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Effects of level and source of oregano leaf in starter diets for broiler chicks


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This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels and sources of oregano leaf in starter diets for broilers. The 10 different dietary treatments included 1) a nonsupplemented corn-soybean meal diet (negative control); 2) the basal diet + 55 mg/kg of penicillin (positive control); 3 to 6) 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g of oregano of Mexican origin/kg of diet; and 7 to 10) 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g of oregano of Mediterranean origin/kg of diet, respectively. Each diet was fed to 6 replicate pens of 5 male birds in battery brooders for 18 d. Broiler chicks fed diets containing penicillin had higher BW at 18 d and improved FE from 1 to 18 d of age compared with those fed the negative control diet or those fed different levels of oregano leaf of both origins. In addition, different levels of oregano leaf had no effects on BW, FCR, or mortality rate. Birds fed the diet with 20.0 g/kg of oregano of Mediterranean origin were intermediate in feed conversion to birds fed the negative and positive control diets. Higher levels of oregano than used in this study in a more challenging rearing environment may be needed to elicit a stronger positive response to oregano leaf in broiler diets.
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© 2010 Poultry Science Association, Inc.
2010 J. Appl. Poult. Res. 19 :137–145
doi: 10.3382/japr.2009-00088
Effects of level and source of oregano leaf
in starter diets for broiler chicks
A. Karimi ,*† F. Yan ,* C. Coto ,* J. H. Park ,* Y. Min ,* C. Lu ,* J. A. Gidden ,‡
J. O. Lay Jr. ,‡ and P. W. Waldroup *2
* Poultry Science Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 72701;
Animal Science Department, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran; and
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 72701
Primary Audience: Nutritionists, Feed Additive Companies, Veterinarians, Researchers,
Production Managers
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels and sources of oregano
leaf in starter diets for broilers. The 10 different dietary treatments included 1) a nonsupple-
mented corn-soybean meal diet (negative control); 2) the basal diet + 55 mg/kg of penicillin
(positive control); 3 to 6) 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g of oregano of Mexican origin/kg of diet; and
7 to 10) 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g of oregano of Mediterranean origin/kg of diet, respectively.
Each diet was fed to 6 replicate pens of 5 male birds in battery brooders for 18 d. Broiler chicks
fed diets containing penicillin had higher BW at 18 d and improved FE from 1 to 18 d of age
compared with those fed the negative control diet or those fed different levels of oregano leaf of
both origins. In addition, different levels of oregano leaf had no effects on BW, FCR, or mortal-
ity rate. Birds fed the diet with 20.0 g/kg of oregano of Mediterranean origin were intermediate
in feed conversion to birds fed the negative and positive control diets. Higher levels of oregano
than used in this study in a more challenging rearing environment may be needed to elicit a
stronger positive response to oregano leaf in broiler diets.
Key words: broiler chick , oregano , Mediterranean , Mexican , feed conversion ratio
It has been well established that antibiotics
have a valuable role in poultry production as
growth-promoting agents and in disease con-
trol. However, because of increasing concern
regarding antibiotic-resistant bacteria, their use
in animal and poultry feed has been banned in
several countries and is under significant public
scrutiny in other countries. Consequently, the
poultry industry may be adversely affected by
disease challenge and loss of production as a re-
sult of those restrictions. The European ban on
antibiotic use in animal and poultry nutrition has
1 Published with approval of the director, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station (Fayetteville). Mention of a trade name,
proprietary product, or specific equipment does not constitute a guarantee or warranty by the University of Arkansas and does
not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may be suitable.
2 Corresponding author:
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increased infection and the use of therapeutic
antibiotics; however, it has resulted in an overall
decrease in antibiotic use in animal and poultry
production [1].
Several types of herbal products and their oil
extracts have enhanced broiler performance and
resulted in growth-promoting effects. These may
serve as environmental friendly alternatives to
the antibiotic growth promoters commonly used
in animal and poultry feed. The proposed mode
of action of herbal products is attributed to their
antimicrobial properties [2–7], oxidative-resis-
tant activity [8–10], enhancement of the immune
system [11], and, consequently, improvement in
poultry performance.
Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is a species
of Origanum, an aromatic herbal product, which,
because of its highly potent chemical nature, has
been used as a functional herbal product, mainly
for preserving food quality, for inhibiting micro-
bial proliferation on ready-to-cook poultry meat,
and, more recently, as an alternative growth pro-
moter in swine and poultry nutrition [12–16].
Carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, and ρ-cymene
are the most important components of oregano
essential oil involved in the functional proper-
ties of oregano [4, 6].
Based on several studies conducted to inves-
tigate the influence of oregano products (oil ex-
tract or its dried leaf) on broiler performance,
researchers have concluded that oregano has the
potential to promote broiler performance [3, 12,
13, 16] and reduce bacterial inhabitants of the
gastrointestinal tract such as Clostridium per-
fringens and Escherichia coli [5, 7]. However,
prediction of the broiler response to oregano and
other herbal supplements is not straightforward;
it is highly influenced by herbal variety [17–22],
level of supplementation [5, 23–26], environ-
mental and sanitary conditions (challenged vs.
unchallenged), nutrient composition of the diet
[17, 27, 28], and the possible interaction with
other additives such as organic acids [29].
Because the effects of different levels of
oregano from different geographical regions
have not been studied, the objective of the pres-
ent study was to investigate the effects of dif-
ferent levels of dried oregano leaf of 2 origins
(Mediterranean vs. Mexican) on broiler chick
performance during the starter period.
This experiment was conducted to evaluate
the effects of different levels of dried oregano
leaf from 2 origins. Both oregano samples were
provided by a local company [30] that provides
breading mixes for the poultry industry. The
relative percentage of several volatile essential
oil contents of both dried leaf oregano samples
(Mediterranean vs. Mexican) were determined
by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrom-
etry (MS) with headspace analysis. The analysis
used a CombiPal (CTC Analytics) autosampler
interfaced with a Varian 450 gas chromatograph
and a Varian 320 triple quadruple MS system
[31]. For the headspace measurement, the sam-
ple was heated to 60°C for 5 min and 0.5 mL
of the headspace was collected. The GC separa-
tion was conducted using a 30M Varian Factor 4
VF-5ms capillary column [31]. The temperature
program was 40°C for 1 min, followed by a lin-
ear temperature program increasing to 250°C at
10°C/min, followed by a 3-min hold. The split
ratio on the column was 20:1. Mass spectrom-
etry analysis was by electron ionization-MS us-
ing the system in the MS-only mode [31, 32].
Identification of components was based on an
automated comparison of experimental spectra
with spectra contained in the National Institute
of Standards and Technology NIST05 mass
spectral database and on subsequent visual con-
firmation by the instrument operator [33]. The
relative distribution of components in the head-
space was determined using the integrated areas
for each of the GC components resolved in the
total ion chromatogram, using the standard Var-
ian Workstation software [31]. The percentage
of each component was based on the peak area
divided by the sum of the peak areas for all com-
Experimental Diets
A corn-soybean meal basal diet was formu-
lated to meet the nutrient levels suggested by a
major poultry breeder [34]. The basal diet was
formulated on a digestible amino acid basis us-
ing the suggested amino acid digestion coeffi-
cients [35], with total amino acid levels for the
major ingredients based on published values
[36], adjusted for the CP and moisture content
JAPR: Research Report
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of the ingredients used in the study. Composi-
tion and calculated nutrient content of the basal
diet is shown in Table 2. The basal diet was
supplemented with complete vitamin and trace
mineral premixes obtained from commercial in-
Dietary Treatments
During this study, 10 dietary treatments were
compared. One treatment (negative control) con-
sisted of the unsupplemented diet and one treat-
ment (positive control) consisted of an antibiotic
product, penicillin (55 mg/kg) [37]. Eight addi-
tional treatments were based on the use of differ-
ent levels of 2 different sources of dried oregano
(Mediterranean vs. Mexican origin), each fed at
2.5, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 g/kg of diet. All additives
were preblended with a portion of the basal diet
before being added to the final mix. Each diet
was fed in mash form to 6 replicate pens of 5
male chicks of a commercial broiler strain. Test
diets and tap water were provided for ad libitum
consumption from the day of hatch to 18 d of
Chicks and Housing
Three hundred sexed 1-d-old male chicks of
a commercial meat-type strain (Cobb 500) [38]
were obtained from a local hatchery, where they
had been vaccinated in ovo for Marek’s disease
and had received vaccinations for Newcastle
disease and infectious bronchitis posthatch via
a coarse spray. Five birds were randomly as-
signed to each of 60 compartments in electri-
cally heated battery brooders with raised wire
floors, maintained in a temperature-controlled
room. A 24-h lighting program was provided.
The experimental procedures used in this trial
were approved by the University of Arkansas In-
stitutional Animal Care and Use Committee and
were in compliance with recommended guide-
lines [39].
Birds were weighed as a group on arrival
and at 18 d of age. Feed intake was recorded at
the same time points for determination of FCR.
Chicks were checked twice daily for mortality,
with BW of dead birds used to adjust FCR.
Statistical Analysis
Data were analyzed according to the GLM
procedure of SAS [40] as a completely random-
ized design experiment. Significant differences
among treatments were accepted at P0.05 and
means were separated using Duncan’s new mul-
tiple range test.
Oregano Essential Oil Content
The relative chemical composition of both
samples of dried oregano leaf is shown in Table
1, with the major constituents carvacrol, O-cy-
mene, γ-terpine, and β-terpineol in the Medi-
terranean sample, and carvacrol, O-cymene,
thymol, and eucalyptol in the Mexican sample.
Both oregano samples used in this study were
rich in essential oils, with both having the ex-
pected high levels of carvacrol and O-cymene
characteristic of oregano. However, the relative
concentrations and overall composition were
different between the 2 oregano samples. Varia-
tions in the chemical composition of essential
oils of herbal products are predictable, which is
mainly related to the geographical origin or their
botanical characteristics, and these have been
reported by other researchers [41, 42].
Performance of Broiler Chicks
The results of the present experiment on the
comparative effects of different levels of dried
oregano leaf of 2 origins compared with the con-
trol (negative) and penicillin (positive control)
treatments are summarized in Table 3.
Effects of Penicillin
Broiler chicks fed a diet containing 55 mg/
kg of penicillin had significantly higher BW at
18 d of age compared with the negative control
and with all the oregano treatments. The broiler
chicks fed penicillin had significantly improved
FCR compared with birds fed the negative con-
trol diets and with birds fed all oregano diets ex-
cept those fed 20.0 g/kg of oregano of Mediter-
ranean origin. Mortality rate was not affected by
dietary treatment. Based on these results, the use
of an antibiotic growth promoter such as peni-
cillin was confirmed as effective in improving
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broiler BW and feed conversion. Antimicrobial
growth-promoting agents mainly have been used
in broiler diets to decrease or control the detri-
mental effects of undesirable microorganisms.
The mode of action and the growth-promotion
potential of antibiotics have been fully discussed
in several recent reviews [43–49].
Oregano Compared with the Control
The supplementation of broiler diets with
dried oregano leaf had no significant effect on
BW of broiler chicks at 18 d of age compared
with birds fed the control diet. In addition, the
origin of the dried oregano leaf (Mexican vs.
Mediterranean) or the levels of supplementation
(2.5, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 g/kg of basal diet) had no
significant effect on broiler BW. Supplementa-
tion of different oregano levels and sources had
no effects on FCR.
Oreganum vulgare L. is the most variable
species of Origanum and the only one common-
ly known as oregano in most European coun-
tries. Oregano is mainly native to Europe, the
JAPR: Research Report
Table 1. Relative concentration (%) of volatile essential oils from dried oregano leaf of Mediterranean and Mexican
origin as identified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis
Entry no.
Retention time,
min Compound
Area percentage, %
Mediterranean:MexicanMediterranean Mexican
1 6.27 α-Thujene 1.20 <0.20
2 6.42 α-Pinene 4.38 0.80 5.2
3 6.71 Camphene 0.97 1.00 1.0
4 7.06 β-Sabinene 1.75 <0.20
5 7.17 β-Pinene 1.05 0.40 2.9
6 7.27 β-Myrcene 2.26 1.20 2.0
7 7.65 3-Carene 1.32 0.50 2.7
8 7.77 α-Terpinene 1.06 0.30 3.4
9 7.91 O-Cymene 16.75 19.40 0.9
10 7.98 Unknown 2.32 1.30 1.8
11 8.02 Unknown 0.80 <0.20
12 8.06 Eucalyptol 6.03 11.80 0.5
13 8.44 γ-Terpine 11.57 0.40 26.4
14 8.64 β-Terpinol 1.89 0.60 3.2
15 8.88 Unknown 0.48 0.20 2.2
16 8.98 Fenchone 0.28 3.20 0.1
17 9.05 Linalool 2.30 <0.20
18 9.15 β-Terpineol 9.12 0.40 20.8
19 9.24 Thujone 0.14 <0.20
20 9.51 Terpineol isomer 0.31 <0.20
21 9.78 Terpineol isomer 0.14 <0.20
22 9.92 Camphor 0.43 <0.20
23 10.28 Borneol 1.36 0.90 1.5
24 10.38 1-Terpen-4-ol 2.34 2.70 0.9
25 10.59 α-Terpineol 1.01 1.50 0.7
26 11.02 Methyl thymyl ether 0.34 0.50 0.7
27 11.16 Isothymol methyl ether 0.71 <0.20
28 11.26 Lanalyl anthranilate 1.84 <0.20
29 11.37 Thymoquinone 0.20 <0.20
30 11.80 Thymol isomer <0.2 0.40
31 11.88 Thymol 2.00 12.30 0.2
32 12.04 Carvacrol 19.54 29.80 0.7
33 13.78 Caryophyllene 2.19 4.80 0.5
34 13.90 α-Bergamotene <0.2 0.70
35 14.02 Unknown 0.13 0.40 0.3
36 14.24 α-Caryophyllene 0.12 2.70 0.0
37 14.78 Bisabolene 0.47 0.50 1.0
38 15.84 Caryophyllene oxide 0.21 0.40 0.5
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Mediterranean, and southern and central Asia.
The aromatic, slightly bitter taste and functional
properties of oregano are related to the amount
and composition of its phenolic components.
Carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, and ρ-cymene
are the 4 main components present in oregano
plants [4], and it has been shown that mixing
carvacrol and thymol in the proper amounts may
exert the total antimicrobial inhibition that is ev-
ident with oregano essential oils. This is due to
damage of membrane integrity and to changing
the pH homeostasis and equilibrium of organic
ions [2, 4, 6]. The composition of essential oils
of a particular oregano product can differ be-
tween harvesting seasons or geographical loca-
tions. D’Antuono et al. [50], in a study on native
populations of O. vulgare L. in northern Italy,
showed that great variability exists between the
oil extract (5 to 50 mg/g) and oil composition
(the carvacrol-thymol, biosynthetic pathway,
high linaleol content, the presence of abundant
sesquiterpenes). Dunford and Vazquez [51], in
a study on Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri
Schauer), reported that the crop yield and its oil
content were influenced by crop age and orega-
no oil from younger plants containing more total
thymol and carvacrol contents than the mature
The results of the experiments that have been
carried out to evaluate the response of broiler
chicks to natural additives such as oregano are
inconclusive. Whereas some have reported the
full or partial effectiveness of oregano products
in improving broiler performance [12, 13, 15,
16, 52], others have reported no significant im-
provement [7, 8]. Halle [12] showed that broiler
chicks fed an herbal mixture or 2 different es-
sential oils (oregano-clove or oregano-cinna-
mon) had lower feed intake and improved feed
conversion efficiency; BW was not affected by
the different treatments. Modeva and Profirov
[13] reported that the addition of 0.025 or 0.05%
of a commercial herbal extract containing 5%
essential oil of oregano improved BW gain, in-
creased the activity of enzymes involved in pro-
tein metabolism, and decreased alkaline phos-
phatase activity. Zhang et al. [52] showed that
feeding 2 different commercial mixes of herbal
oil extracts including oregano had no signifi-
cant positive effects on BW, feed consumption,
mortality, or carcass yield, but slightly improved
FCR at 14 d of age. They also reported that feed-
ing higher levels of essential oil mix in a mash-
based diet significantly decreased feed intake
and improved FCR. Çabuk et al. [15] showed
that feeding different levels of herbal oil ex-
Table 2. Composition and calculated nutrient content
of basal diet
Item Amount, g/kg
Yellow corn 565.16
Poultry oil 9.05
Soybean meal 388.86
Ground limestone 2.15
Defluorinated phosphate 20.12
Sodium chloride 3.09
Sodium bicarbonate 0.40
l-Threonine 0.35
l-Lysine HCl 1.69
Vitamin premix25.00
Mintrex P_Se31.00
Total 1,000.00
Calculated nutrient
CP % 22.06
Ca % 1.00
Total P % 0.82
Available P % 0.50
Dietary electrolyte balance, mEq/kg 271.22
ME, kcal/kg 2,975.00
Na, % 0.25
Chloride, % 0.25
Digestible Met, % 0.55
Digestible Lys,4 % 1.18
Digestible Trp, % 0.23
Digestible Thr,4 % 0.75
Digestible Ile, % 0.83
Digestible Val,4 % 0.90
Digestible Arg, % 1.34
Digestible TSAA,4 % 0.84
1MHA-84 is a supplemental methionine product [55], and
contains 84% methionine activity.
2Provides per kilogram of diet: vitamin A (from vitamin
A acetate), 7,715 IU; cholecalciferol, 5,511 IU; vitamin E
(from d l -α-tocopheryl acetate), 16.53 IU; vitamin B12, 0.013
mg; riboflavin, 6.6 mg; niacin, 39 mg; pantothenic acid, 10
mg; menadione (from menadione dimethylpyrimidinol), 1.5
mg; folic acid, 0.9 mg; choline, 1,000 mg; thiamine (from
thiamine mononitrate), 1.54 mg; pyridoxine (from pyridox-
ine hydrochloride), 2.76 mg; d-biotin, 0.066 mg; ethoxy-
quin, 125 mg.
3Provides per kilogram of diet: Mn (as manganese methi-
onine hydroxy analog complex), 40 mg; Zn (as zinc methi-
onine hydroxy analog complex), 40 mg; Cu (as copper me-
thionine hydroxy analog complex), 20 mg; Se (as selenium
yeast), 0.3 mg.
4Amino acid values are at NRC minimum recommended
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tract including oregano and several other herbal
products had no significant effects on BW and
gastrointestinal relative weight; however, feed
intake and mortality rate were decreased and
the FCR was significantly improved, especially
in broilers from younger compared with older
breeders. LiHua et al. [16] reported that feed-
ing 75, 100, 125, and 150 mg/kg of oregano oil
extract significantly improved ADG, feed con-
version efficiency, and average breast and leg
muscle percentages, and decreased abdominal
fat percentage in broilers. They reported that 100
mg/kg of oregano oil was the optimal level for
broiler performance. Although the effectiveness
of oregano oil extract in broiler performance has
been demonstrated in some studies, in other stud-
ies, supplementation of broiler diets with orega-
no oil had no significant effects on performance
[7, 8]. Basmacioğlu et al. [8] showed that feed-
ing oregano and rosemary oil individually or in
combination had no significant effects on broiler
performance and mortality. Fukayama et al. [7]
reported that different levels of oregano extract
had no significant effect on broiler performance.
Barreto et al. [53], also in a comparative study
of different herbal products including oregano
extract, showed that neither herbal product had
significant effects on broiler performance, gas-
trointestinal morphology, or AME.
Most studies conducted to evaluate the effec-
tiveness of natural herbal products have mainly
used their oil extracts; however, several studies
have been conducted on the effects of the dried
leaf product as a more direct and less expensive
route of herbal application in practical condi-
tions [9, 10, 21]. Halle et al. [21] showed that
supplementation of diets for male broiler chicks
with graded levels of oregano herb (0, 2, 4, 10,
and 20 g/kg) significantly decreased feed intake
and BW and improved FE. Giannenas et al. [9]
JAPR: Research Report
Table 3. Effects of dietary treatments on live performance of male broilers
Item 18-d BW, g 0- to 18-d FCR 0- to 18-d mortality, %
Negative control 570.0b1.400a0.00
Penicillin 55 mg/kg 666.8a1.274b3.33
Mexican oregano, g/kg
2.5 600.8b1.385a3.33
5.0 584.7b1.369a0.00
10.0 596.0b1.408a0.00
20.0 571.2b1.409a0.00
Mediterranean oregano, g/kg
2.5 572.5b1.405a0.00
5.0 590.0b1.379a0.00
10.0 581.3b1.377a0.00
20.0 585.8b1.335ab 0.00
P-value <0.001 0.01 0.54
SEM 11.2 0.030 1.49
Oregano level, g/kg
0.0 570.0 1.400 0.00
2.5 586.6 1.395 1.67
5.0 587.3 1.374 0.00
10.0 588.7 1.393 0.00
20.0 579.0 1.372 0.00
Oregano source
Mexican 584.5 1.394 0.67
Mediterranean 580.1 1.379 0.00
Oregano level 0.38 0.77 0.41
Oregano source 0.52 0.37 0.32
Source × level 0.29 0.44 0.41
SEM 11.46 0.03 1.05
a,bMeans in a column with a common superscript do not differ significantly (P ≤ 0.05).
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showed that broiler BW, daily BW gain, and
FCR were improved in birds fed dehydrated
oregano plant (5 g/kg) as a single supplement
or in combination with α-tocopheryl acetate;
however, the effects of oregano at 5.0 and 7.5
g/kg were higher than those at 2.5 and 10.0 g/
kg of the diet. Bampidis et al. [14] reported that
feeding different levels (0.0, 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75
g/kg) of dried oregano leaf (O. vulgare ssp. hir-
tum) had no significant effect on turkey perfor-
mance up to 43 d; however, feeding a higher
level of oregano after 43 d of age decreased
feed intake and relative weights of the gizzard
and small intestine, and increased feed conver-
sion efficiency, but had no significant effects on
BW, carcass weight, carcass yield, and relative
weights of the heart and liver. Florou-Paneri et
al. [10] reported that broiler chicks fed oregano
had higher performance than birds fed the con-
trol treatment at 42 d of age. Cross et al. [54], in
a study on the effects of herb and oil extracts of
different herbal products (thyme, oregano, mar-
joram, rosemary, or yarrow) showed that dietary
thyme oil or yarrow herb had the greatest influ-
ence on chick performance. They also showed
that the form of feeding of some herbal prod-
ucts (herb vs. oil) had different effects on broiler
performance. Birds fed yarrow herb compared
with its oil extract had greater BW and BW gain,
whereas birds fed thymol oil had greater BW and
BW gain than did those fed the herb [54].
1. The origin of the dried oregano leaf
(Mexican vs. Mediterranean) or the lev-
els of supplementation (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, or
20.0 g/kg of basal diet) had no differen-
tial effects on broiler BW and FCR.
2. The antibacterial growth promoter peni-
cillin was effective in improving BW and
feed conversion in broiler starter diets.
3. A high level of dried oregano leaf (20.0
g/kg) of Mediterranean origin resulted in
FCR intermediate to the positive (peni-
cillin) and negative control-fed birds.
4. More research is needed to determine the
effectiveness of dried oregano leaf, espe-
cially at higher levels and with emphasis
on other criteria, such as its effects on
the gastrointestinal microbiota ecosys-
tem and meat quality under different en-
vironmental challenge conditions, to fur-
ther clarify the extent of effectiveness of
dried oregano leaf in broiler nutrition as
a natural alternative to antibiotic growth
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... (Stelter et al., 2013, Dorhoi et al., 2006, Basmacioglu-Malayoglu et al., 2010. Con potencial efecto orexigénico que promueve el aprovechamiento del alimento (Karimi et al., 2010), al estimular la actividad de enzimas pancreáticas e intestinales, con lo que se mejora la ganancia de peso y conversión alimenticia. ...
... Pero, aunque los estudios con productos de orégano se han centrado en la productividad (Bampidis et al., 2005, Karimi et al., 2010, Betancourt et al., 2014, Franciosini et al., 2016, Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska y Szczerbińska, 2017, Gómez-Gómez et al., 2017, Simitzis, 2017, Valenzuela et al., 2017, Yigit et al., 2017 con valor agregado (Domínguez et al., 2015, Park et al., 2015, pocos son aquellos que relacionan su efecto en la morfo-histología de tejidos como la superficie de absorción intestinal, hígado e incluso en excretores como el riñón. Ferreira et al. (2016) por ejemplo reportaron un incremento de la longitud de vellosidades intestinales y en la deposición hepática de glucógeno. ...
... De igual manera, los autores Cetingul et al. (2007) adicionando seis niveles del fitoaditivo (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 y 5%) deshidratado al alimento de codornices en postura, no afectaron los parámetros consumo, producción o peso de huevo. En investigación aplicada con pavos hembra (Bampidis et al., 2005) o con pollos (Karimi et al., 2010, Shiva et al. 2012 Lo cual coincide con los resultados encontrados a nivel hepático por Bampidis et al. (2005) y Cetingul et al. (2007), quienes empleando varios niveles del fitobiótico seco, no observaron cambios sustanciales en las variables de respuesta peso de canal, hígado o glucosa en circulación de las aves utilizadas en sus estudios. En cambio, Badiri y Saber (2016) en codornices en postura, con la adición de aceites esenciales de orégano al alimento, encontraron poca variación en los indicadores sanguíneos establecidos por ellos como respuesta. ...
Full-text available
Durante años la creciente población humana ha demandado al sector pecuario más proteína para su alimentación. Por tanto, el sector agropecuario ha empleado técnicas y suplementos alimenticios que no pongan en riesgo la salud de los animales y de consumidores finales. El orégano es un fitomodulador microbiano del tracto gastrointestinal que estimula el aprovechamiento de nutrimentos, y ello la producción de especies avícolas como la codorniz. Sin embargo, poco se sabe del efecto modulador tisular. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de tres niveles de orégano seco (0, 2 y 4% del alimento), en la productividad de la codorniz (Coturnix coturnix japonica), para ello se utilizaron 30 hembras de 60 días de edad por nivel, 90 en total, (diez aves por repetición, por jaula), la cuales fueron asignadas de manera aleatoria. Las aves, fueron alojadas en condiciones comerciales, recibieron alimento conforme a sus necesidades (30 g/ave/día) y agua a libre acceso, por un periodo de 21 días. Durante este periodo se registró el consumo (g/día), producción y ganancia de peso, además se midió la histomorfología perilobulillar venosa a nivel hepática y citoestructura renal. Los resultados mostraron que el nivel orégano seco en el alimento no afectó de forma significativa los parámetros establecidos como de respuesta (p 0.05).
... However, with the concerns about their residue in food products [23], the unavoidable spread of bacterial resistance and cross-resistance [22] is observed in humans, the use of antibiotics has been considered hazardous to public health [2]. Due to the facts, the European Union placed a ban on the use of chemical antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock production [12]. ...
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This study evaluates the effects of composite leaf meal from two leaves on the performance of broiler chickens when used as a supplement. Fresh Gliricidia sepium and Persea americana leaves were harvested, air-dried, and milled to produce leaf meals and then mixed in ratio 1:1 to form a composite leaf meal of Gliricidia-Avocado leaf meal (GALM). A basal diet was formulated and divided into four portions, the composite leaf meal was then added to these portions at 0, 4, 8, and 12g/kg and designated diets I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Two hundred (200) day-old broiler chicks of Arbor acre breed were randomly allotted to the four (4) dietary treatments replicated five (5) times with ten (10) chicks per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design. The respective diets were fed to the chicks ad libitum from 1-42 days. All data collected were subjected to analysis of variance using SPSS version 25 package. Results showed that final weight and total weight gain were significantly (P < 0.05) influence among the parameters measured. Birds fed the test diets were observed to be more improved for all parameters measured than those fed the control diet. All the carcass and relative organs parameters were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected except the spleen, which was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in birds fed diet III (1.28 ± 0.11g/kg) than those fed other diets. GALM supplemented up to 12g/kg level in broiler chicken diet improves the growth performance characteristics and muscle development.
... These findings are supported by Ri et al. (2017) and Roofchaee et al. (2011), who reported that oregano powder supplementation significantly increases the average daily gain in weight and feed intake of broiler chickens. In contrast, several authors reported that oregano supplementation had no effects on the body weight gains and voluntary feed intake of broiler chickens (Karimi et al., 2010;Avila-Ramos et al., 2012;Fukayama et al., 2005). Moreover, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in the present study indicates that broiler chickens fed with 5% oregano powder are efficient (p<0.05) in converting feeds into the desired output than the other treatments. ...
Full-text available
Antibiotics have long been recognized as growth promoters and disease controllers in poultry production. However, due to rising public health concerns over antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry feed has been banned in the European Union since 2006. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the effects of oregano powder (OP) as phytobiotic feed additives on the growth performance and cell-mediated immunity of broiler chickens. A total of sixty-day-old Cobb-broiler chickens were used in the study and arranged in a Completely Randomized Design experimental set-up with four dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated three times, having five birds in every replication. The experimental rations containing graded levels of OP (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) were formulated and fed ad libitum in 42 days feeding trial. The results indicated that broiler chickens fed with OP showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the final weight, body weight gain, voluntary feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. The cell-mediated immunity showed no significant difference (p>0.05) among treatment means. However, the results revealed that the immune organ indicators of broiler chickens fed with OP were higher than those birds without OP in the diet. On the other hand, the total expenses of broiler chickens fed with 5% oregano powder were reduced by 5.81% of the total inputs, and the income generated increases as high as 30.86% of the return above feed and chick cost. In conclusion, 5% oregano powder can be incorporated without adverse effects on the production performance and cell-mediated immunity.
... Figura 6. Histograma para la conversión alimenticia al término de la fase de inicio -21 días-y engorde -42 días- Karimi et al. (2010), no encontraron diferencias significativas para conversión alimenticia a los 18 días de edad en pollos de engorde que contenían en la dieta diferentes cantidades (2,5; 5; 10 y 20 -1 alimento) de orégano contra el control. Los datos que obtuvieron oscilan entre 1,37 y 1,4; siendo la dieta con 5 -1 alimento (0,5%) de orégano el menor valor numéricamente. ...
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Con el objetivo de evaluar la inclusión de proporciones de harina de hojas de orégano (HHO) en el alimento balanceado comercial (ABC) de pollos de engorde, se cuantificó en fase de inicio y de engorde, el peso corporal (PC), ganancia diaria de peso (GDP), consumo diario de alimento (CDA), índice conversión alimenticia (ICA) y mortalidad (MO) en un diseño experimental completamente al azar. Se utilizaron 208 pollitos de la línea Ross distribuidos en cuatro tratamientos: ABC100%: 100% de alimento balanceado; ABC+0,25HHO: Alimento balanceado+0,25% de harina de orégano; ABC+0,50HHO: Alimento balanceado+0,50% de harina de orégano y ABC+0,75HHO: Alimento balanceado+0,75% de harina de orégano, con cuatro repeticiones y 13 aves por unidad experimental. Las variables PC y GDP fueron analizadas por regresión, mientras que CDA, ICA y MO fueron comparadas por estadística descriptiva. El PC logró diferencias significativas al final de las fases de inicio y engorde, siendo el tratamiento ABC+0,25HHO, obteniendo el mejor resultado (773,18 y 2196,11g, respectivamente). La GDP siguió la misma tendencia del PC, donde el tratamiento ABC+0,25HHO mostró el mayor valor, con 35,01 y 67,71g a los 21 y 42 días, respectivamente. Las variables CDA e ICA se vieron favorecidas con la dieta ABC+0,25HHO. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas para la mortalidad. La adición de 0,25% de harina de hojas de orégano (HHO), como aditivo fitogénico en la dieta de pollos de engorde, tuvo efecto positivo sobre el peso corporal, ganancia diaria de peso, consumo de alimento y conversión alimenticia durante la fase de inicio y engorde.
... When used in the poultry diets, oregano may exert antioxidant properties since it has two important phenol compounds corresponding to 78-85% of the oil's composition, namely carvacrol (2-methyl-5-isopropyiphenol) and thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) (Basmacioglu Malayoglu et al., 2010) [19]. According to Botsoglou et al., these compounds possess antimicrobial activity [20] acting to reduce undesirable intestinal microflora which favors the absorption of nutrients [21]. The essential oils content in oregano can act as stimulant agents of the immune system during acute or chronic inflammatory processes that can be characterized by an increase in the levels of serum globulins [22], which can express the metabolic and nutritional status of poultry [23]. ...
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This study aimed to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of Salvia officinalis and/or Origanum majorana on productive performance, ovarian follicular development, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative status, and egg quality in laying hens. Two hundred and ninety-four 45-week-old Bovans brown hens were allocated into seven groups, with seven replicates of six hens each. The first group was fed with the basal considered as a control (A); the second (B) and third (C) groups were provided with the same control diet further supplemented with 0.5 and 1 kg/ton Salvia officinalis, respectively; the fourth (D) and fifth (E) groups received the control diet further supplemented with 0.5 and 1 kg/ton Origanum majorana, respectively; while the sixth (F) and the seventh (G) groups were offered a diet supplemented with 0.5 kg/ton Salvia officinalis and 0.5 kg/ton Origanum majorana and 1 kg/ton Salvia officinalis and 1 kg/ton Origanum majorana, respectively. No significant effects were observed in the final body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) of the laying hens. In the diets supplemented with Salvia officinalis and Origanum majorana, the egg weights for groups C, F, and G had significantly higher values only compared to group D. The supplementation of the diets with Salvia officinalis and/or Origanum majorana significantly (p < 0.05) increased the Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol estrogenic hormone concentration, except for Origanum majorana at both levels with regard to estradiol. The dietary utilization of Salvia officinalis and Origanum majorana did not significantly alter the plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), total protein, albumin, globulin, and High density lipoprotein (HDL) parameters. Cholesterol, glucose, triglyceride, and Low density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased (p < 0.05) in the birds fed with Salvia officinalis and/or Origanum majorana supplemented diets. Moreover, at both doses, the dietary supplementation with Salvia officinalis and Origanum majorana decreased (p < 0.05) the yolk cholesterol and liver Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. In addition, the dietary enrichment with Salvia officinalis and/or Origanum majorana decreased (p < 0.05) the palmitoleic and stearic fatty acids’ egg yolk concentration. In contrast, the yolk linoleic fatty acid concentration was significantly increased by Salvia officinalis and/or Origanum majorana. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with Salvia officinalis and/or Origanum positively affected productive performance, ovarian follicular development, antioxidant activity, hormonal status, and steroidogenesis in Bovans brown laying hens.
... Therefore, nutrients accessible for growth reduce. Findings obtained from this experiment in relation with the relative weight-gain are consistent with reports Jang et al., 2007;Karimi et al., 2010 andCabuk et al., 2006. ...
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In the present experiment, 320 one day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were used based on a completely randomized design with 4 treatments, 4 replicates, and each replicate is a pan containing 20 broiler chickens. Experimental treatments include control, 0.5, 1, and 2 percent in chickens' diet. Thymolina is an anti-bacterial powder drug which is made by composing 4 medicinal plants. During the experiment period, chickens had free access to water and food and the livestock raising management was conducted in terms of lighting, humidity, ventilation, and vaccination in accordance with the guide requirements of Ross 308 broider chickens. Weighing was conducted weekly and at the end of feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio of chickens were measured. At the age 42 days old, from each replicate, 2 chickens with the lowest mean difference in weight were selected in order to be used for factors of carcass weight, the amount of fat as well as pectoral muscle and small intestine to obtain histological Morphology. The amount of consumed feed weight gain, body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio was significantly affected and there is significant differences among different treatments (P<0.05), but feed conversion ratio (finisher and total) was not affected and there was no significant difference among different treatments (P>0.05). The amount of carcass fat in treatments containing Thymolina was decreased and was not affected and there was no significant difference among different treatments (P>0.05). In general, results indicated that using Thymolina in the diet of broiler chickens causes improvements in performance characteristics. Therefore, it can be used for the improvement in performance and creation of the favorable broiler chickens.
... Consistently, improvements in BWG, FI, and feed efficiency were found in broiler chickens following the supplementation of tetracycline, Persicaria odorata and Piper betle (Basit et al. 2020), Cichorium intybus (Khoobani et al. 2020), Lippia citriodora (Mehrparvar et al. 2016), and Lavandula angustifolia (Salajegheh et al. 2018). Contrarily, as it was the case with the T-3 diet (2.5 g/kg LTL), the supplementation of black cumin (Al-Mufarrej 2014), Crassocephalum crepidioides leaf , and oregano leaf (Karimi et al. 2010) did not influence growth indices in broiler chickens. The differences in dosage of supplements, husbandry practices, and dietary ingredients may explain the discrepancies. ...
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The rising concerns pertaining to the safety of synthetic supplements in livestock production have encouraged the exploration of potential alternatives. This study investigated the growth, gut microbiota, blood chemistry, immune indices, meat quality, and antioxidant status in broiler chickens supplemented with Crescentia cujete leaf (CCL), Launaea taraxacifolia leaf (LTL), and a combination of antibiotic (70% oxytetracycline + 30% neomycin) and tert-Butylhydroxyanisole. One-day-old Ross 308 chicks (n = 420) were randomly assigned to either T-1, basal diet (BD) only; T-2, BD + 0.4 g/kg antibiotic + 0.13 g/kg tert-butylhydroxyanisole; T-3, BD + 2.5 g/kg LTL; T-4, BD + 5 g/kg LTL; T-5, BD + 2.5 g/kg CCL; or T-6, BD + 5 g/kg CCL for 42 days. Each dietary group had seven replicates with ten chicks per replicate. Body weight gain and carcass weight were higher (P < 0.05) in the T-2, T-4, T-5, and T-6 birds compared with those of other birds. At 1–21 days, the T-2 and T-4 birds consumed more feed than the T-1 and T-3 birds. At 22–42 days, the T-4 birds consumed more (P < 0.05) feed than the T-1 and T-3 birds. During 1–42 days, the T-1 and T-3 birds consumed less (P < 0.05) feed than other birds. At 22–42 days and 1–42 days, the T-1 had lower feed efficiency (P < 0.05) than other birds except for the T-3 birds. The CCL and LTL birds had lower (P < 0.05) serum LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol compared with other birds. Hematology, splenic interleukin-1β, immunoglobulin M, ileal and caecal total aerobic bacteria counts, caecal Lactobacillus spp., and meat physicochemical properties were unaffected by diets. The T-1 birds had higher (P < 0.05) ileal and caecal Clostridium spp., E. coli, and Salmonella spp. compared with birds fed other diets. The CCL and LTL birds had higher ileal Lactobacillus counts. Splenic IL-10 was higher (P < 0.05) in the T-2, T-4, and T-6 birds compared with that in other birds. Dietary supplementation with CCL, LTL, and a combination of antibiotic and tert-butylhydroxyanisole repressed (P < 0.05) splenic tumor necrosis-α and immunoglobulin G. The T-1 breast meat had lower glutathione peroxidase and catalase. The T-4 meat had higher (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and total antioxidant capacity compared with other meats. On day 3 postmortem, meats obtained from birds supplemented with CCL, LTL, and a combination of antibiotic and tert-butylhydroxyanisole had lower (P < 0.05) carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents than the meat from the non-supplemented birds. The 5 g/kg CCL and 5 g/kg LTL could be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant in broiler diets.
... However, other authors reported that black cumin and thyme did not affect the growth of broilers. These differences between studies are due to the dose and type of phytobiotics used in the diets (Al-Mufarrej, 2014;Karimi et al., 2010). ...
Antibiotics use in poultry as a growth promoter leads to the propagation of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and incorporation of drug residues in foods; therefore, it has been restricted in different countries. There is a global trend to limit the use of antibiotics in the animal products. Prevention of the antibiotics use in the poultry diets led to the reduction in the growth performance. Consequently, there is a high demand for natural substances that lead to the same growth enhancement and beneficially affect poultry health. These constituents play essential roles in regulating the normal physiological functions of animals including the protection from infectious ailments. Nutraceuticals administration resulted beneficial in both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Being the natural components of diet, they are compatible with it and do not pose risks associated with antibiotics or other drugs. Nutraceuticals are categorized as commercial additives obtained from natural products as an alternative feed supplement for the improvement of animal welfare. This group includes enzymes, synbiotics, phytobiotics, organic acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the present review, the summary of various bioactive ingredients that act as nutraceuticals and their mode of action in growth promotion and elevation of the immune system has been presented.
In the current study supplementations of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder (CNP) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L) powder (TP) as an antibiotic growth promoter substitutions on growth performance, intestinal microbiota and hematological profile of broiler chickens have been investigated. A total of 240, one day old as-hatched broiler chickens (ROSS 308) were randomly assigned into five treatments with four replicates per treatment and 10 chickens per replicate. Treatment groups were C: control (fed basal diet); CNP1: 0.5% CNP; CNP2: 1.0% CNP; TP1: 0.5% TP; TP2: 1.0% TP and 500 mg oxytetracycline (OTC)/kg of diet. Body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved (p < 0.05) by CNP and TP while OTC improved BWG and FCR. Ileal and cecal Lactobacillus and total aerobes were significantly improved while coliforms and Escherichia coli were decreased by CNP, TP, and OTC. The percentage of packed cell volume (%PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) count, and white blood cell (WBC) count was increased by CNP and TP while OTC decreased %PCV, Hb, RBC, and increased WBC count. In conclusion, the results showed that OTC can be safely replaced by CNP and TP at 1.0% dose rate in broiler chicken’s diets.
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Abstract The specific concentrations of amoxicillin and penicillin V in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which have an effect in terms of growth promotion/increased yield were assessed by EFSA in collaboration with EMA. Details of the methodology used for this assessment, associated data gaps and uncertainties, are presented in a separate document. To address antimicrobial resistance, the Feed Antimicrobial Resistance Selection Concentration (FARSC) model developed specifically for the assessment was applied. However, due to the lack of data on the parameters required to calculate the FARSC, it was not possible to conclude the assessment until further experimental data become available. To address growth promotion, data from scientific publications obtained from an extensive literature review were used. Levels in feed that showed to have an effect on growth promotion/increased yield were reported for amoxicillin, whilst for penicillin V no suitable data for the assessment were available. It was recommended to carry out studies to generate the data that are required to fill the gaps which prevented the calculation of the FARSC for these two antimicrobials.
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The aim of the experiments was to determine the influence of the addition of herbs to the diets on the total protein content and the activity of the digestive enzymes in broiler chickens. The experiments were carried out on 210 Ross broiler chickens (in the period from 1st to 42nd day) randomly divided into 7 groups: control and 6 experimental. The experimental chickens were fed on a diet with a 2% addition of the following: hops (gr. I), linden (gr. II), melissa (gr. III), pansy (gr. IV), peppermint (gr. V), urtica (gr. VI). At the 42nd day, 10 chickens (5 males and 5 females) were chosen from each group which had a body weight closest to the average of particular group. The body weight (g) and, after slaughter, also relative liver weight (g/100 BW) and abdominal fat content (% of BW) were examined. The percentage of breast, thigh and shank muscles were examined. The proventriculus was isolated and mucosa membrane was removed from them. After homogenization of the mucosa membrane the total proteolitic activity and total content of proteins in it were analyzed. The highest body weight was determined in chickens receiving an addition of urtica. However, the addition of linden caused a 20% reduction of body weight in males and 11% in females. Considerably lower body weight was also observed in males fed on the diet with hops. The addition of hops caused an increase of liver weight and abdominal fat content. A statistically considerable increase of the total protein content in the mucosa membrane of the proventriculus in groups fed on the diets with linden, melissa, pansy, peppermint and urtica was observed. The analysis of the proteolitical activity of the mucosa membrane indicated its considerable decrease in chickens of both sexes when the diet was enriched by the addition of linden, melissa, pansy, peppermint and in females fed on a mixture with the addition of hops and urtica.
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An experiment was carried out to examine the effect of supplementing feed with oregano and/or α-tocopheryl acetate on growth performance of broiler chickens and the oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat. A total of 6300 one-day old Cobb-500 chickens were randomly allocated into 7 equal groups with three subgroups of 150 males and 150 females each. One of the groups was given a basal diet containing 30 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed (negative control group), whereas the other six groups were administered the basal diet supplemented further with dehydrated oregano plants at 5 g/kg (OR5 group) and 10 g/kg (OR10 group), dehydrated oregano plants at 5 or 10 g/kg plus 170 mg/kg α-tocopheryl acetate (OR5-TOC and OR10-TOC group, respectively), α-tocopheryl acetate at 170 mg/kg (TOC group), and flavomycin at 4 mg/kg plus lasalocid at 75 mg/kg (FLA-LAS positive control group). After 42 days of feeding, values of body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio showed that oregano given as single supplement at the level of 5 g/kg or in combination with α-tocopheryl acetate could serve as an alternative to the approved feed additives flavomycin and lasalocid, exerting a growth-promoting effect. Feed supplementation with oregano decreased malondialdehyde values in meat samples compared with the control, the supplementation level of 5 g/kg being more effective in retarding lipid oxidation compared with 10 g/kg. The antioxidant activity offered by oregano was, however, inferior to that exhibited by α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation, while the antioxidant activity presented by the combination of 5 g/kg oregano and α-tocopheryl acetate was higher than that presented by α-tocopheryl acetate when supplemented alone or in combination with 10 g/kg oregano. Thigh meat samples were found to be more susceptible to oxidation compared with breast meat, although the latter contained α-tocopherol at markedly lower levels.
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The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a herbal essential oil mixture on the performance of broilers produced by a young (30 wk) or an old breeder (80 wk) flock. One thousand and eight unsexed day-old broiler chicks (Ross-308) originating from the two breeder flocks were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of 336 birds each. Dietary treatments were: a control and two diets containing 24 mg/kg or 48 mg/kg of an essential oil mixture. There were no significant effects of dietary treatment on body weight of the broilers at 21 and 42 days. The effect of the age of the parents did not have a significant effect on body weight of the broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. Up to 21 days the feed intake of broilers from young breeders was reduced significantly as a result of the inclusion of the essential oil mixture in their diets, and a significant improvement in feed conversion ratio was recorded in these birds. Difference in regression coefficients for feed intake and feed conversion ratio between broilers from young and old breeder flocks was significant. Carcass yield and some internal organ weights such as the liver, pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard and small intestine were not affected by the addition of the essential oil mixture to the diet. Inclusion of essential oil mixture to the diet decreased mortality significantly at 21 days.
The study was conducted to compare the effects of two essential oils, fed individually or in combination, with alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-TA) on performance parameters and lipid oxidation of broiler meat enriched with n-3 PUFAs. Seven hundred and twenty day-old Hubbard-JV unsexed broiler chicks were used. Treatments included; control: without antioxidant; alpha-TA200: with alpha-TA at 200 mg/kg; OO150: with oregano essential oil (OO) at 150 mg/kg; OO300: with OO at 300 mg/kg; RO150: with rosemary essential oil (RO) at 150 mg/kg; RO300: with RO at 300 mg/kg; OO75+RO75: both OO and RO at 75 mg/kg; OO150+RO150: both OO and RO at 150 mg/kg. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet to 21 d and a grower diet to the end of the trial at 42 d. Both feeds contained 15 g fish oil/kg as the source of n3 PUFAs. Birds fed alpha-TA200 had significantly higher weight gains at 42 d than those fed OO150, OO75+RO75 and OO150+RO150. However, there were no differences in carcass yield, feed intake, feed conversion ratio or mortality between treatments. Neither essential oil exerted any growth-promoting effect on performance, and there was no interaction between them. Antioxidants retarded lipid oxidation as measured in TBARS, but the effect of each differed according to storage time (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 d) and meat type (breast or thigh). Alpha-TA200, RO300 and combined essential oils (EO) had higher antioxidant effects in breast meat, and OO150+RO150 in thigh meat, than the other treatments with antioxidant at zero time of storage. The ability of natural antioxidants to inhibit lipid oxidation to the end of the storage period was, in decreasing order, combinations of EOs > alpha-TA200 = OO300 = RO150 = RO300 > OO150 in breast meat; and combinations of EOs > RO at both levels > alpha-TA200 = OO150 = OO300 in thigh meat. Combinations of EOs had a greater effect than those fed individually or alpha-TA200 on inhibiting lipid oxidation, and protecting alpha-TA concentration in refrigerated meat enriched with n-PUFAs stored for 15 d. Thigh meat was more susceptible to lipid oxidation than breast meat. The combination of OO and RO, at 150 mg/kg, proved as effective as alpha-TA in retaining the sensory qualities of breast meat after 15 d storage, and was more effective than when these EOs were fed individually or at 300 mg/kg. There is a possible synergistic effect between oregano and rosemary essential oil in preventing lipid oxidation in stored meat enriched with n-3 PUFAs.
This report will review the history of antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) use in the animal industry, concerns about development of antimicrobial resistance, and response in the European Union and United States to these concerns. A brief description of the history of legislation regarding feed use of antimicrobials in Denmark and the experience of animal producers following the 1998 ban will serve to illustrate the consequences on animal performance and health of withdrawing the approval for this use. The biological basis for antibiotic effects on animal growth efficiency will consider effects on intestinal microbiota and effects on the host animal and will use the germ-free animal to illustrate effects of the conventional microflora. The probability that no single compound will replace all of the functions of antimicrobial growth promoters will be considered, and methods to consolidate and analyze the enlarging database will be discussed.
Three studies with regard to the influence of herbs and essential oils on growth and carcass traits were carried out with male broilers over periods of 35 days (trials 1 and 2) and 84 days (trial 3), respectively. The effects of Oregano and its essential oil, Savoury, Nigella sativa L. and Cacao husks as feed supplements were investigated. Graded supplement of Oregano (0/2/4/10/20 g/kg) and its essential oil (0/0.1/0.2/0.5/1 g/kg) reduced daily feed intake of broilers compared to control animals. Enrichment with essential oil significantly improved feed efficiency. Savoury, Nigella sativa L. and Cacao husks increased daily feed intake of broilers in trial 2. In comparison to control animals live weight at the end of the feeding period was significantly higher in all experimental groups of trial 2 (10 g Cacao husks, 10 g Cacao husks + 5 g Nigella sativa L., 10 g Nigella sativa L. and 50 g Nigella sativa L.). N-balance analysis regarding protein accretion of broilers in the starter period (14th to 18th day of life) did not show any differences between control animals and groups fed with a supplement of 10 g and 20 g Savoury, 10 g Cacao husks or 10 g Nigella sativa L.. 5 g or 10 g of Savoury as feed additive improved daily feed intake over the entire feeding period in the long term trial (84 days). Up to the 35th day of life (trial 1) 10 g Savoury in the feed lead to a significantly improved daily live weight gain compared to control group and the group fed with a supplement of 5 g Savoury. At the end of trial 3 live weight of all animals was identical. In all three trials carcass traits of broilers were not influenced by feed supplement with herbs or essential oil.
An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with oregano, vitamin C, vitamin E and their combination on the performance of broiler chickens and the oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscle tissues. A total of 320 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were randomly allocated into 8 groups with 4 subgroups of 10 birds each. After 42 days of feeding, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio values showed that diet supplementation with oregano exerted a growth-promoting effect compared to control group. To assess the oxidative stability of the produced meat, raw and cooked breast and thigh muscle tissues were submitted to refrigerated-storage-induced lipid oxidation up to 9 days. Results showed that the oxidative stability offered by oregano was superior to that exhibited by vitamin C but inferior to that exhibited by the dietary combination of oregano plus vitamin E that was superior to all other tested dietary treatments. Vitamin C exerted a sparing effect on vitamin E when the latter was present in the diet at 30 mg/kg. When diet supplementation with vitamin E reached 200 mg/kg, the addition of vitamin C could not result in additional increase of the α-tocopherol levels in tissues. The lower MDA values found in tissues after diet supplementation with oregano, are probably the result of various antioxidant constituents that entered the circulatory system, distributed and retained in the tissues, exhibiting antioxidant activity. Additional research is needed toward identifying and quantifying the main antioxidant constituents of oregano deposited into chicken muscle tissues.
Several levels of chili powder, curry powder and black pepper were fed to male Arbor-Acre Indian River cross, broiler chicks from 0–4 weeks of age. It was concluded that curry, chili and black pepper powders at 6, 12 and 1.5% or more of diet, respectively, were all detrimental to the growth of broiler-type chicks, when added to a corn-milo-soybean meal type diet. Those spices added no flavoring to the meat.