flowers aqueous extract lead to significant increasing (P<0.05) in total RBCs, Hb content, Hematocrit ratio and WBCs; while platelet count displayed a significant decreasing (P<0.05) in treated group values in comparison with a control group. Moreover, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase activity (AP), serum urea and Creatinine concentrations revealed significant decreasing (P<0.05) in (T-group) in comparing with the control group. On the other hand, Total protein and Albumin give significant increment in their values at (T-group) while Globulin values did not change statistically. Lipid profile tests: Total Cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TAG), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL) concentrations revealed meaningful decreasing (P<0.05) in (T group) values, while significant increasing (P<0.05) in High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison with the control group. All carcass traits: Long carcass, Circumference hip carcass, Lumbar carcass circumference, Skin and Legs and Length of the rabbit carcass showed a significant increment (P<0.05) and improvement in (T-group) in comparison with control.
... Many researches investigations showed that Matricaria chamomilla act as anti-inflammatory (Mazokopakis et al., 2005), antispasmodic (Maschi et al., 2008), antibacterial (Shikov et al., 2008), digestive (Kato et al., 2008), antioxidant and antidiabetic (Cemek et al., 2008) activities. In several animal studies, anxiolytic (Amsterdam et al., 2012), antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering, wound healing (Jarrahi et al., 2010). In an animal study, the extracts refrain from producing reactive oxygen species and protecting against hematological parameters (Jabri et al., 2016) Thus, current research conducted to explain the physiological effects of aqueous Metracaria chamomilla extract in a dose of 70 mg/Kg B.W. on some hematological and biochemical parameters and carcass traits in male rabbits. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the challenges facing farmers is to ensure efficient integration of natural sources into animal feeds. This research was conducted to estimate the impact of Matricaria chamomilla (MC) flowers aqueous extract on the hematological and biochemical parameters as well as carcass traits in adult male rabbits. Twenty Iraqi local male rabbits growing rabbits have been divided randomly into two groups (10 rabbits per group). The Control group intubated normal saline without adding extract. Rabbits in the treatment group (T-group) was received 70% chamomile flowers extract orally. All rabbits were intubated daily for 60 days. MC flowers aqueous extract lead to significant increasing (P<0.05) in total RBCs, Hb content, Hematocrit ratio and WBCs; while platelet count displayed a significant decreasing (P<0.05) in treated group values in comparison with a control group. Moreover, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase activity (AP), serum urea and Creatinine concentrations revealed significant decreasing (P<0.05) in (T-group) in comparing with the control group. On the other hand, Total protein and Albumin give significant increment in their values at (T-group) while Globulin values did not change statistically. Lipid profile tests: Total Cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TAG), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL) concentrations revealed meaningful decreasing (P<0.05) in (T group) values, while significant increasing (P<0.05) in High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison with the control group. All carcass traits: Long carcass, Circumference hip carcass, Lumbar carcass circumference, Skin and Legs and Length of the rabbit carcass showed a significant increment (P<0.05) and improvement in (T-group) in comparison with control.
... 80,81 Moreover, several works have reported the effect of chamomile on anxiety behavior modulation, where Matricaria recutita flowers had clear anxiolytic activity without incidence of sedation or muscle relaxation effects at doses similar to those used for classical benzodiazepines. [81][82][83] Furthermore, CDE also showed an anxiolytic effect even when compared to the control group. This can be explained by the fact that several chamomile flavonoids may produce anxiolytic activity by affecting serotonin, noradrenalin, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and dopamine neurotransmission or by modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function. ...
Article
An abundant literature suggests that obesity-associated with taking a high fat diet is related to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, metabolic disorders may be involved in the induction of the anxiogenic-like symptoms. The current study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which a high fat diet (HFD) can cause several complications in the WISTAR rats (Rattus norvegicus) brain. Oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by chamomile decoction extract (CDE) were also studied. The results demonstrated that the increased body and brain weight, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities as well as hypercholezterolaemia in response to HFD taking were correlated with anxiogenic-like symptoms. Moreover, HFD feed caused a brain oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as SOD, CAT and GPx, depletion of a non-enzymatic antioxidant such as sulfhydryl groups and GSH. Importantly, the results also show that HFD also provoked a cerebral overload in reactive oxygen species such as OH•, H2O2 and O ∙ − 2 as well as brain inflammation assessed by the overproduction of cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6. Interestingly, all neurobehavioral changes and all the biochemical and molecular disturbances were abolished in HFD-fed rats treated with CDE. Our results provide clear evidence that obesity and depression as well as anxiety are finely correlated and that M. recutita's decoction may prove to be a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate the behavioral disorders, the biochemical alterations and the neuroinflammation associated to the obesity.
... 80,81 Moreover, several works have reported the effect of chamomile on anxiety behavior modulation, where Matricaria recutita flowers had clear anxiolytic activity without incidence of sedation or muscle relaxation effects at doses similar to those used for classical benzodiazepines. [81][82][83] Furthermore, CDE also showed an anxiolytic effect even when compared to the control group. This can be explained by the fact that several chamomile flavonoids may produce anxiolytic activity by affecting serotonin, noradrenalin, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and dopamine neurotransmission or by modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function. ...
Article
An abundant literature suggests that obesity-associated with taking a high fat diet is related to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, metabolic disorders may be involved in the induction of the anxiogenic-like symptoms. The current study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which a high fat diet (HFD) can cause several complications in the WISTAR rats (Rattus norvegicus) brain. Oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by chamomile decoction extract (CDE) were also studied. The results demonstrated that the increased body and brain weight, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities as well as hypercholezterolaemia in response to HFD taking were correlated with anxiogenic-like symptoms. Moreover, HFD feed caused a brain oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as SOD, CAT and GPx, depletion of a non-enzymatic antioxidant such as sulfhydryl groups and GSH. Importantly, the results also show that HFD also provoked a cerebral overload in reactive oxygen species such as OH • , H 2 O 2 and O †− 2 as well as brain inflammation assessed by the overproduction of cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6. Interestingly, all neurobehavioral changes and all the biochemical and molecular disturbances were abolished in HFD-fed rats treated with CDE. Our results provide clear evidence that obesity and depression as well as anxiety are finely correlated and that M. recutita's decoction may prove to be a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate the behavioral disorders, the biochemical alterations and the neuroinflammation associated to the obesity.
... Essential oils used in aromatherapy are hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic molecules extracted in concentrated form from herbs, flowers, and other plant parts (Wang and Heinbockel, 2018). Researchers have analyzed the physiological effects of volatile aromatic molecules from pharmacological and aromatherapy perspectives and suggested that aromatherapy be a natural therapy for patients suffering from anxiety or depression (Tsang and Ho, 2010;Saiyudthong and Marsden, 2011;Amsterdam et al., 2012). Specifically, a significant reason for aromatherapy's effectiveness in treating mood disorders is the presence of desirable chemical components and biological activities in essential oils such as limonene, linalool, linalyl acetate, geraniol, citronellol, and more. ...
Article
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Mood disorders, also often referred to as affective disorders, are a group of psychiatric illnesses that severely impact mood and its related functions. The high medical expenditures have placed a significant financial burden on patients and their families. Aromatherapy is an alternative and complementary treatment that utilizes essential oils (EOs) or volatile oils (VOs) to achieve major therapeutic goals. In general, EOs are volatile chemicals that enter the body primarily through skin absorption and/or nasal inhalation. In addition, they can work through oral administration. Inhalation aromatherapy has shown unique advantages for treating mood disorders, especially depression, anxiety and mental disorders such as sleep disorder, which have been validated over the last decade through clinical and animal studies. Accumulating evidence has shown that EOs or VOs can bypass the blood-brain barrier to target brain tissue through the nasal-brain pathway. Subsequently, they act on the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and limbic system in the brain to improve symptoms of anxiety, depression and improve sleep quality. Here, we review the natural aromatic plants’ volatiles or essential oils used commonly as adjuncts to manage mood disorders and illustrate the mechanisms of inhalation aromatherapy, and mainly summarized the application of transnasal inhalation aromatherapy in depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. We conclude that aromatherapy does not cause side-effects, which is vastly different from commonly used psychotropic drugs. Inhalation aromatherapy via brain-targeted nasal delivery offers potentially efficacious treatment for mental disorders and merits further study.
... Kim et al. [24] also indicated that apigenin combined with the targeted therapy, PLX4032 (BRAFV600E inhibitor), synergistically inhibits thyroid carcinoma cell viability; the protein levels of cleaved PARP1 and cleaved caspase-3 were elevated, and phospho-ERK and phospho-AKT were reduced as compared with therapy with either agent alone. Furthermore, apigenin has been investigated in several clinical trials involving Alzheimer's disease [25], insomnia [26], anxiety disorder [27], knee osteoarthritis [28], and depression [29], and the results indicated that apigenin could improve brain cognitive performance, provide modest improvement in daytime functioning, reduce demand for analgesics, reduce anxiety disorder symptoms, and lower the score on the Hamilton depression rating scale. Although apigenin is known as a health-promoting and anticancer agent, its use in chemotherapy in various cancers is not widely accepted by clinical practitioners, and thus the beneficial anticancer effects of apigenin need identifying, with more precise mechanisms ascertained via in vitro and in vivo studies. ...
Article
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Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent malignancy in women. Apigenin is a natural plant-derived flavonoid present in common fruit, vegetables, and herbs, and has been found to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as a health-promoting agent. It also exhibits important anticancer effects in various cancers, but its effects are not widely accepted by clinical practitioners. The present study investigated the anticancer effects and molecular mechanisms of apigenin in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. HeLa and C33A cells were treated with different concentrations of apigenin. The effects of apigenin on cell viability, cell cycle distribution, migration potential, phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT, the integrin β1-FAK signaling pathway, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related protein levels were investigated. Mechanisms identified from the in vitro study were further validated in a cervical tumor xenograft mouse model. Apigenin effectively inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells and cervical tumors in xenograft mice. Furthermore, the apigenin down-regulated FAK signaling (FAK, paxillin, and integrin β1) and PI3K/AKT signaling (PI3K, AKT, and mTOR), inactivated or activated various signaling targets, such as Bcl-2, Bax, p21cip1, CDK1, CDC25c, cyclin B1, fibronectin, N-cadherin, vimentin, laminin, and E-cadherin, promoted mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, induced G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest, and reduced EMT to inhibit HeLa and C33A cancer cell migration, producing anticancer effects in cervical cancer. Thus, apigenin may act as a chemotherapeutic agent for cervical cancer treatment.
... Example-Genistein, Daidzein, Glycitein, etc. [14,15] Anti-inflammatory [16], Cardioprotective effect [17 -19], Hepatoprotective [20], Antineoplastic activity [21], Metabolic disease [22], urogenital disease [23], dermal disease [24], respiratory disease [25], oral health [26] Example- [27 -29] Caffeic acid (Anticarcinogenic activity [30], Antiinflammatory [31], Anti-oxidant activity [32], cosmetic use [33]); Chlorogenic acid ( Antidiabetic and antiobesity activity [34], antihypertensive [35], antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect [36], antimicrobial effect [37], neuroprotective effect [38]; p-Coumaric acid [UV protective, hypopigmentation and antimelanogenic effect [39], immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activity [40], antiplatelet activity [41 ], Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity [42]) [43], anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic [44], Antiaflatoxin and antifungal activity [45] Antiatherosclerotic [46], Anti-angiogenic [47], Antioxidant [48], Anti-ischemic [49], fibrinolytic [50], hepatoprotective [51], Ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor activity [52], Protease inhibitor action [53 ], Protein kinase inhibitor action [54 ]) [73], antiinflammatory activity [74], antiallergic activity [75 ], analgesic activity [76], hepatoprotective and hypouricemic activities [77], anticataract [78], antidiabetic and antiobesity activities [79], antimicrobial activity [68]). Quercitin (antiinflammatory activity [80], cardiovascular disease prevention [81], neuroprotective activity [82], cancer and apoptasis [83], ulcer and gastritis [84], antimicrobial activity [85], for the treatment of allergies, asthma and hay fever [86] Apigenin (As nutraceuticals [87], as anticancer [88], as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory [89], in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease [90], insomnia [91], knee osteoarthritis [92], anxiety disorder and depression [93], anti-diabetic activity [94]); Luteolin (In the treatment ...
Chapter
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Phenolic compounds play an essential role in plants and foods. These compounds are well known for their biological and pharmaceutical activities. These compounds act as colorants and antioxidants. Research on phenolic compounds is mainly focused on their antioxidant properties. These compounds showed significant effects on chronic degenerative diseases, such as central neurodegenerative disorders, cataracts, macular degeneration (age-related), diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular complication, and cancer. These compounds also showed implications on human health since increased exposure to free radicals might lead to an increased risk of degenerative diseases. Fruits and vegetables are rich in phenolic compounds. The phenolic compound consists of one (phenolic acids) or more polyphenols aromatic structures attached to a hydroxyl group. The phenolic compound is found in combination with mono or polysaccharides, and they can occur in the group as an ester or methyl ester. Their biological and pharmaceutical activities are based on their phenolic ring and a hydroxyl group. Apart from antioxidant activity, they have many other therapeutic effects on human health. Among the several classes of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids are considered as main dietary phenolic compounds. In this chapter, we have summarized the biological and pharmaceutical activities related to different classes of phenolic compounds.
... Cinquenta e sete pacientes, camomila (n=28) e placebo (n=29), pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos. Foi observada uma redução significativa na média total da escala de avaliação de ansiedade de Hamilton (p<0,05) e no item de pontuação de depressão (p<0,05) para camomila em comparação com o placebo em todos os indivíduos (39). ...
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O transtorno de ansiedade generalizado (TAG) é uma doença de alta prevalência devido ao estresse e à exigência contemporânea. Com isso, há grande uso de ansiolíticos com efeitos adversos. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar as plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos que constam nos documentos do Ministério da Saúde e podem ser indicadas por profissionais no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) para o tratamento complementar do TAG. Esta revisão bibliográfica foi elaborada principalmente pelos documentos do Ministério da Saúde (MS), o Memento Fitoterápico da Farmacopeia Brasileira (MFFB), o Formulário de Fitoterápicos – Farmacopeia Brasileira e a Relação Nacional de Plantas Medicinais de Interesse ao Sistema Único de Saúde (RENISUS). Além disso, foram realizadas pesquisas em livros e artigos científicos para complementar informação. Foi constatado que o MS incentiva o uso no SUS de seis plantas para o tratamento da TAG, Hypericum perforatum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Melissa officinalis L, Passiflora incarnata L., Piper methysticum G. Forst. e Valeriana officinalis L. Nesse contexto, foram destacadas sobre estas plantas, as indicações, a composição química, as evidências clínicas, os efeitos adversos, as contraindicações e as interações medicamentosas. Apesar dos benefícios da ampliação de opções no tratamento da TAG, existem os efeitos adversos e as interações medicamentosas. Desta forma, recomenda-se a indicação/prescrição, orientação e acompanhamento dos pacientes na utilização desta terapia integrativa e complementar por profissionais capacitados.
... Indeed, the infusion (58%) and decoction (22%) preparations in this study are the frequently used methods (Fig. 3). This result is in agreement with other ethnobotanical studies where infusion and decoction are the most frequent modes of preparation [4, 41,[73][74][75][76]. ...
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CITATIONS 2 READS 98 7 authors, including: Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Ethnopharmacological survey and evaluation of the therapeutic index of some plants used in the treatment of female infertility in Morocco and evaluation of their therapeutic indexes. View project Abstract Depression and anxiety represent a major mental health problem in the world. The majority of Moroccan people use traditional medicine for their health needs, including various forms of depression and anxiety. The aim of this work is to make an inventory of plant species used in folk medicine for the management of depression and anxiety in Fez-Meknes regions. Established questionnaires were administered to 243 interviews in 4 communities within Fez-Meknes region. With traditional health practitioners, herbalists and consumer. Plant species belonging to 31 families were reported. The most frequently cited families are Lamiaceae followed by Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Verbena-ceae. Leaves were the major plant parts used forming 58% solely and 73 mixed with other parts. This was followed by seeds (17%), flowers (6%), roots (2%) and fruits and bark (1% each). The current survey represents a useful documentation , which can use to preserve knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in this region and to explore the phyto-chemical and pharmacological potential of medicinal plants. Résumé La dépression et l'anxiété constituent un problème majeur de santé mentale dans le monde. La majorité des Mar-ocains utilisent la médecine traditionnelle pour répondre à leurs besoins en matière de santé, y compris pour diverses formes de dépression et d'anxiété. Le but de ce travail est de faire un inventaire des espèces de plantes utilisées en méde-cine traditionnelle pour soigner la dépression et l'anxiété dans les régions de Fès-Meknès. Des questionnaires établis ont été administrés lors de 243 entretiens dans quatre communautés de cette région, avec les guérisseurs, les herboristes et les con-sommateurs. Cinquante-cinq espèces de plantes appartenant à 31 familles ont été rapportées. Les familles les plus citées sont les Lamiaceae, suivies des Asteraceae, des Apiaceae et des Verbenaceae. Les feuilles constituent la principale partie uti-lisée de la plante, seules (58 %) ou mélangées à d'autres parties (73 %) ; viennent ensuite les graines (17 %), les fleurs (6 %), les racines (2 %) et les fruits et l'écorce (1 % chacun). L'enquête actuelle constitue une documentation utile qui peut servir à préserver les connaissances sur l'utilisation des plantes médicinales dans cette région et à explorer le potentiel phytochimique et pharmacologique des plantes médicinales.
... Studies that use a small sample size have made significant contributions. For example, an exploratory study that the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) funded demonstrated results with public health relevance despite a small sample size (Amsterdam et al., 2012). The authors concluded that their findings were exploratory. ...
... Like many substances of plant origin, apigenin has also been used for a long time through sources that are part of traditional medicines or common uses, remembering, in this regard, honey and chamomile [130,131]. There are many studies in which apigenin shows a very promising potential as an antioxidant [132] and as an adjuvant for numerous pathological states, such as diabetes, cancer, depression, amnesia and Alzheimer's [131]; on the other hand, the studies on humans are few and the compound is extracted mainly from chamomile. Zick et al. tested a standardized chamomile extract that provided 15 mg of apigenin on 34 patients in double blind versus placebo, evaluating the quality of sleep and therefore the impact on insomnia, showing moderate positive effects: different quantities should probably be tested, as there are no adverse effects [133]. ...
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It is now well established that polyphenols are a class of natural substance that offers numerous health benefits; they are present in all plants in very different quantities and types. On the other hand, their bioavailability, and efficacy is are not always well proven. Therefore, this work aims to discuss some types of polyphenols belonging to Mediterranean foods. We chose six polyphenols—(1) Naringenin, (2) Apigenin, (3) Kaempferol, (4) Hesperidin, (5) Ellagic Acid and (6) Oleuropein—present in Mediterranean foods, describing dietary source and their chemistry, as well as their pharmacokinetic profile and their use as nutraceuticals/supplements, in addition to the relevant element of their capability in modulating microRNAs expression profile.
... For instance, C. aurantium essential oil used through inhalation has shown a reduction of the signs and symptoms associated with anxiety in patients with chronic diseases (Pimenta et al., 2016;Moslemi et al., 2019). M. chamomilla, G. biloba, and P. edulis, orally administered, and C. sativa, smoked, decreased symptoms associated with anxiety and depression in acute and long-term studies (Woelk et al., 2007;Mao et al., 2016;Amsterdam et al., 2012;Bahorik et al., 2018). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance There are plant species used in the Mexican traditional medicine for the empirical treatment of anxiety and depression. Aim of the study This work assessed the prevalence of self-medication with medicinal plants and the prevalence of the concomitant use of prescribed psychiatric drugs and medicinal plants for treating symptoms associated with anxiety and depression during the Covid-19 lockdown in Mexico. Materials and methods The suspected adverse reactions associated with drug-herb interactions were assessed. The factors associated with self-medication, the concomitant use of herb-drug combinations, and the presence of adverse reactions due their combined use is also reported. The study was descriptive and cross-sectional using an online questionnaire conducted among population with symptoms associated with anxiety and depression (n=2100) from seven states of central-western Mexico. Results The prevalence of the use of herbs (61.9%) and the concomitant use of drug-herb combinations (25.3%) were associated with being diagnosed with mental illness [OR:2.195 (1.655 – 2.912)] and the use of psychiatric medications [OR:307.994 (178.609 – 531.107)], respectively. The presence of adverse reactions (n=104) by the concomitant use of drug-herb combinations was associated with being unemployed [p=0.004, OR: 3.017 (1.404–6.486)]. Conclusion Health professionals should be aware if their patients concomitantly use medicinal plants and psychiatric drugs. Public health campaigns should promote the possible adverse reactions that might produce the concomitant use of drug-herb combinations for mental illnesses.
Article
An abundant literature suggests that obesity-associated with taking a high fat diet is related to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, metabolic disorders may be involved in the induction of the anxiogenic-like symptoms. The current study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which a high fat diet (HFD) can cause several complications in the WISTAR rats (Rattus norvegicus) brain. Oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by chamomile decoction extract (CDE) were also studied. The results demonstrated that the increased body and brain weight, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities as well as hypercholezterolaemia in response to HFD taking were correlated with anxiogenic-like symptoms. Moreover, HFD feed caused a brain oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as SOD, CAT and GPx, depletion of a non-enzymatic antioxidant such as sulfhydryl groups and GSH. Importantly, the results also show that HFD also provoked a cerebral overload in reactive oxygen species such as OH•, H2O2 and O∙−2 as well as brain inflammation assessed by the overproduction of cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6. Interestingly, all neurobehavioral changes and all the biochemical and molecular disturbances were abolished in HFD-fed rats treated with CDE. Our results provide clear evidence that obesity and depression as well as anxiety are finely correlated and that M. recutita’s decoction may prove to be a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate the behavioral disorders, the biochemical alterations and the neuroinflammation associated to the obesity
Article
Nowadays, herbal extracts are considered to be a potential source for developing new drugs that will overcome resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. This study was aimed to explore the efficacy of several Egyptian plant extracts against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro for future development of a new, safe, and effective compound for T. gondii. Methanol extracts from Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile), Laurus nobilis, Citrullus colocynthis, Cinnamum camphora, Boswellia scara, and Melissa officionalis plants and oil extracts (either essential or fixed oils) of some plants such as: lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), marjoram (Origanum majorana), watercress (Nasturtium officionale), wheat germ (Triticum aestivum), sesame (Sesamum indicum), rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), clove (Syzygum aromaticum), jojoba (Simmondsia chinesis), and basil (Ocimum basilicum) were investigated for their anti-Toxoplasma activities. The methanol extracts from C. colocynthis and L. nobilis and the oil extracts from lemon grass and marjoram were active against T. gondii with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 22.86 µg/ml, 31.35 µg/ml, 4.6 µg/ml, and 26.24 µg/ml, respectively. Their selectivity index (SI) values were <10. Interestingly, the methanol extract from M. chamomilla and oil from citronella had the lowest IC50 values for T. gondii (3.56 µg/ml and 2.54 µg/ml, respectively) and the highest SI values (130.33 and 15.02, respectively). In conclusion, methanol extract from M. chamomilla and oil from citronella might be potential sources of novel therapies for treating toxoplasmosis.
Chapter
The synonym is M. chamomilla L., and M. recutita is commonly known as German chamomile and true chamomile (Kreitmair 1951). The plant is native to Afghanistan, Europe and Iran (Formentini and Rocchi 1961). The dried flower heads are utilized in ethnomedicine for preparation of tea with antispasmodic (spasmolytic) and sedative properties (Viola et al. 1995).
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Throughout history, Matricaria chamomilla L. (M. chamomilla) has had countless applications in traditional medicine. Its extracts, oils and teas have been used for treating diverse ailments, including wounds, rheumatic pain, menstrual cramps, eye and ear infections, gastrointestinal disorders, and respiratory illnesses. These traditional applications guided modern research into its medicinal effects through increasingly detailed in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials. A plethora of preclinical studies have assessed the antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, anti-diarrheal, antispasmodic, wound healing, and anticancer properties of M. chamomilla. These pharmacological properties of M. chamomilla are attributed to its rich reservoir of phytochemical constituents, primarily its flavonoids, such as luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin, as well as its sesquiterpenes, mainly chamazulene and (−)-α-bisabolol. Remarkably, preclinical studies have paved the way for progress towards controlled human clinical trials. M. chamomilla has been clinically evaluated for its effects against anxiety, sleep-deficiency, depression, as well as oral, women-related, inflammatory, metabolic, dermatological, gastrointestinal disorders, and children-related conditions. In this sense, this review elucidates and discusses the recent findings for M. chamomilla development as a therapeutic agent that possesses health-promoting, disease-preventing and even treatment properties. The traditional medicinal uses and evidence-based research studies, which were performed in cell culture, animal models and human subjects to assess the pharmacological activities of M. chamomilla, are extensively highlighted. Particular emphasis is given to some phytochemical constituents of M. chamomilla, which demonstrate great potential in treating various conditions.
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Introdução: O Transtorno de Ansiedade Generalizada (TAG) se caracteriza pelos sentimentos vagos desagradáveis e de preocupações excessivas, um mal-estar psíquico, relacionado ao medo, a apreensão e a incerteza, provocando uma tensão e/ou um desconforto antecipado do desconhecido. Algumas plantas medicinais são utilizadas para o tratamento do TAG, como por exemplo, à Matricaria recutita, Valeriana officinalis, Passiflora incarnata e Piper methysticum. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi delinear a prevalência de sintomatologia de TAG, avaliar as variáveis demográficas, o conhecimento e uso de plantas medicinais no tratamento de TAG no contexto acadêmico. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo observacional do tipo transversal, realizado em cursos da área da saúde da Universidade Anhembi Morumbi (UAM) em São Paulo-SP, Brasil. Para esta pesquisa, foram considerados elegíveis os candidatos matriculados em cursos da Escola da Saúde e Bem estar, devidamente matriculados entre o primeiro e sexto ano, com idade igual ou maior que 18 anos. Resultados: Apenas 13,3% dos participantes não se consideram ansiosos, contudo, foi constatado que, mesmo o participante levando em consideração não ser ansioso, se queixou de alguns sintomas físicos, psicológicos ou ambos relacionados a quadros de ansiedade. A pesquisa identificou que 31,6% dos participantes relataram que já fizeram uso de medicamentos alopáticos e 31,1% relataram o uso de plantas medicinais para tratamento de TAG. Conclusão: Mesmo no ambiente acadêmico nota-se que 38,9% dos universitários não possuem conhecimento sobre as terapias alternativas
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Nutraceuticals and phytotherapy offer an appealing integrative approach to managing common complaints during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Many herbal supplements have long standing traditional uses, but limited clinical evidence exists establishing safety and effectiveness of their use in pregnancy and breastfeeding. Additionally, concerns arise as these supplements may not be regulated or may be subject to less regulation than pharmaceutical products. Labeling may not adequately capture the ingredients included in the supplement, introducing additional safety concerns. In the chapter that follows, herbal supplements regularly used during pregnancy, including German and Roman chamomile, echinacea, garlic, ginger, lavender, lemon balm, mallow, marshmallow, the mints, psyllium, and witch hazel, are reviewed for available evidence.
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Abstract Background & Aim: Elderly people often suffer from sleep disorders. Chamomile due to its extensive health properties such as sedation could be effective in improving sleep quality in elderly people. This study aimed to determine the effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract on sleep quality in elderly people admitted to nursing homes of Isfahan in 2014. Material & Methods: It was a quasi-experimental clinical trial. The sample consisted of 77 elderlies hospitalized in selected nursing homes of Isfahan-Iran. The sample was first recruited by convenience sampling method and then assigned to experimental and control groups. The intervention group received 400 mg oral capsules of chamomile twice daily after lunch and after dinner for 4 weeks. The control group did not receive any interventions. Sleep quality was compared before and after intervention using the Sleep Quality Questionnaire Index (PSQI). Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and paired t and independent t tests, one way ANOVA and Liner Regression Analysis, using SPSS-PC (v.17). Results: There was no significant difference between the mean score of sleep quality in the experimental and control group before intervention (P>0.05). A significant difference was seen after intervention between the mean score of sleep quality in experimental and control group (P
Thesis
De tout temps et dans de nombreuses cultures, l’Homme a cherché dans son environnement, et plus particulièrement dans les plantes, les moyens de se soigner. Aujourd’hui, même si notre médecine moderne a permis l’émergence d’un arsenal thérapeutique efficace, la phytothérapie connait un regain d’intérêt. Cette thèse a pour but de constituer une aide utile à l’usage du praticien souhaitant conseiller la phytothérapie comme traitement de l’insomnie. Nous avons ainsi fait un rappel de l’architecture et de la physiologie du sommeil ainsi que des différents types d’insomnies. Rappel suivi d’un retour en arrière sur les usages de drogues végétales dans les médecines traditionnelles. Nous avons abordé le rôle du pharmacien et son conseil, et présenté l’état de nos connaissances sur les principales drogues végétales disponibles et indiquées dans le traitement de l’insomnie. En plus de présenter ces différentes drogues végétales, nous nous sommes efforcés de confirmer les propriétés qui leurs sont traditionnellement attribuées. Nous avons ainsi compilé un grand nombre d’études scientifiques qui ont permis de citer de nombreux principes actifs, mécanismes d’action, et de confirmer l’efficacité de tel ou tel extrait de drogue végétale. Nous avons aussi regroupé les effets indésirables, cas de toxicité, intéractions et contreindications citées dans la littérature. De plus cette étude s’est étendue aux drogues permettant de traiter des facteurs importants souvent associés à l’insomnie : anxiété, dépression ou encore fatigue diurne.
Book
The Chemistry inside Spices & Herbs: Research and Development brings comprehensive information about the chemistry of spices and herbs with a focus on recent research in this field. The book is an extensive 2-part collection of 20 chapters contributed by experts in phytochemistry with the aim to give the reader deep knowledge about phytochemical constituents in herbal plants and their benefits. The contents include reviews on the biochemistry and biotechnology of spices and herbs, herbal medicines, biologically active compounds and their role in therapeutics among other topics. Chapters which highlight natural drugs and their role in different diseases and special plants of clinical significance are also included. Part I focuses on the general aspects of spice biotechnology, structure activity relationships and the natural products that can be used to treat different diseases - such as neurological diseases, inflammation, pain and infections. This part also covers information about phenolic compounds, flavonoids and turmeric supplements. This book is an ideal resource for scholars (in life sciences, phytomedicine and natural product chemistry) and general readers who want to understand the importance of herbs, spices and traditional medicine in pharmaceutical and clinical research.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Depression, one of the most common psychiatric disorders, is the fourth leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. A series of causes triggered depression, including psychological stress and conflict, as well as biological derangement, among which stress has a pivotal role in the development of depression. Traditional herbal medicine has been used for the treatment of various disorders including depression for a long history with multi-targets, multi-levels and multi-ways, attracting great attention from scholars. Recently, natural products have been commercialized as antidepressants which have become increasingly popular in the world health drug markets. Major research contributions in ethnopharmacology have generated and updated vast amount of data associated with natural products in antidepressant-like activity. Aims of the review This review aims to briefly discuss the pathological mechanism, animal models of stress-induced depression, traditional use of herbal medicines and especially recapitulate the natural products with antidepressant activity and their pharmacological functions and mechanism of action, which may contribute to a better understanding of potential therapeutic effects of natural products and the development of promising drugs with high efficacy and low toxicity for the treatment of stress-induced depression. Materials and methods The contents of this review were sourced from electronic databases including PubMed, Sci Finder, Web of Science, Science Direct, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Chinese Knowledge On frastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang, Chinese Scientific and Technological Periodical Database (VIP) and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM). Additional information was collected from Yao Zhi website (https://db.yaozh.com/). Data were obtained from April 1992 to June 2021. Only English language was applied to the search. The search terms were ‘stress-induced depression’, ‘pathological mechanism’ in the title and ‘stress’, ‘depression’, ‘animal model’ and ‘natural products’ in the whole text. Results Stress-induced depression is related to the monoaminergic system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, neuronal plasticity and a series of inflammatory factors. Four main types of animal models of stress-induced depression were represented. Fifty-eight bioactive phytochemical compounds, fifty-six herb medicines and five formulas from traditional Chinese medicine were highlighted, which exert antidepressant effects by inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO) reaction, alleviating dysfunction of the HPA axis and nerve injury, and possessing anti-inflammatory activities. Conclusions Natural products provide a large number of compounds with antidepressant-like effects, and their therapeutic impacts has been highlighted for a long time. This review summarized the pathological mechanism and animal models of stress-induced depression, and the natural products with antidepressant activity in particular, which will shed light on the action mechanism and clinical potential of these compounds. Natural products also have been a vital and promising source for future antidepressant drug discovery.
Article
Background & Objective: Nowadays, female infertility and abortion is considered one of the most important issues in the medical world. Due to high consumption of chamomile as a medicinal herb, this study aimed to investigate the effects of chamomile consumption on abortion, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH hormones and ovarian follicles in adult female rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 80 adult female rats were divided to 2 categories in 5 groups of 8 pregnant and non-pregnant rats, including control groups, sham group and groups receiving intraperitoneal doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg chamomile hydro-alcoholic extract. At the end of the day 16 of pregnancy, aborted fetuses in pregnant groups were counted, and in day 21, the number of follicles and corpora-lutea in non-pregnant groups was obtained by separating ovaries, and sexual hormone levels were measured after phlebotomizing the samples. The results were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver.18) using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Significant difference of data was set at p≤0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that chamomile caused a significant increase in the number of aborted fetuses and follicle atresia and a significant decrease (p≤0.05) in serum level of estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones as well as the number of pre-antral follicle, antral follicles, graph and corpora-lutea. Conclusion: The results showed chamomile extract decreased LH and FSH, thereby decreasing ovarian follicles, sexual hormones and aborted fetuses. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci. 2017; 17 (1) :22-31
Chapter
There are two types of chamomile most commonly used medicinally: German chamomile (Matricaria recutita/chamomilla) and Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The former is the more well-known variety often used in teas, tinctures, creams, and essential oils. Chamomile is known to be safe for producing calming effects on the central nervous system, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. This chapter examines some of the scientific research conducted on chamomile, both alone and in combination formulas, for treating numerous health conditions. It summarizes results from several human studies of the herb’s use in treating oral and dental, ENT, cardiometabolic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, and dermatologic disorders, among others. Finally, the chapter presents a list of chamomile’s Active Constituents, different Commonly Used Preparations and Dosage, and a Section on “Safety and Precaution” that examines side effects, toxicity, and disease and drug interactions.
Article
Sleep disorders are common among the general population and can generate health problems such as insomnia and anxiety. In addition to standard drugs and psychological interventions, there are different complementary plant-based therapies used to treat insomnia and anxiety. This review aimed to find and examine the most recent research on the use of herbal medicines for treating anxiety and insomnia as compiled from clinical trials, as well as to assess the safety and efficacy of these medicines and to elucidate their possible mechanisms of action. The process entailed a search of PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases from 2010 to 2020. The search terms included “sleep disorder”, “insomnia”, “sedative”, “hypnotic”, “anxiety”, “anxiolytic”, and “clinical trial”, combined with the search terms “herbs” and “medicinal plants”, in addition to individual herbal medicines by both their common and scientific names. This updated review, which focuses mainly on clinical trials, includes research on 23 medicinal plants and their combinations. Essential oils and their associations have also been reviewed. The efficacy of medicinal plants depends on treatment duration, types of study subjects, administration route, and treatment method. More clinical trials with an adequate, standardized design are necessary, as are more preclinical studies to continue studying the mechanisms of action. As a result of our work, we can conclude that the 3 plants with the most potential are valerian, passionflower, and ashwagandha, with the combination of valerian with hops and passionflower giving the best results in the clinical tests.
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Alzheimer disease (AD), an untreatable degenerative neurologic disease, mainly affects elderly people and results in impaired cognitive abilities in learning, thinking, and memory in the aged population. Despite its constantly growing global burden, there is no effective therapeutic strategy available to slow or treat this progressive disease. Current FDA-approved treatment options are palliative and provide only temporary relief of symptoms by changing the level of neurotransmitters in the brain. Therefore, curative treatment is urgently needed to overcome it. In several studies, Matricaria recutita L. has been found promising in the treatment of pathophysiologic processes of AD, and this anti-AD effect has been attributed to some secondary metabolites present in the plant.
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Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) encompasses a vast array of physical and psychological symptoms. Of the herbal supplements mentioned for remedy PMS symptoms, chamomile used as an effective herbal medicine. The overall purpose of this review was to determine the efficacy of chamomile on the treatment PMS. An extensive research review using Web of Science, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register database, PubMed, Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), CINAHL, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Psych INFO, Social Science Research Network, SID, Google Scholar, Iran Doc, Magiran and Iran Medex. Eligible studies were identified from English and Persian databases, published between 1990 and 2019. Studies were screened independently by two researchers who performed the data extraction. Of Twenty-seven studies identified, Eight RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Chamomile has been used to treat PMS relief because of therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory effects (Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol); anti-spasmodic effects (Apigenin, Quercetin, and Luteolin, Metoxicomarin, Matrisin, and Phytoestrogens); anti-anxiety effects (Glycine, Flavonoid). The results of this review show that Chamomile is effective for the treatment of PMS. Based on these results, we believe that Chamomile can be used as good herbal medicine to treat in women with PMS.
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Spices have been used since ancient times as a flavoring agent as well as an important medicinal resource. Biotechnology, using strategies such as cell, organ, and tissue culture, genetic engineering, and the application of nucleic acid markers can escalate the productivity and efficiency of spices. Cell, tissue, and plant organ culture have enabled the rapid and mass reproduction of many disease-free spice plants, which are uniform genetically and qualitatively. In recent years, cell and limb suspension (stem and hair roots) have been considered for producing secondary metabolites and for studying the biosynthesis pathway of metabolites. Plant genetic engineering has helped in the genetic identification and manipulation of enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites. Gene transformation has improved the production of secondary metabolites that have yield limitations. Molecular markers are powerful tools for accurately identifying important medicinal species, examining genetic diversity, classifying hereditary reserves, and determining their genetic map irrespective of their age, physiological, and environmental conditions. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods like restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) have revolutionized the study of genetic diversity, and the enzymes and genes implied in the secondary metabolites biosynthetic pathways can be studded by transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq). The ground-breaking genome editing techniques like Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), sequence-specific nucleases of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and zinc-finger nucleases could help in customizing the plants according to the requirements. This article provides an overview of various biotechnology solutions that increase the quality and productivity of spice plants.
Article
The potential of apigenin (APG) to enhance cisplatin’s (CDDP) chemotherapeutic efficacy was investigated in HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 liver cancer cell lines. The presence of 20 μM APG sensitized all cell lines to CDDP treatment (degree of sensitization based on the MTT assay: HepG2>Huh7>Hep3B). As reflected by sister chromatid exchange levels, the degree of genetic instability as well as DNA repair by homologous recombination differed among cell lines. CDDP and 20 μM APG cotreatment exhibited a synergistic genotoxic effect on Hep3B cells and a less than additive effect on HepG2 and Huh7 cells. Cell cycle delays were noticed during the first mitotic division in Hep3B and Huh7 cells and the second mitotic division in HepG2 cells. CDDP and CDDP + APG treatments reduced the clonogenic capacity of all cell lines; however, there was a discordance in drug sensitivity compared with the MMT assay. Furthermore, a senescence-like phenotype was induced, especially in Hep3B and Huh7 cells. Unlike CDDP monotherapy, the combined treatment exhibited a significant anti-invasive and anti-migratory action in all cancer cell lines. The fact that the three liver cancer cell lines responded differently, yet positively, to CDDP + APG cotreatment could be attributed to variations they present in gene expression. Complex mechanisms seem to influence cellular responses and cell fate.
Article
Background Dysmenorrhea is one of the most frequent pelvic pains among young women impairing their quality of life. Objective This research aims to investigate the effect of ginger-chamomile herbs plus honey in reducing dysmenorrhea pain, associated symptoms, and the extent of bleeding. Methods In this randomized clinical trial (IRCT No.: 2016100825031N5), 200 female students with primary dysmenorrhea from Arak universities were randomly divided into two groups. All the students were evaluated for one cycle without intervention, then group (A) received mefenamic acid (250 mg) and group (B) received ginger (1000 mg), chamomile (5000 mg) plus one teaspoonful of honey for two days before up to the first three days of menstruation, three times a day in two consecutive cycles. Pain severity, associated symptoms of dysmenorrhea and bleeding were respectively assessed using visual analogue scale, Andersch-Milsom Verbal Scale and Higham chart. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical tests through SPSS21. Results The pain intensity in group B diminished significantly after the intervention in comparison to group A (p <0.05). The mean severity of dysmenorrhea accompanying symptoms decreased significantly in group B compared to group A (P=0.009). However, mean quantity of bleeding significantly decreased in group A (P = 0.004), with no increase in the extent of bleeding in group B. Conclusion The present study indicated that the combination of ginger-chamomile sachet with honey has the same effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain mitigation also associated symptoms reduced better than mefenamic acid.
Chapter
Chamomile has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years, and remains one of the most popular herbal medicines. It is most often consumed as a herbal tea, but also can be taken orally as drops, capsules, or tablets; applied topically; or inhaled. Chamomile has been used to treat minor gastrointestinal complaints; as well as cold symptoms, minor ulcers, superficial wounds, small boils, inflammation of the mouth, throat, and skin, anxiety, and insomnia, along with other complaints and illnesses. Chamomile’s efficacy is due to its antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, analgesic, anxiolytic, sedative, and antispasmodic properties. The most important constituents contributing to chamomile’s beneficial effects are terpenoids, such as chamazulene and bisabolol; and flavonoids, including apigenin, luteolin, and quercetin.
Chapter
Since time immemorable, spices have been known to combat the onslaught of various microbes like bacteria, fungi and viruses, responsible for various diseases. These microbes also led to food spoilage, which in turn reduced its shelf life. Spices can be used as food preservatives instead of chemical preservatives that are harmful to our health. Studies have proven that the spices commonly used in the kitchen like pepper, clove, ginger, coriander, garlic, cinnamon, etc., are highly potent anti-microbial agents. Moreover, they are also eminent anti-inflammatory and carminative agents. The essential oils in spices are also used for protection against various pathogens in plants. These properties are due to the various chemical compounds like eugenol, gingerol, flavonoids, terpenes, anthocyanins, phenylpropanoids and various organosulphur compounds among others present in spices. Hence, spices can be exploited for food preservation and in the pharmaceutical industries. They can also be used as biopesticides, insecticidal agents, antioxidants and natural colorants. This chapter highlights the effect of various spices on various micro-organisms, the various metabolites in spices that lend this ability, and also reviews the various works undertaken to understand the antimicrobial activity of spices.
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This study presents estimates of lifetime and 12-month prevalence of 14 DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders from the National Comorbidity Survey, the first survey to administer a structured psychiatric interview to a national probability sample in the United States. The DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders among persons aged 15 to 54 years in the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States were assessed with data collected by lay interviewers using a revised version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nearly 50% of respondents reported at least one lifetime disorder, and close to 30% reported at least one 12-month disorder. The most common disorders were major depressive episode, alcohol dependence, social phobia, and simple phobia. More than half of all lifetime disorders occurred in the 14% of the population who had a history of three or more comorbid disorders. These highly comorbid people also included the vast majority of people with severe disorders. Less than 40% of those with a lifetime disorder had ever received professional treatment, and less than 20% of those with a recent disorder had been in treatment during the past 12 months. Consistent with previous risk factor research, it was found that women had elevated rates of affective disorders and anxiety disorders, that men had elevated rates of substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder, and that most disorders declined with age and with higher socioeconomic status. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is greater than previously thought to be the case. Furthermore, this morbidity is more highly concentrated than previously recognized in roughly one sixth of the population who have a history of three or more comorbid disorders. This suggests that the causes and consequences of high comorbidity should be the focus of research attention. The majority of people with psychiatric disorders fail to obtain professional treatment. Even among people with a lifetime history of three or more comorbid disorders, the proportion who ever obtain specialty sector mental health treatment is less than 50%. These results argue for the importance of more outreach and more research on barriers to professional help-seeking.
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A study of the wild and cultivated medicinal plants used in the Barros Area (southern Spain) is reported, 48 plants distributed among 20 different families are used in the treatment of various human diseases. The use of Bellis annua L. Centaurea ornata Wild., Leuzea conifera (L.) DC., Pulicaria paludosa Link and Asparagus aphyllus L. is reported.
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The comorbidity of current and lifetime DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders was examined in 1,127 outpatients who were assessed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Lifetime version (ADIS-IV-L). The current and lifetime prevalence of additional Axis I disorders in principal anxiety and mood disorders was found to be 57% and 81%, respectively. The principal diagnostic categories associated with the highest comorbidity rates were mood disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). A high rate of lifetime comorbidity was found between the anxiety and mood disorders; the lifetime association with mood disorders was particularly strong for PTSD, GAD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social phobia. The findings are discussed in regard to their implications for the classification of emotional disorders.
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What are the current recommendations for the long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)? GAD is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 4% to 7% in the general population. GAD is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable worry or anxiety about a number of events or activities that the individual experiences on more days than not over a 6-month period. Onset of GAD symptoms usually occurs during an individual's early twenties; however, high rates of GAD have also been seen in children and adolescents. The clinical course of GAD is often chronic, with 40% of patients reporting illness lasting >5 years. GAD is associated with pronounced functional impairment, resulting in decreased vocational function and reduced quality of life. Patients with GAD tend to be high users of outpatient medical care, which contributes significantly to healthcare costs. Currently, benzodiazepines and buspirone are prescribed frequently to treat GAD. Although both show efficacy in acute treatment trials, few long-term studies have been performed. Benzodiazepines are not recommended for long-term treatment of GAD, due to associated development of tolerance, psychomotor impairment, cognitive and memory changes, physical dependence, and a withdrawal reaction on discontinuation. The antidepressant venlafaxine extended-release (XR) has received approval for the treatment of GAD in the United States and many other countries. Venlafaxine XR has demonstrated efficacy over placebo in two randomized treatment trials of 6 months' duration as well as in other acute trials. Paroxetine is the first of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to receive US approval for the treatment of GAD. Paroxetine demonstrated superiority to placebo in short-term trials, and investigations into the use of other SSRIs are ongoing. This suggests that other SSRIs, and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, are likely to be effective in the treatment of GAD. Of the psychological therapies, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) shows the greatest benefit in treating GAD patients. Treatment gains after a 12-week course of CBT may be maintained for up to 1 year. Currently, no guidelines exist for the long-term treatment of GAD.
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The authors sought to observe the long-term clinical course of anxiety disorders over 12 years and to examine the influence of comorbid psychiatric disorders on recovery from or recurrence of panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social phobia. Data were drawn from the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Disorders Research Program, a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal, multicenter study of adults with a current or past history of anxiety disorders. Probabilities of recovery and recurrence were calculated by using standard survival analysis methods. Proportional hazards regression analyses with time-varying covariates were conducted to determine risk ratios for possible comorbid psychiatric predictors of recovery and recurrence. Survival analyses revealed an overall chronic course for the majority of the anxiety disorders. Social phobia had the smallest probability of recovery after 12 years of follow-up. Moreover, patients who had prospectively observed recovery from their intake anxiety disorder had a high probability of recurrence over the follow-up period. The overall clinical course was worsened by several comorbid psychiatric conditions, including major depression and alcohol and other substance use disorders, and by comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder with agoraphobia. These data depict the anxiety disorders as insidious, with a chronic clinical course, low rates of recovery, and relatively high probabilities of recurrence. The presence of particular comorbid psychiatric disorders significantly lowered the likelihood of recovery from anxiety disorders and increased the likelihood of their recurrence. The findings add to the understanding of the nosology and treatment of these disorders.
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Dramatic changes have occurred in mental health treatments during the past decade. Data on recent treatment patterns are needed to estimate the unmet need for services. To provide data on patterns and predictors of 12-month mental health treatment in the United States from the recently completed National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey using a fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, carried out between February 5, 2001, and April 7, 2003. A total of 9282 English-speaking respondents 18 years and older. Proportions of respondents with 12-month DSM-IV anxiety, mood, impulse control, and substance disorders who received treatment in the 12 months before the interview in any of 4 service sectors (specialty mental health, general medical, human services, and complementary and alternative medicine). Number of visits and proportion of patients who received minimally adequate treatment were also assessed. Of 12-month cases, 41.1% received some treatment in the past 12 months, including 12.3% treated by a psychiatrist, 16.0% treated by a non-psychiatrist mental health specialist, 22.8% treated by a general medical provider, 8.1% treated by a human services provider, and 6.8% treated by a complementary and alternative medical provider (treatment could be received by >1 source). Overall, cases treated in the mental health specialty sector received more visits (median, 7.4) than those treated in the general medical sector (median, 1.7). More patients in specialty than general medical treatment also received treatment that exceeded a minimal threshold of adequacy (48.3% vs 12.7%). Unmet need for treatment is greatest in traditionally underserved groups, including elderly persons, racial-ethnic minorities, those with low incomes, those without insurance, and residents of rural areas. Most people with mental disorders in the United States remain either untreated or poorly treated. Interventions are needed to enhance treatment initiation and quality.
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Matricaria chamomilla CH12 is a phytotherapeutic or homeopathic product, which has been used to reduce stress. Here, we examined its effect on preventing handling stress in bovines. Sixty Nelore calves were randomly distributed into two equal groups. One group was administered Matricaria chamomilla CH12 in diet and the other the 'control' was not. Animals in both groups were maintained unstressed for 30 days to adjust to the feeding system and pasture, and were then stressed by constraint on the 31th, 38th, 45th and 60th experimental days. Blood samples were taken on these days after animals had been immobilization in a trunk contention for 5 min. Stress was followed by analyzing serum cortisol levels. These peaked on the 45th day and then decreased, but not to baseline, on the 60th day. On the 45th day cortisol levels were significantly lower in animals fed Matricaria chamomilla CH12, suggesting that this product reduces stress. These effects may be a consequence of its inhibiting cortisol production and its calming and anxiolytic effects.
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Mechanically gathered fresh Matricaria (Matricaria recutita L.) flowers had a very high respiration rate (average from six trials at 10°C: 999±134 W t−1, at 20°C: 2438±289 W t−1, and at 30°C: 4552±570 W t−1). These levels, comparatively high for medical or vegetable plants, were maintained throughout an 80-h postharvest period. A senescence-related decline was only observed at 10°C by 33.3%, at 20°C by 45.4% and at 30°C by 62.0% of their initial rate for each temperature level. Even at 30°C, no respiratory collapse occurred despite considerable senescence and strong wilting of the flowers. Spring-sown crops had significantly higher respiration rates at harvest (+86–333 W t−1) than the autumn-sown crop and maintained this difference until the end of 80 h storage. The senescence-associated decrease occurred more quickly at 20°C and even more so at 30°C in autumn-sown plants. The ensuing dry matter loss was relatively high (7.5%/80 h) as was transpiration (1.83% in 24 h) at 10°C. Constituents of Matricaria flowers decreased only slightly during 80 h postharvest storage: essential oils (up to 20%), chamazulene (10%), EN-IN-dicycloether (20%) and apigenine-7-glycoside (20%). The valuable (−)-α-bisabolol and its A and B oxidized forms, in contrast, responded rather differently at 10°C with losses between 10 and 80%. All these changes were primarily dependent on storage temperature and the annual growing conditions. Matricaria flowers need intensive and immediate postharvest treatment including ventilating, cooling or drying. The expected respiration heat release in these trials may be used for process calculations. The essential oils and most of the pharmaceutical constituents were best maintained in the flowers at 10°C; but for bisabolol and its oxides, 20°C and for dicycloether, 30°C are more favourable temperatures.
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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent and disabling disorder characterized by persistent worrying, anxiety symptoms, and tension. It is the most frequent anxiety disorder in primary care, being present in 22% of primary care patients who complain of anxiety problems. The high prevalence rate of GAD in primary care (8%) compared to that reported in the general population (12-month prevalence 1.9–5.1%) suggests that GAD patients are high users of primary care resources. GAD affects women more frequently than men and prevalence rates are high in midlife (prevalence in females over age 35: 10%) and older subjects but relatively low in adolescents. The natural course of GAD can be characterized as chronic with few complete remissions, a waxing and waning course of GAD symptoms, and the occurrence of substantial comorbidity particularly with depression. Patients with GAD demonstrate a considerable degree of impairment and disability, even in its pure form, uncomplicated by depression or other mental disorders. The degree of impairment is similar to that of cases with major depression. GAD comorbid with depression usually reveals considerably higher numbers of disability days in the past month than either condition in its pure form. As a result, GAD is associated with a significant economic burden owing to decreased work productivity and increased use of health care services, particularly primary health care. The appropriate use of psychological treatments and antidepressants may improve both anxiety and depression symptoms and may also play a role in preventing comorbid major depression in GAD thus reducing the burden on both the individual and society. Depression and Anxiety 16:162–171, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
The behavioral and hematological effects of treatment with Chamomilla 6cH in mice subjected to experimental stress are described. Swiss mice were randomly divided into pairs, one animal was inoculated with Ehrlich's tumor, the other was treated daily with Chamomilla 6cH or control or received no treatment. After 7 days, the animals were observed in an open-field arena and blood samples taken. Mice who cohabitated with a sick cage-mate showed a decrease in their general activity, but those treated with Chamomilla 6cH were less severely affected (p=0.0426). No hematological changes were observed. In a second experiment, the forced swimming test was applied to mice pre-treated with Chamomilla 6cH, controls were: water, 10% ethanol or amitriptyline. Only the amitriptyline and ethanol treated groups showed significant excitatory behavior (p=0.0020), Chamomilla 6cH treated animals' scores intermediate between water control and ethanol or amitriptyline. A decrease in the leukocyte count was observed in the amitriptyline and Chamomilla 6cH treated groups (p=0.039). These data suggest that treatment with Chamomilla 6cH is related to the recovery of basal behavioral conditions in mice subjected to stressful conditions.
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We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and tolerability trial of Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy in patients with mild to moderate generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We hypothesized that chamomile would be superior to placebo in reducing GAD symptoms with a comparable tolerability profile. Sixty-one outpatients with mild to moderate GAD were enrolled, and 57 were randomized to either double-blind chamomile extract (n = 28) or placebo therapy (n = 29) for 8 weeks. The study was powered to detect a statistically significant and clinically meaningful group difference in change over time in total Hamilton Anxiety Rating (HAM-A) scores. Secondary outcomes included change in the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Psychological Well Being, and Clinical Global Impression Severity scores and the proportion of patients with 50% reduction or more in baseline HAM-A score. We observed a significantly greater reduction in mean total HAM-A score during chamomile versus placebo therapy (P = 0.047). Although the study was not powered to identify small to moderate differences in secondary outcomes, we observed a positive change in all secondary outcomes in the same direction as the primary outcome measure. One patient in each treatment group discontinued therapy for adverse events. The proportion of patients experiencing 0, 1, 2, or 3 adverse events or more was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.417). This is the first controlled clinical trial of chamomile extract for GAD. The results suggest that chamomile may have modest anxiolytic activity in patients with mild to moderate GAD. Future studies are needed to replicate these observations.
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Quasi-least squares (QLS) is an alternative method for estimating the correlation parameters within the framework of the generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach for analyzing correlated cross-sectional and longitudinal data. This article summarizes the development of QLS that occurred in several reports and describes its use with the user-written program xtqls in Stata. Also, it demonstrates the following advantages of QLS: (1) QLS allows some correlation structures that have not yet been implemented in the framework of GEE, (2) QLS can be applied as an alternative to GEE if the GEE estimate is infeasible, and (3) QLS uses the same estimating equation for estimation of beta as GEE; as a result, QLS can involve programs already available for GEE. In particular, xtqls calls the Stata program xtgee within an iterative approach that alternates between updating estimates of the correlation parameter alpha and then using xtgee to solve the GEE for beta at the current estimate of alpha. The benefit of this approach is that after xtqls, all the usual postregression estimation commands are readily available to the user. Copyright 2007 by StataCorp LP. http://www.stata-journal.com/article.html?article=st0122
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The effects of flavonoids on L-[14C]tyrosine uptake into cultured adrenal chromaffin cells were examined. Flavone markedly stimulated tyrosine uptake into these cells in a manner dependent on its concentration. Apigenin also caused a moderate stimulatory action, but quercetin had no significant effect on the uptake. Flavone also stimulated the uptake of histidine, but did not affect the uptake of serine, lysine, or glutamic acid. These results are considered to propose the possibility that flavonoids may be able to stimulate the precursor uptake into the cells, resulting in an enhancement of the biogenic amine production.
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The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is the most widely used scale for patient selection and follow-up in research studies of treatments of depression. Despite extensive study of the reliability and validity of the total scale score, the psychometric characteristics of the individual items have not been well studied. In the only reliability study to report agreement on individual items using a test-retest interview method, most of the items had only fair or poor agreement. Because this is due in part to variability in the way the information is obtained to make the various rating distinctions, the Structured Interview Guide for the HDRS (SIGH-D) was developed to standardize the manner of administration of the scale. A test-retest reliability study conducted on a series of psychiatric inpatients demonstrated that the use of the SIGH-D results in a substantially improved level of agreement for most of the HDRS items.
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We found that inhaling chamomile oil vapour decreased restriction stress-induced increases of plasma ACTH level in ovariectomized rat. The plasma ACTH level decreased further when diazepam was administered along with inhaling chamomile oil vapour. Flumazenile blocked the decrease in plasma ACTH level induced by inhaled chamomile oil vapour.
Article
In rat isolated atria spontaneously beating and labelled with [3H]noradrenaline, exposure to the flavonoid apigenin increased the atrial rate in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-30 microM). This increase was accompanied by a reduction of 60% in the uptake of [3H]noradrenaline as well as by a modification in the pattern of [3H]noradrenaline and metabolites spontaneously released. Sixty minutes after exposure to 30 microM apigenin, the proportion of unmetabolized [3H]noradrenaline increased from 11% to 45% of the total products collected in the organ bath whereas the tritiated O-methylated deaminated metabolites decreased from 33% to 14% of the total efflux. A small but significant decrease in the outflow of [3H]3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid as well as a tendency to a decrease in the efflux of [3H]3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol was also observed. Furthermore, apigenin inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the activity of monoamine oxidase in the rat atrial homogenates. The calculated IC50 (7.7 microM) was within the range that produced 50% of the maximal increase in atrial rate. It is concluded that apigenin possesses the property to increase the atrial rate, probably as a result of a reduction in noradrenaline uptake as well as in monoamine oxidase activity.
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A new method has been developed for quantitative, phytotherapeutical analysis with a goal to create a general tool suitable for a wide range of research situations. This tool would allow one to gather data in such a format as to facilitate comparison with studies from other areas. The method was applied to data gathered from two sites in Sardinia, Italy (Campidano and Urzulei). Analysis was performed on 2635 responses (a) by plant, (b) by plant part, (c) by medicinal preparation and (d) by therapeutic use. This yielded specificity indexes which proved useful in comparing phytotherapeutic applications in the two geographic areas under study. In Urzulei the original phytotherapeutic heritage is deeply rooted in the local socio-economic history and clearly reflects the area's geographic isolation. Indeed, in this area, there is little reliance on modern health care. On the other hand, in Campidano, the body of phytotherapeutic application is more extensive. Indeed, due to migration-and to a lesser extent isolation- the latter area has been more affected by technological interference and cultural overlapping. In this area attention is widely focused on such modern ailments as glycemia, hypertension and constipation.
Article
From an ethno-pharmacobotanical point of view, Tuscany is a region with very rich and interesting traditions. The Tuscan Archipelago, particularly due to its geographical position and its history, presents a large variety of plant species used in popular medicine in numerous pathologies, including several viral infections. Over 100 species of plants are used in popular medicine in this region.
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An ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal plants used by the local population of the Ksar Lakbir district (NW Morocco) was conducted. One hundred and eighty-six species from 61 botanical families were recorded as well as their uses and modes of administration. Quantitative ethnopharmacological data (medicinal plant knowledge and use indices) were also evaluated and discussed.
Article
A survey of medicinal plants used by rural and urban inhabitants of the three cities of the Tropical Atlantic Forest, Region of Vale do Ribeira, State of São Paulo, Brazil was performed by means of 200 interviews with medicinal plant users and extractors and, traditional healers. One hundred fourteen herbal remedies were recorded and the following information reported: Latin, vernacular and English names, plant part used, forms of preparation and application of the herbal remedies, medicinal or food uses, areas of plant collection, economic importance (when available) and other data.
Article
Intercultural studies about the methods of use and perceptions of traditional remedies in Europe are strategically important in understanding how pharmaceutical means in our multicultural modern societies are differently accepted by diverse ethnic groups. In this survey, we analysed the biological means traditionally used in the ethnomedicine of three Arbëreshë (ethnic Albanians) communities in the Vulture area (northern Lucania, southern Italy). The majority of remedies are represented by plants belonging to 54 botanical taxa. A few of the recorded species have a traditional therapeutic use that has never previously been reported in southern Italy. Other means-especially used in the past-are comprised of mineral, animal and industrial derived materials. In specific cases, some of these materials and even plants are neither applied externally or internally, but are instead utilised as symbolic ritual objects in spiritual healing ceremonies. Ethnopharmacological and anthropological considerations about these usages are discussed.
Article
We studied the effects of apigenin and 2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid (TMCA) on the behavioral despair test (forced swimming test), and the central noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic activities in mice. Apigenin at intraperitoneal doses of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg significantly decreased the duration of immobility in the forced swimming test in mice. At 100 mg/kg, the duration of immobility was returned to the control level in the test. On the other hand, TMCA treatment (25-200 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to significantly alter the duration of immobility. Based on the behavioral data, we examined changes in the monoamine turnover in mice having been subjected to forced swimming for 40 min. The monoamine turnover was measured in seven brain regions. Forced swimming exposure induced a significant decrease in dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/dopamine (DA) in the striatum and amygdala and in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) in the hypothalamus, and a significant increase in DOPAC/DA in the thalamus and hypothalamus and in 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG)/norepinephrine (NE) in the amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and midbrain. Apigenin (25 mg/kg) treatment produced attenuation of forced swim test-induced decrease of DA turnover in the amygdala and increase of DA turnover in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg), a dopamine D(2) antagonist, blocked the apigenin (25 mg/kg)-induced decrease in immobility in the forced swimming test. These behavioral and biochemical results indicate the antidepressant properties of apigenin, which may be mediated by the dopaminergic mechanisms in the mouse brain.
Article
The authors sought to establish the natural course and risk-profile of depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and depression with co-existing GAD in later life. A total of 2,173 community-living elderly persons were interviewed at baseline, and at a 3-year follow-up. The course of "pure" depression, "pure" GAD, and depression with coexisting GAD was studied in 258 subjects with baseline psychopathology. Authors assessed bivariate and multivariate relationships between risk factors and course types. The risk-profile for onset of pure depression, pure GAD, and the mixed condition at follow-up was studied in 1,915 subjects without baseline psychopathology. Remission rate at follow-up was 41% for subjects with depression-only, 48% for pure GAD, and significantly lower (27%) for depression with coexisting GAD. A pattern of temporal sequencing was established, with anxiety often progressing to depression or depression with GAD. Onset of pure depression and depression with co-existing GAD was predicted by loss events, ill health, and functional disability. Onset of pure GAD, and, more strongly, that of depression with coexisting GAD, was associated with longstanding, possibly genetic vulnerability. In comparison with either depression-only or anxiety-only, the co-occurrence of these represents more severe and more chronic psychopathology, associated with longstanding vulnerability. In elderly persons, GAD often progresses to depression or to the mixed condition. These findings mostly favor a dimensional, rather than a categorical, classification of anxiety and depression.
Article
Depression is highly prevalent in diabetics and is associated with poor glucose regulation and increased risk of diabetic complications. Identification and effective treatment of comorbid depression are increasingly being considered essential components of clinical care of diabetics. In the present study, the antidepressant activity of quercetin (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.), a bioflavonoid, was evaluated using the Porsolt forced swimming-induced behavioral despair test in control and 6-week-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The effect of quercetin was compared with that of the classical antidepressants fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice exhibited prolonged immobility duration during the test as compared with age-matched control mice. Quercetin dose-dependently reduced the immobility period in diabetic mice, and this effect was comparable to that of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Fluoxetine and imipramine significantly lowered the immobility time in naive mice also, but quercetin failed to induce any antidepressant activity in naive mice. The results of our preliminary study indicate that quercetin has the potential to be employed as a therapy for depression associated with diabetes.
Article
An understudied crucial step in the help-seeking process is making prompt initial contact with a treatment provider after first onset of a mental disorder. To provide data on patterns and predictors of failure and delay in making initial treatment contact after first onset of a mental disorder in the United States from the recently completed National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey carried out between February 2001 and April 2003. A total of 9282 respondents aged 18 years and older. Lifetime DSM-IV disorders were assessed with the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured interview designed to be administered by trained lay interviewers. Information about age of first professional treatment contact for each lifetime DSM-IV/WMH-CIDI disorder assessed in the survey was collected and compared with age at onset of the disorder to study typical duration of delay. Cumulative lifetime probability curves show that the vast majority of people with lifetime disorders eventually make treatment contact, although more so for mood (88.1%-94.2%) disorders than for anxiety (27.3%-95.3%), impulse control (33.9%-51.8%), or substance (52.7%-76.9%) disorders. Delay among those who eventually make treatment contact ranges from 6 to 8 years for mood disorders and 9 to 23 years for anxiety disorders. Failure to make initial treatment contact and delay among those who eventually make treatment contact are both associated with early age of onset, being in an older cohort, and a number of socio-demographic characteristics (male, married, poorly educated, racial/ethnic minority). Failure to make prompt initial treatment contact is a pervasive aspect of unmet need for mental health care in the United States. Interventions to speed initial treatment contact are likely to reduce the burdens and hazards of untreated mental disorder.
Article
Little is known about lifetime prevalence or age of onset of DSM-IV disorders. To estimate lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the recently completed National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted between February 2001 and April 2003 using the fully structured World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nine thousand two hundred eighty-two English-speaking respondents aged 18 years and older. Lifetime DSM-IV anxiety, mood, impulse-control, and substance use disorders. Lifetime prevalence estimates are as follows: anxiety disorders, 28.8%; mood disorders, 20.8%; impulse-control disorders, 24.8%; substance use disorders, 14.6%; any disorder, 46.4%. Median age of onset is much earlier for anxiety (11 years) and impulse-control (11 years) disorders than for substance use (20 years) and mood (30 years) disorders. Half of all lifetime cases start by age 14 years and three fourths by age 24 years. Later onsets are mostly of comorbid conditions, with estimated lifetime risk of any disorder at age 75 years (50.8%) only slightly higher than observed lifetime prevalence (46.4%). Lifetime prevalence estimates are higher in recent cohorts than in earlier cohorts and have fairly stable intercohort differences across the life course that vary in substantively plausible ways among sociodemographic subgroups. About half of Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM-IV disorder sometime in their life, with first onset usually in childhood or adolescence. Interventions aimed at prevention or early treatment need to focus on youth.
Article
The objective of this work was to describe ethnic differences in attitudes toward depression, depression treatment, stigma and preferences for depression treatment (counseling vs. medication). This study used a cross-sectional Internet survey measuring treatment preference, stigma and attitudes toward depression. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Multivariable regression models adjusting for treatment attitudes and demographics estimated the independent effect of ethnicity on treatment preference. A total of 78,753 persons with significant depressive symptoms (CES-D>22), including 3596 African Americans, 2794 Asians/Pacific Islanders and 3203 Hispanics, participated. Compared to whites, African Americans, Asians/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics were more likely to prefer counseling to medications [odds ratio (OR)=2.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=2.4-2.8; OR=2.5, 95% CI=2.2-2.7; and OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.7-2.0, respectively]. Ethnic minorities were less likely to believe that medications were effective and that depression was biologically based, but were more likely to believe that antidepressants were addictive and that counseling and prayer were effective in treating depression. Attitudes and beliefs somewhat attenuated the association between ethnicity and treatment preference in adjusted analyses. Racial and ethnic minorities prefer counseling for depression treatment more than whites. Beliefs about the effects of antidepressants, prayer and counseling partially mediate preferences for depression treatment.
Article
Stigma is associated with depression treatment, however, whether stigma differs between depression treatment modalities is not known, nor have racial differences in depression treatment stigma been fully explored. To measure stigma for four depression treatments and estimate its association with treatment acceptability for African Americans and whites. Cross-sectional, anonymous mailed survey. Four hundred and ninety African-American and white primary care patients. The acceptability of four depression treatments (prescription medication, mental health counseling, herbal remedy, and spiritual counseling) was assessed using a vignette. Treatment-specific stigma was evaluated by asking whether participants would: (1) feel ashamed; (2) feel comfortable telling friends and family; (3) feel okay if people in their community knew; and (4) not want people at work to know about each depression treatment. Sociodemographics, depression history, and current depressive symptoms were measured. Treatment-specific stigma was lower for herbal remedy than prescription medication or mental health counseling (p < .01). Whites had higher stigma than African Americans for all treatment modalities. In adjusted analyses, stigma relating to self [AOR 0.43 (0.20-0.95)] and friends and family [AOR 0.42 (0.21-0.88)] was associated with lower acceptability of mental health counseling. Stigma did not account for the lower acceptability of prescription medication among African Americans. Treatment associated stigma significantly affects the acceptability of mental health counseling but not prescription medication. Efforts to improve depression treatment utilization might benefit from addressing concerns about stigma of mental health counseling.
Article
Apigenin is one type of bioflavonoid widely found in citrus fruits, which possesses a variety of pharmacological actions on the central nervous system. A previous study showed that acute intraperitoneal administration of apigenin had antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test (FST) in ddY mice. To better understand its pharmacological activity, we investigated the behavioral effects of chronic oral apigenin treatment in the FST in male ICR mice and male Wistar rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS). The effects of apigenin on central monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and platelet adenylyl cyclase activity were simultaneously examined in the CMS rats. Apigenin reduced immobility time in the mouse FST and reversed CMS-induced decrease in sucrose intake of rats. Apigenin also attenuated CMS-induced alterations in serotonin (5-HT), its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA) levels and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in distinct rat brain regions. Moreover, apigenin reversed CMS-induced elevation in serum corticosterone concentrations and reduction in platelet adenylyl cyclase activity in rats. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like actions of oral apigenin treatment could be related to a combination of multiple biochemical effects, and might help to elucidate its mechanisms of action that are involved in normalization of stress-induced changes in brain monoamine levels, the HPA axis, and the platelet adenylyl cyclase activity.
Article
Properly diagnosing and treating patients with anxiety, depression, or both is a challenging aspect of practicing medicine in the primary care setting. Patients often present with somatic complaints rather than classic psychiatric symptoms. In addition, there is significant overlap between anxiety and depression in this patient population. Comorbid anxiety and depression is often more resistant to pharmacologic treatment, and patients with coexisting disorders have a poorer medical prognosis than do patients with either disorder alone. Fortunately, many new therapies are available to assist the clinician in managing these patients. The newer antidepressants, in particular, are playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of both anxiety disorders alone and comorbid anxiety and depression. These new choices enable our goal of treatment to encompass not only improvement but also sustained complete remission. Of the newer agents, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors have been studied quite extensively in these patient populations. The specific profiles of individual agents may assist the clinician in individualizing treatment. Characteristics such as robust efficacy, speed of onset of activity, the potential for drug-drug interactions, dose response, and tolerability are important considerations in optimizing treatment.
Article
To review the literature on the co-occurrence of anxiety with depressive disorders and the rationale for and use of combination treatment with benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs/SNRIs) for treating comorbid anxiety and depression. PubMed and PsycINFO were searched using terms identified as relevant based on existing practice guidelines. The primary search terms were anxiety, anxiety disorders, depression, depressive disorders, comorbidity, epidemiology, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, pharmacology, clinical trials, and pharmacotherapy. Reference lists of identified articles were also reviewed to ensure capture of relevant literature. Publications were selected for inclusion in the review if they applied to adult populations and specifically addressed the comorbidity of anxiety and depression, their epidemiology, or their management. Case reports and case series were not considered for inclusion. Each author assessed the publications independently for content related to the review topics. Findings considered relevant to the clinical understanding and management of comorbid anxiety and depression were incorporated into the review. Comorbidity is very common among patients with anxiety and depressive disorders, and, even when full criteria for 2 separate disorders are not met, subsyndromal symptoms are often present. Little controlled research has explored how benzodiazepines and SSRIs/SNRIs may be usefully combined, yet their combination is frequently employed in clinical practice. Patients with comorbidities are likely to have poorer treatment outcomes and have greater utilization of health care resources. Currently SSRIs/SNRIs are considered first-line therapy and are effective in both anxiety and depressive states. Nevertheless, many patients have only a partial response or have difficulty tolerating efficacious doses of antidepressant monotherapy. Benzodiazepines appear to improve treatment outcomes when an anxiety disorder co-occurs with depression or for depression characterized by anxious features. Specifically, they may provide benefits both in terms of speed of response and overall response. Long-term management plans for anxiety disorder with or without comorbid depression should include strategies for acute or short-term care, long-term maintenance, and episodic or breakthrough symptoms. Combination therapy with benzodiazepines and antide-pressants in appropriate clinical settings may improve outcomes over monotherapy in some patients.
Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the national comorbidity survey
  • R C Kessler
  • K A Mcgonagle
  • S Zhao
Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the national comorbidity survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994; 51:8-19. [PubMed: 8279933]
Combination treatment with benzodiazepines and SSRIs for comorbid anxiety and depression: A review. Primary Care Companion to the
  • B W Dunlop
  • P G Davis