Q Fever Cluster Among Raw Milk Drinkers in Michigan, 2011

Bureau of Disease Control Prevention and Epidemiology, Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 08/2012; 55(10):1387-9. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis690
Source: PubMed


Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a unique bacterium that is widespread but infrequently associated with human illness or outbreaks. We report on evidence
of infection with C. burnetii in a small group of regular consumers of raw (unpasteurized) milk from the same dairy in Michigan.

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    • "Pasteurization for 30 min at 63 8C (145 8F) or 15 s at 72 8C (161 8F) can lead to eight decimal reductions in the number of Coxiella spores [6]. A recent outbreak in Michigan, where 5 cases were detected over a three month period in 2011, has been reported where the only predisposing condition common to all infections was consumption of unpasteurized milk [7]. Such consumption is common in farm workers, cow share owners, or those buying milk from bulk tanks. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic Q fever caused by Coxiella burnetii is uncommon in the United States and is most often associated with infective endocarditis. We present a 52-year-old woman with a history of aortic valve replacement and rheumatoid arthritis treated with Etanercept with chronic Q fever manifesting as prosthetic valve infective endocarditis. Explanted valve tissue showed organisms confirmed to be Coxiella burnetii by PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) sequencing. She subsequently reported consumption of unpasteurized cow milk which was the likely source of C. burnetii. She continues to do well 6 months after valve replacement on oral doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · IDCases
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    • "Inhalation is thought to be the most common mode of transmission, but the organism can also be spread by tick vectors and ingestion [6]. Milk is the primary source of food-borne C. burnetii; an infection source that had decreased with pasteurization but has recently been increasing with the ‘raw milk’ movement [7]. While the risk of contracting disease following consumption, or handling, of other tissues is less understood, disease outbreaks have occurred in slaughterhouse and meat processing facilities [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) is an important cultural and nutritional resource for the Aleut community on St. Paul Island Alaska. In recent years, an increasing number of zoonotic pathogens have been identified in the population, but the public health significance of these findings is unknown. To determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Brucella spp. in northern fur seal tissues, eight tissue types from 50 subsistence-harvested fur seals were tested for bacterial DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction.FindingsOf the 400 samples tested, only a single splenic sample was positive for Brucella spp. and the cycle threshold (ct) value was extremely high suggesting a low concentration of DNA within the tissue. C. burnetii DNA was not detected.Conclusions Findings suggest that the risk of humans contracting brucellosis or Q fever from the consumption of harvested northern fur seals is low.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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    • "A recent report found that 94% of bulk tank milk samples collected from US dairy herds contained C. burnetii specific DNA [6]. Loftis and others detected C. burnetii in 42.9% (9/21) of commercial raw milk samples in the US [7], and a recent case report found Q fever clusters among raw milk consumers in the State of Michigan [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Goats are known reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever. However, there has been very little research on the prevalence of C. burnetii exposure and risk in meat goats farmed in the US. Banked serum samples were secondarily tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies. Findings The animal and herd-level seroprevalence estimates for C. burnetii were 1.2% (3/249) and 4.2% (1/24) respectively. Within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 1.2%. Conclusions This study indicates that seroprevalence of C. burnetii in Boer goats raised in Missouri was low, but it does not preclude the existence of a higher level of infection in Missouri’s meat goat herds. This result is inconclusive because this study was disadvantaged by the small number of individual animal and herds tested, which compromised the statistical power of this study to detect a possible higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii in this population, if present. More research is warranted to corroborate the preliminary findings reported here in order to determine the public health significance C. burnetii infection risks associated with contemporary goat production systems in the US.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Research Notes
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