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Abstract

Due to intensive marketing and the rapid growth of online gambling, poker currently enjoys great popularity among large sections of the population. Although poker is legally a game of chance in most countries, some (particularly operators of private poker web sites) argue that it should be regarded as a game of skill or sport because the outcome of the game primarily depends on individual aptitude and skill. The available findings indicate that skill plays a meaningful role; however, serious methodological weaknesses and the absence of reliable information regarding the relative importance of chance and skill considerably limit the validity of extant research. Adopting a quasi-experimental approach, the present study examined the extent to which the influence of poker playing skill was more important than card distribution. Three average players and three experts sat down at a six-player table and played 60 computer-based hands of the poker variant "Texas Hold'em" for money. In each hand, one of the average players and one expert received (a) better-than-average cards (winner's box), (b) average cards (neutral box) and (c) worse-than-average cards (loser's box). The standardized manipulation of the card distribution controlled the factor of chance to determine differences in performance between the average and expert groups. Overall, 150 individuals participated in a "fixed-limit" game variant, and 150 individuals participated in a "no-limit" game variant. ANOVA results showed that experts did not outperform average players in terms of final cash balance. Rather, card distribution was the decisive factor for successful poker playing. However, expert players were better able to minimize losses when confronted with disadvantageous conditions (i.e., worse-than-average cards). No significant differences were observed between the game variants. Furthermore, supplementary analyses confirm differential game-related actions dependent on the card distribution, player status, and game variant. In conclusion, the study findings indicate that poker should be regarded as a game of chance, at least under certain basic conditions, and suggest new directions for further research.

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... To be long-term winners, poker players must make sound decisions, using the information they have and taking into account the missing information they do not. To make the most pertinent decisions and earn money, a player must consistently demonstrate good cognitive skills and self-control Meyer, von Meduna, Brosowski, & Hayer, 2013;Tendler, 2011). Online poker play requires specific skills and characteristics not often associated with other forms of gambling (Moreau et al., 2016). ...
... SD = 4.45). Their socio-demographic characteristics were similar to those found in previous studies (Barrault & Varescon, 2013a, 2013bHopley et al., 2012;LaPlante, Kleschinsky, LaBrie, Nelson, & Shaffer, 2009;McCormack & Griffiths, 2011;Meyer et al., 2013;Zaman, Geurden, De Cock, De Schutter, & Vanden Abeele, 2014; see Table 1). Table 2. themes identified and associated items of oPtS questionnaire, after the analysis of the 10 interviews with poker players and reading from a professional player. ...
... Nonetheless, it should be noted that we did not know if there were multiple responses from the same person. The socio-demographic characteristics of our sample are consistent with those of groups examined in other studies (Barrault & Varescon, 2013a, 2013bHopley, Dempsey, & Nicki, 2012;LaPlante et al., 2009;McCormack & Griffiths, 2011;Meyer et al., 2013;Zaman et al., 2014). However, the sample is composed of French poker players only and future research should replicate this study on populations in other countries. ...
Article
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Tilt in poker implies a deviation from an individual’s usual playing style, at a strategic, emotional and behavioural level. It is a specific characteristic of poker, which can affect all kinds of players with varying degrees of frequency. In addition, tilt could be a transitional form of pathological gambling behaviour and a gateway to addiction. The main objective of this research is therefore the design and validation of a measuring scale for tilt episode frequency in an online poker gamblers’ group. Twenty-one items based on the literature and interviews with 10 poker players were created. An online self-administered questionnaire was completed by 263 poker players to validate this scale. The mean age of the sample was 26.7 (SD = 4.45). The Online Poker Tilt Scale (OPTS) consists of 17 items and is the first validated tool for measuring the frequency of tilt episodes associated with online poker. It is composed of two factors: ‘emotional and behavioural tilt’ and ‘cognitive tilt’. Tilt seems to be an essential part of understanding online poker behaviour. This tool will enable researchers studying online poker addiction to perform research on the mechanisms and processes that lead to tilt and its consequences.
... Studies have found that early onset of PG is associated with more social problems, greater risk of substance use disorders, higher levels of impulsivity and lower rates of treatment-seeking [12,13]. Some studies have also suggested that individuals with earlyonset PG may also be more likely than those with lateronset PG to engage in strategic forms of gambling [12,13], although the distinction between strategic and non-strategic forms of gambling can be controversial [14]. ...
... Data related to age at onset of PG and association with other mental disorders are mixed. Some studies have suggested that only early-onset PG is associated with higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders [12], whereas others have found that older age at onset was associated with a higher level of depressive, paranoid and psychotic symptoms, and with specific anxiety and mood disorders [13][14][15][16][17]. ...
... Most of the studies on early-onset PG conducted to date have relied upon treatment-seeking individuals [12], included relatively small samples [13] or focused on psychiatric symptoms rather than psychiatric diagnosis [12]. None of them has assessed Axis II disorders [12][13][14]17]. We sought to build upon prior research by extending knowledge in three directions. ...
Article
AimsTo examine differences between early-onset versus later-onset pathological gamblers in sociodemographic characteristics, rates of Axis I and II disorders, preferred type of gambling, and rates of treatment-seeking in a large nationally representative survey of adults in the United States. Design & MeasurementData were collected from face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version IV (AUDADIS-IV). SettingThe study drew on data from the United States’ National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). ParticipantsAll individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of pathological gambling (PG). To be consistent with prior studies, age of onset of PG was dichotomized as 25 and younger (early-onset) versus 26 and older (later-onset). FindingsIndividuals with early-onset PG were more likely than individuals with later-onset PG to be male (OR= 2.86; 95% CI=1.20, 6.82), never married (OR= 3.51; 95% CI=1.39, 8.84), to have income below US$70,000 (OR= 0.09; 95% CI=0.01, 0.61), to belong to younger cohorts (OR= 0.93; 95% CI=0.89, 0.97), and to have a Cluster B personality disorder (OR= 4.11; 95% CI=1.77, 9.55), but less likely to have a mood disorder (OR= 0.42; 95% CI= 0.19, 0.94). There were no differences between individuals with early- and later-onset PG regarding rates of treatment-seeking (OR= 0.71; 95% CI=0.20, 2.43) or preferred type of gambling (OR= 2.00; 95% CI=0.55, 7.3). All results remained significant after adjusting for age, sex and race, except the difference in the prevalence for mood disorders, which was no longer significant. Conclusions Individuals with early-onset versus later-onset pathological gambling (PG) differ in several sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, but not in their preferred types of game. Individuals from more recent cohorts appear to be at significantly increased risk for developing early-onset PG.
... Internet poker has been argued to be a less risky form of gambling than online casino games as there is an element of skill involved in poker and players are less likely to dissociate, but play socially or competitive as compared to rapid and continuous casino games (Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy (DBCDE), 2013). However, several studies have found sub-groups of more involved online poker players who do not play in a disciplined and rational manner and may chase their losses, and studies have found that the effects of change largely outweigh any skill component (Shead et al., 2008;Meyer et al., 2012). Many studies combine samples of Internet gamblers, despite the heterogeneity of this population (Wardle, Moody, Griffths et al., 2011). ...
... Notably, in the current study longer and more frequent poker sessions were not associated with chasing losses, which is consistent with the suggestion that this gambling activity may be less problematic for players (DBCDE, 2013). Alternatively, as the element of skill is more pronounced in poker over longer periods of time (Meyer et al., 2012), poker players who engage in this activity more regularly may be more disciplined and less likely to chase losses. ...
Article
Disordered Internet gambling is a psychological disorder that represents an important public health issue due to the increase in highly available and conveniently accessible Internet gambling sites. Chasing losses is one of the few observable markers of at-risk and problem gambling that may be used to detect early signs of disordered Internet gambling. This study examined loss chasing behaviour in a sample of Internet casino and poker players and the socio-demographic variables, irrational beliefs, and gambling behaviours associated with chasing losses. An online survey was completed by 10,838 Internet gamblers (58% male) from 96 countries. The results showed that Internet casino players had a greater tendency to report chasing losses than poker players and gamblers who reported chasing losses were more likely to hold irrational beliefs about gambling and spend more time and money gambling than those who reported that they were unaffected by previous losses. Gamblers who played for excitement and to win money were more likely to report chasing losses. This study is one of the largest ever studies of Internet gamblers and the results are highly significant as they provide insight into the characteristics and behaviours of gamblers using this mode of access.
... The interplay between skill and chance in poker is a topic of ongoing debate (Bjerg, 2010;Croson et al., 2008;Dedonno & Detterman, 2008;Fiedler & Rock, 2009;Hannum & Cabot, 2009;Levitt & Miles, 2011;Meyer et al., 2013; see also Zhou et al., 2012). It is not yet well-established to which extent poker can be considered a game of skill as opposed to a game of chance. ...
... Thus, it is theoretically possible in poker to have enough skill to never end up losing (in the long run). that in a recent laboratory experiment about poker decision making, experienced players did not outperform inexperienced ones (Meyer et al., 2013). Moreover, due to lack of consistent empirical evidence, it is difficult to estimate the exact ratio of winning players to losing players. ...
Thesis
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Poker, especially on-line poker, is a game of skill and chance that requires constant and rapid decision making under varying levels of risk and uncertainty. Poker playing skill encompasses both technical and emotional elements. In poker, it is possible to acquire enough experience and skill to win money in the long run. Yet every poker player, regardless of his/her skill, occasionally loses. Poor, out-of-control poker decision making due to negative emotions typically elicited by monetary losses is commonly known as tilting and often results in superfluous losses. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate psychological and physiological emotional processes associated with poker decision making. Studies I III were based on Internet-questionnaire data. Study I (N=60) was qualitative, and Studies II (N=354) and III (N=417) were correlative. The emphasis here was on exploring the underpinnings of the tilting phenomenon and the differences in emotion regulation abilities between experienced and inexperienced poker players. In Study IV (N=29), psychophysiological reactivity (electrodermal activity; EDA) was measured in a laboratory setting while participants played the No Limit Texas Hold'em (NLHE) poker variant on a computer. Overall, the results suggest that tilting behavior is instigated by loss-induced feelings of injustice/unfairness (moral indignation). These feelings are also associated with chasing behavior, where players attempt irrationally to regain the money that they feel is rightfully theirs. The aftermath of tilting was characterized by reports of sleeping problems and rumination over lost resources (Study I). A higher tendency to experience loss-induced negative feelings was associated with a higher reported severity of tilting (Study III). Experienced players, when compared with inexperienced ones, exhibited a more mature/impassive disposition towards losing and tilting (Studies I III), engaged in less self-rumination and more self-reflection, and made normatively better poker decisions (Study II). However, surprisingly, experienced players also reported more severe tilting (Study III). The EDA elicited while participants played poker on a computer was associated with various poker decisions (actions): Pre-decision EDA levels increased in the order of folding, calling and betting/raising. Furthermore, actions taken with strong and weak poker hands elicited higher EDA compared with actions taken with poker hands of medium/uncertain strength (Study IV). The results from Studies I III shed light on the associations between poker experience, emotion regulation abilities ( mental skills ) and tilting behavior. The results from Study IV allow for situating the game of poker within the theoretical framework of economic and neuroscientific theories of emotions and decision making by demonstrating that the EDA associated with NLHE decision making conceivably indexes the anticipated utility of the decisions.
... Indeed, poker is a game of chance that requires deftness and a certain level of skill in order to win money (Brochu et al. 2015). This means that on the contrary to games without skill, like slot machines, an online poker player's behavior can influence the result of a hand (Meyer et al. 2013) and it is the reason why some players can make poker their profession. Poker is also a game where the adversary is not ''the bank'', like in Blackjack for example, but is instead another player who can be of potentially, higher, lower or equal skill level. ...
... Poker is also a game where the adversary is not ''the bank'', like in Blackjack for example, but is instead another player who can be of potentially, higher, lower or equal skill level. Poker has a specific game structure that is influenced by a players skill, mathematical and statistical capacity and emotional regulation (Barrault et al. 2014;Dufour et al. 2012;Laakasuo et al. 2014Laakasuo et al. , 2015Meyer et al. 2013). ...
Article
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Tilt is a very common term in online poker players’ vocabulary, it describes a state where the player is no longer able to make rational decisions because they are overwhelmed by strong emotions. This study aims to explore the relation existing between the frequency of Tilt episodes, the player’s perception of these episodes and excessive gambling in online poker. The sample is composed of 291 adult French-speaking online poker players. All participants completed an online self-assessment questionnaire. The results of the classification analysis showed that the sample could be divided into three groups. The first group, named ‘‘players in control’’ included low excessive gambling tendencies with low perceived and measured Tilt frequencies. The two other groups showed high measured tilt levels, with perceived tilt levels that were different from the measured levels. Furthermore, these two groups present a moderate usage risk of developing an excessive gambling tendency in a money-based game of chance. These results show the existence of a relation between the player’s capacity to perceive tilt and the online poker player’s behavior.
... Subsequently, data collection is complex and constitutes an obvious bias. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the socio-demographic characteristics of our sample are consistent with those of groups examined in other studies LaPlante, Kleschinsky, LaBrie, Nelson, & Shaffer, 2009;Meyer, von Meduna, Brosowski, & Hayer, 2013;Zaman, Geurden, De Cock, De Schutter, & Vanden Abeele, 2014). It would be beneficial to complement the factorial analysis by using a different sample, which would confirm the pertinence of the factorial structure of the measuring scale. ...
... Il est dit « actif » car l'issue peut être influencée par la maîtrise du jeu contrairement aux jeux « passifs », dont l'issue repose uniquement sur le hasard. Cette part importante d'adresse est l'une des principales raisons de l'engouement pour le PokerMeyer et al., 2013;Parke et al., 2004;Turner & Fritz, 2001;Will Shead, Hodgins, & Scharf, 2008).Griffiths, Parke, Wood, & Rigbye (2009) ont identifié 4 facteurs qui prédisaient le ...
Thesis
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Etude 1 : La revue de littérature a identifié 16 articles. Plusieurs facteurs prédicteurs du jeu excessif ont été identifiés (le stress, les attributions internes, la dissociation, l’ennui, les émotions négatives, les croyances irrationnelles, l’anxiété et l’impulsivité). Enfin, la validité des outils utilisés pour mesurer le jeu excessif et les croyances irrationnelles dans cette population est remise en question. Etude 2 : Le Tilt serait lié à une perte de contrôle et des émotions négatives (colère, frustration), associées à des expériences dissociatives transitoires. Causé par des évènements tant internes qu’externes, le Tilt affecterait les processus comportementaux, émotionnels et cognitifs.Etude 3 : L’échelle OPTS mesure la fréquence des épisodes de Tilt au poker en ligne. Les items ont été créés à partir de la littérature et de 10 entretiens semi-directifs de joueurs de poker en ligne. L’échelle est composée de 2 facteurs appelés « Tilt émotionnel et comportemental » et « Tilt cognitif ». Etude 4 : Nos résultats indiquent que la fréquence des épisodes de Tilt est un prédicteur significatif de l’utilisation excessive du poker en ligne. La fréquence des épisodes de Tilt est quant à elle prédite par les croyances irrationnelles de type « incapacité à s’abstenir de jouer » et « interprétations favorables à la poursuite du jeu ». Le Tilt et les croyances irrationnelles sont donc fortement associés au jeu excessif au poker en ligne.
... Poker is currently played by millions of players worldwide, most notably on-line (Fiedler & Wilcke, 2012), and it has gained ample media visibility (Bjerg, 2011). Furthermore, there has recently been an increase in the range of empirical research focusing on its various aspects (Abarbanel & Bernhard, 2012;Linnet et al., 2011;Meyer, von Meduna, Brosowski, & Hayer, 2012;O'Leary & Carroll, 2012;Siler, 2010). ...
... Poker is a form of gambling where the outcomes of the bets are influenced by skill and chance. The extent to which poker can be considered a game of skill, rather than a game of chance, is debated (Croson, Fishman, & Pope, 2008;Dedonno & Detterman, 2008;Fiedler & Rock, 2009;Levitt & Miles, 2011;Meyer et al., 2012). Notwithstanding, in poker it is possible to acquire enough skill to be a winning player (financially, in the long run). ...
Article
Poker is a game of skill and chance, where players often experience significant monetary losses. Detrimental out-of-control poker decision-making due to negative emotions is known as tilting. A qualitative assessment of losing and tilting was conducted by analysing stories about significant monetary losses, written by Finnish on-line poker players (N = 60). Thematic and narrative analyses uncovered five themes and a narrative structure underlying the aetiology and phenomenology of tilting. Tilting, in the narratives, was often instigated by dissociative feelings (‘unreality’, disbelief) following a significant monetary loss. Thereafter, moral indignation was experienced, followed by chasing behaviour, in an attempt to restore a ‘fair balance’ between wins and losses. In the aftermath of tilting, self-focused feelings of disappointment, depression and/or anxiety, and sleeping problems were experienced. It was also observed that experienced players, as compared to inexperienced ones, exhibited in their narratives a more mature disposition towards encountering ‘bad luck’, and losing in general. The results are relevant in better understanding psychological processes related to losing in the multifaceted game of poker, thus contributing also to existing knowledge on detrimental gambling behaviour.
... Tilt happens to all players, novices or experienced, in control or at risk (Laakasuo et al., 2015;Moreau, Delieyvin, Chabrol, & Chauchard, 2017;Palomäki et al., 2013Palomäki et al., , 2014). Yet poker players need to remain in control of themselves all the way through the game if they want to make more appropriate decisions (Biolcati et al., 2014;Caballero, Ownby, Rey, & Clauson, 2016;Meyer, von Meduna, Brosowski, & Hayer, 2013). This dilemma is the reason why many books, Internet websites, and even paid coaching programs address how to overcome tilt (Moreau et al., 2017). ...
... This limits the generalization of the present results to online poker players willing to participate in poker studies. The overall characteristics of the present sample (age, professional situation, gender) are similar to those reported in other studies made on the poker players population (Barrault & Varescon, 2013a, 2013bHopley, Dempse, & Nicki, 2012;LaPlante, Kleschinsky, LaBrie, Nelson, & Shaffer, 2009;McCormack & Griffiths, 2011;Meyer et al., 2013;Zaman, Geurden, De Cock, De Schutter, & Vanden Abeele, 2014). A second limitation is related to the underrepresentation of female players with a low playing frequency, in the French sample in particular, where half of the female participants played at least once a day. ...
Article
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Tilt in poker is a phenomenon characterized by a loss of control. Tilt could be a risk factor for the development of problematic gambling in poker. To monitor the frequency of tilt episodes during online poker sessions, the Online Poker Tilt Scale (OPTS) was created within the French population. The aim of this study was to develop a short version of this scale, one that was faster to complete, and therefore more appropriate for the online poker player population, which was characterized by an impulsive personality and low survey participation rate. The short version is composed of nine items split into two factors (cognitive regulation and emotional regulation). The OPTS-9 version displayed good psychometric qualities and its scores were strongly correlated with those of the original version. Moreover, this shorter version allows rebalancing of the scale's factorial structure, which facilitates interpretation of the results. This revised scale will measure the relative frequency of tilt episodes and allow to appropriately study the links between problem gambling and tilt episodes. This shortened 9-item version could be included in future experimental studies, as well as in prevention and treatment programs. Résumé L'inclinaison (tilt) au jeu de poker est un phénomène caractérisé par une perte de contrôle. Elle pourrait être un facteur de risque pour le développement d'un jeu xx Journal of Gambling Issues Volume 44, Month 2020 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xxx-xxxx-xx http://igi.camh.net/doi/pdf/xxxx pathologique au poker. Pour suivre la fréquence des épisodes d'inclinaison pendant les séances de poker en ligne, l'échelle Online Poker Tilt Scale (OPTS) a été créée au sein de la population franc¸aise. Le but de cette étude était de développer une version courte de cette échelle, plus rapide à remplir, donc plus appropriée pour la population de joueurs de poker en ligne qui se caractérise par une personnalité impulsive et un faible taux de participation à des sondages. La version courte est composée de neuf éléments répartis en deux facteurs (régulation cognitive et régulation émotionnelle). La version OPTS-9 présente de bonnes qualités psychométriques et ses pointages sont fortement corrélés avec les pointages de la version originale. De plus, cette version courte permet de rééquilibrer la structure factorielle de l'échelle, ce qui facilite l'interprétation des résultats. Cette échelle révisée mesurera la fréquence relative des épisodes d'inclinaison et permettra d'étudier de fac¸on adéquate les liens entre le jeu pathologique et les épisodes d'inclinaison. Cette version raccourcie à neuf éléments pourrait être incluse dans les futures études expérimentales, ainsi que dans les programmes de prévention et de traitement.
... Although the influence of skill on poker outcomes has been debated, studies using experimental poker tasks showed that experienced poker players perform better than inexperienced ones (Liley & Rakow, 2010;Palomäki, Laakasuo, & Salmela, 2013a). However, another study suggests that, even though experience has an influence on the outcome, especially by enabling experienced players to minimize their losses when the card dealing is not favourable, the card dealing is a decisive factor in the player's success (Meyer, Von Meduna, Brosowski, & Hayer, 2013). ...
... In fact, the issue of skill and its entanglement with chance in poker outcomes was predominant in poker (Class 1). Previous studies tried to determine experimentally if there was a role of skill in poker outcomes with most of them showing that skill does play a part but that chance is also a determinant factor (Liley & Rakow, 2010;Linnet et al., 2012;Meyer et al., 2013). In this study, using qualitative data, we focused on player representations of chance and skill in poker. ...
Article
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Poker is now one of the most popular types of online gambling, mostly because of its particular structural characteristics. This study aims to investigate the representations of regular poker players of the game's special features, along with their probable links with tilt (i.e. loss of control during the game) and problem gambling. Twenty-three regular poker players recruited online took part in a research interview. All interviews were recorded and fully transcribed. A quantitative lexical analysis was performed using the software Alceste®. Six classes were identified, encompassing 73% of the whole corpus. The main themes were chance vs. skill, sensations and emotions linked to poker, discovery of poker, tilt, differences between live and online gambling, and risks of excessive poker involvement. The experience of tilt appears to be an important feature of poker. Poker players also tended to report more emotional and social aspects of problem gambling than financial consequences. The results underline the structural specificities of poker through the player's representations. The role of emotions and sensations in poker, as they are both sought by the players and involved in the loss of control, may have an influence on the development and maintenance of problem gambling.
... Besides the discussion of contributions of skill to performance in finance, a legal question -whether poker is a game of chance or a game of skill -has been discussed for some time [21][22][23]. ...
... Levitt [10] states that luck is the "dominant factor", although skill may have marginal influence. Meyer [22] opted for a controlled experiment to confirm that experts failed to financially outperform average players. ...
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We propose a controlled simulation within a competitive sum-zero environment as a proxy for disaggregating components of success. Given a simulation of the Risk board game, we consider (a) Talent to be one of three rule-based strategies used by players; (b) Context as the setting of each run of the game with opponents’ strategies, goals and luck; and (c) Perspective as the objective of each player. Success is attained when a first player conquers its goal. We simulate 100,000 runs of an agent-based model and analyze the results. The simulation results strongly suggest that luck, talent and context are all relevant to determine success. Perspective -- as the description of the goal that defines success -- is not. As such, we present a quantitative, reproducible environment in which we are able to significantly separate the concepts, reproducing previous results of the literature and adding arguments for context and perspective. Finally, we also find that the simulation offers insights on the relevance of resilience and opportunity.
... Ceci ne veut toutefois pas dire que les joueurs de poker ne consomment pas des SPA,Mihaylova, Kairouz et Nadeau (2012) rapportant, par exemple, que 53,2 % des étudiants universitaires qui jouent au poker (non-Internet) ont consommé du cannabis dans la dernière année. Peut-être arrivent-ils à mieux contrôler leur consommation, notamment en évitant de consommer avant ou pendant qu'ils jouent au poker ?De fait, même si des auteurs commeBerthet (2010) ainsi queMeyer, Von Meduna, Brosowski et Hayer, (2013) ont montré que le poker est surtout un jeu de hasard et que la part d'habileté nécessaire y est marginale, plusieurs joueurs de poker perçoivent que la consommation de SPA diminuerait leur capacité à analyser le jeu adéquatement et provoquerait l'adoption d'un comportement de jeu trop agressif et impulsif ...
Article
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Abstract Substance use (SU) and gambling are among the risky behaviours in adolescence. Some studies show that gambling and having gambling problems are associated with SU problems in youth. However, these studies provide little documentation on which gambling activities (nature and quantity) and types of gambling (Internet or non-Internet) are more specifically related to SU problems in adolescence. The research performed in this study aims at exploring the links between gambling activities, number of gambling activities and types of gambling, on the one hand, and the substances consumed as well as the severity of SU, on the other hand. To accomplish this, a study was conducted between 2007 and 2009 with 1,870 students from Secondary 3 to 5, between 14 and 18 years of age. They were administered a questionnaire on gambling habits (DSM-IV-MR-J) and another one on SU (DEP-ADO). The results show notably that the proportion of young polydrug users (alcohol and cannabis) who gamble is higher than that of youth who consume alcohol only. Also, playing on video lottery terminals (VLTs) seems to be associated with a greater severity of substance use than other gambling activities. Furthermore, a higher severity of SU is seen in those who engage in a larger number of different gambling activities. Youth who play VLTs and those who bet on sports play a higher average number of different gambling activities. Finally, the Internet gamblers in the sample present more severe SU problems than the non-Internet gamblers. The clinical implications of these results are discussed. Résumé La consommation de substances psychoactives (SPA) et la participation à des jeux de hasard et d’argent (JHA) font partie des conduites à risque à l’adolescence. Certaines études montrent que le fait de jouer à des JHA et celui d’éprouver des problèmes de JHA sont associés aux problèmes de consommation de SPA chez les jeunes, mais elles documentent peu quelles activités (nature et quantité) et types de JHA (Internet ou non-Internet) sont plus spécifiquement reliés aux problèmes de consommation de SPA à l’adolescence. Les travaux de la présente étude visent à explorer les liens entre les activités de JHA, le nombre de JHA et les types de JHA d’une part, et les SPA consommées ainsi que la gravité de la consommation de SPA, d’autre part. Pour ce faire, une étude a été réalisée entre 2007 et 2009 auprès de 1 870 élèves de la 3e à la 5e année du secondaire, âgés de 14 à 18 ans. Un questionnaire sur les habitudes de JHA (DSM-IV-MR-J) et un autre sur la consommation de SPA (DEP-ADO) leur ont été administrés. Les résultats montrent notamment que les jeunes polyconsommateurs (alcool et cannabis) s’adonnent aux JHA dans une proportion plus élevée que les consommateurs d’alcool seulement. Aussi, le fait de jouer avec des appareils de loterie vidéo (ALV) semble être associé à une gravité plus importante de la consommation de SPA que les autres activités de JHA. Par ailleurs, une gravité plus élevée de la consommation de SPA est manifestée chez ceux qui s’adonnent à un plus grand nombre d’activités de JHA différentes. Les jeunes jouant avec les ALV et ceux faisant des paris sportifs s’adonnent à un nombre moyen de JHA différents plus important. Enfin, les joueurs Internet de l’échantillon présentent des problèmes de consommation de SPA plus graves que les joueurs non-Internet. Les implications cliniques de ces résultats sont discutées.
... Pokerin suosion kasvu on ilmennyt erityisesti internetissä pelatun pokerin eli nettipokerin pelaajien määrän suuressa kasvussa. Nykyään miljoonat ihmiset pelaavat pokeria ja nettipokeria maailmanlaajuisesti, ja tähän liittyy yli kahden miljardin euron vuosittainen liikevaihto (Fiedler, 2012;Meyer, von Meduna, Brosowski & Hayer, 2013). Lisäksi monissa maissa televisioidaan säännöllisesti kymmeniä pokeriaiheisia ohjelmia (Bjerg, 2011), ja esimerkiksi elokuvateollisuudessa pokeripelitilanteiden kuvaaminen osana elokuvan jännitys elementtiä on lisääntynyt (Egerer & Rantala, 2014). ...
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Pokeri on suosittu uhkapeli, joka poikkeaa muista uhkapeleistä erityisesti taitoaspektinsa johdosta: toisin kuin suurimmassa osassa muista uhkapeleistä, pokerissa tarpeeksi taitavan pelaajan on mahdollista jäädä voitolle pitkällä aikavälillä. Pokeritaitoa voidaan mitata luotettavasti, ja sen kehittyminen ennustaa kykyä tehdä rationaalisia – rahallisesti tuotollisia – päätöksiä pokeripelissä. Pokeritaidon osa-alueet voidaan jakaa teknisiin eli peli strategisiin taitoihin ja niin sanottuihin emotionaalisiin, tunteiden säätelyyn liittyviin taitoihin. Pokeritaitojen kehittymisen kannalta on olennaista, että pelaajalla on kattava ymmärrys keskeisistä pokeripe-liin liittyvistä matemaattisista käsitteistä. Hyvä ymmärrys pokeripelin mekaniikasta ja sen taitopeliluonteesta on keskeinen osa myös pokeriin liittyvää tunteiden säätelyä. Näistä pokerin erityispiirteistä johtuen aktiivisten pokerinpelaajien psykopatologisia pelihimon piirteitä on haastavaa arvioida perinteisillä kliinisillä instrumen-teilla. Tässä katsaus artikkelissa käsittelemme pokerin pelaamiseen ja pokeritaitojen kehittämiseen liittyviä psykologisia mekanismeja. Lisäksi väitämme, että nykyiset käytössä olevat peliriippuvuuden mittarit eivät yksiselitteisesti sovellu pokerinpelaajien arviointiin, ja esitämme kehitys ehdotuksia kyseisiin mittareihin.
... Taking this variety of experiences into consideration, factors need to be identified to explain why some poker players report positive experiences by playing, while others develop gambling problems. In fact, despite an accumulation of empirical studies in recent years concerning diverse aspects of poker (Griffiths et al. 2010;Meyer et al. 2013;Palomäki et al. 2013;Wolkomir 2012), little is yet known about the psychological predictors of both absence of gambling problems and development of problems among poker players. One psychological construct that seems promising in discriminating positive from negative experiences or non-problem from problem gamblers is the concept of passion (Vallerand et al. 2003). ...
Article
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The concept of passion is relevant to understanding gambling behaviours and gambling problems. Longitudinal studies are useful to better understand the absence and development of gambling problems; however, only one study has specifically considered poker players. Using a longitudinal design, this study aims to determine the influence, 1 year later, of two forms of passion-harmonious and obsessive-on gambling problems in poker players. A total of 116 poker players was recruited from across Quebec, Canada. The outcome variable of interest was participants' category on the Canadian Pathological Gambling Index, and the predictive variable was the Gambling Passion Scale. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify independent risk factors of at-risk poker players 1 year later. Obsessive passion at baseline doubled the risk of gambling problems 1 year later (p < 0.01); for harmonious passion, there was no association. Number of gambling activities, drug problems, and impulsivity were also associated with at-risk gambling. This study highlights the links between obsessive passion and at-risk behaviours among poker players. It is therefore important to prevent the development of obsessive passion among poker players.
... While poker is popularly understood as a game of chance, academics are building a consensus that poker is ultimately a game of skill, at both low and high stakes (Croson, Fishman, & Pope, 2008;Levitt & Miles, 2014;Potter van Loon, van den Assem, & van Dolder, 2014). Poker and poker-like games have long proven useful for the experimental study of human strategic behavior (Billings, Davidson, Schaeffer, & Szafron, 2002;Kuhn, 1950;Laakasuo, Palomäki, & Salmela, 2014;Meyer, Meduna, Brosowski, & Hayer, 2013;Rapoport, Erev, Abraham, & Olson, 1997;Seale & Phelan, 2009), and interest in strategic games generally goes back to the very roots of both cognitive science and artificial intelligence (Chase & Simon, 1973;Turing, 1950). Several recent major advances have made versions of two-player Hold'em the first incomplete information games in which artificial intelligence has shown humancompetitive and human-superior performance (Bowling, Burch, Johanson, & Tammelin, 2015;Brown & Sandholm, 2018;Moravčík et al., 2017;Sandholm, 2015). ...
... Bien entendu, lorsqu'il y a déséquilibre sur le plan de l'habileté des adversaires, les moins habiles deviennent plus susceptibles d'essuyer des pertes (Turner & Fritz, 2001). Les résultats d'autres études montrent que la valeur des cartes détermine la plupart du temps les résultats obtenus au poker, atténuant l'influence de l'habileté des joueurs sur les résultats du jeu (Berthet, 2010;Meyer, von Meduna, Brosowski & Hayer, 2012;Sévigny, Ladouceur, Dufour & Lalande, 2008). L'interprétation de Fiedler et Rock (2009) et de Berthet (2010 résume bien les résultats de l'ensemble de ces études, soit que le poker n'est pas uniquement un jeu de hasard, ni totalement un jeu d'habileté, mais qu'il se déplace sur un continuum entre ces deux extrémités. ...
Article
Although the practice of online poker is associated with high rates of gambling problems, little is yet known about what distinguishes online poker players with different levels of gambling problems. Three groups of Texas Hold’em online poker players (low-risk (n = 7), at-risk (n = 7) and problematic (n = 3)), were compared in terms of their motivations to play, their emotions experienced during play and their perceptions about chance and skill. Thematic analysis from focus groups conducted reveals that the motivations to play and emotions reported in the groups are similar. The at-risk and problematic groups distinguish themselves from the low-risk group in their overestimation of their personal skill. The beliefs gathered through this study will contribute to the development or adaptation of erroneous beliefs’ questionnaires used with online poker players. © 2015, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. All rights reserved.
... The illusion of control has become an important phenomenon in experimental studies (Stefan & David, 2013, meta-analysis), however, its relevance to explain gambling behavior and disordered gambling is limited by the fact that some forms of gambling involve a genuine component of skill (e.g. poker : Meyer et al. 2013). Traditionally, two different categories have been used to classify the broad range of gambling activities: chance based games versus skill based games (Myrseth et al., 2010) or strategic versus non-strategic games (Grant et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Introduction: Cognitive distortions are related to gambling frequency and gambling severity. Having a culturally sensitive measure to assess cognitive distortions will facilitate the early detection of people who might be at risk of developing problematic gambling behaviors. The Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire was translated into Spanish (GBQ-S) but no previous study explored the structure of the GBQ-S in a non-US sample with different levels of gambling involvement. Aim: The present study examined the factor structure of the GBQ-S in a community sample of gamblers from Argentina. It also analyzed the association between cognitive distortions and type of gambling activity and frequency of gambling behaviors and the predictive utility of the GBQ-S on gambling severity. Participants: 508 youth and adults completed the GBQ-S. Results: The CFA showed an overall acceptable fit to the data confirming the proposed two-factor model. Scores of the two GBQ sub-scales were positively and significantly correlated with scores on gambling severity. Cognitive distortions have a significant effect on gambling severity after controlling for frequency of engagement in gambling activities. Luck and perseverance, but not illusion of control, was positively related to gambling severity. Discussion: scores measured by the GBQ-S exhibit adequate psychometric properties for the accurate assessment of cognitive distortions across adults and youth from the general community of Argentina.
... However, the idea that DFS is governed primarily by skill as opposed to chance is how the activity has avoided being termed gambling. Games termed gambling, such as poker, blackjack, and the lottery, are seen as dictated primarily by chance than the effort or ability of the participant (Meyer et al. 2013;Myrseth et al. 2010). And while state legislators are weighing these conversations from a public policy perspective, little empirical evidence exists explaining how participants grapple with the notion of skill and chance. ...
Article
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In 2015, daily fantasy football entered the fantasy sports market as an offshoot of the traditional, season-long form of the game. With quicker payouts and less commitment, the new activity has drawn comparisons to other forms of illegal gambling, and the determination of whether it is a primarily a game of skill or chance has become the center of the comparison. For the most part, legal commentators and society, in general, views traditional, season-long fantasy football as an innocuous, social activity governed equally by both skill and chance. Little evidence exists, however, about participant perception of skill and chance components in daily fantasy football. The current study surveyed 535 daily and traditional-only fantasy football participants in order to understand differences and similarities in the causality orientations of participation (skill or chance). In addition, enjoyment and anxiety were tested for mediating effects on causality orientations and consumption behavior. The results suggest the differences between the activities are not extreme. However, differences were found in which causality orientations influenced enjoyment and which emotion mediated the relationship between perceived skill and consumption.
... Texas Holdem poker (selanjutnya disebut THP) merupakan salah satu permaina kartu yang populer, perkembanganya sudah mencapai dunia permainan secara daring dan menjadikannya salah satu sektor yang paling berkembang pesar dan popular [5]. Permainan THP cenderung bersifat sebagai permainan yang mengandalkan kesempatan (game of chance) [1], [2]. Meskipun demikian, keterampilan bermain yang dimiliki oleh para pemain THP profesional pun telah terbukti ikut berperan sebagai penunjang kemenangan [3], [4]. ...
... ringer i World Series of Poker 2010, ofte omtalt som «VM i poker». Spillerne som før turneringen var ranket som eksperter tjente i snitt 30 prosent av innsatsen per turnering, mens spillerne som ikke var ranket som eksperter tapte i gjennomsnitt 15 prosent av innsatsen sin per turnering. Ikke alle er enige i at poker primaert er et ferdighetsspill.Meyer mfl. (2013) arrangerte en pokerkonkurranse der de manipulerte kortene. De fant at hvor gode kort man fikk var mer avgjørende enn hvor erfaren pokerspiller man var, noe som taler for at tilfeldigheter (i hvert fall på kort sikt) er mer avgjørende enn ferdigheter. Forskningen på området gir altså ikke et entydig svar. ...
Article
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Tom Sahlen: Informationsforvaltning - i offentlig och privat sektor Dokument & Arkiv nr 6, Näringslivets Arkivråd, Stockholm 2016.ISSN: 1 404-7640ISBN: 978-91-973863-5-7
... Ladouceur et al. (1999) also found that skill and knowledge are no help in winning money in horse betting. Through the use of computer simulation and a quasi-experimental design, Meyer et al. (2013) concluded, ''poker should be regarded as a game of chance'' (p. 535). ...
Article
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Traditional, season-long fantasy sport participation has grown considerably since the late 1990s, and in an attempt to capitalize on this growing demand, daily fantasy sports (DFS) providers have created a new game where money changes hands instantly. This change has led some legal commentators and state agencies to believe the game is a form of Internet gambling similar to online poker, blackjack, and sports wagering, and thus, it requires increased regulation or even prohibition. Little is known, however, about the gambling behavior associated with DFS participation. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine problem gambling severity in conjunction with DFS participant motives, perceptions, and consumption behavior. Over 500 DFS participants were surveyed, and the results suggest DFS participants behave similarly with participants in other forms of gambling activities. In addition, the findings suggest additional consumer protections may be needed to prevent further problem behavior such as chasing.
... Experts consistently perform better than amateurs. Experts are better at minimizing loss when they have bad cards (Meyer,von Meduna, Brosowski and Hayer, 2013). It is also possible to teach neural networks to play Texas Hold 'em to a professional level based on evolutionary methods (Nicolai and Hilderman, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
People who appear to believe in the hot hand expect winning streaks to continue whereas those suffering from the gamblers’ fallacy unreasonably expect losing streaks to reverse. 565,915 sports bets made by 776 online gamblers in 2010 were used for analysis. People who won were more likely to win again whereas those who lost were more likely to lose again. However, selection of safer odds after winning and riskier ones after losing indicates that online sports gamblers expected their luck to reverse: they suffered from the gamblers’ fallacy. By following in the gamblers’ fallacy, they created their own hot hands. Some gamblers consistently outperformed their peers. They also consistently made higher profits or lower losses. They show real expertise. The key of real expertise is the ability to control loss.
... Self or third party report of skill level has also been used to assess skill. Meyer et al. (2012) utilized self-reports of playing frequency, perceived personal success, and selfreported poker playing profits to create a composite score by which participants were categorized as either average players or probable experts. Another study asked for selfreported experience and used this as an indication of participant familiarity and ability in poker (Slepian et al. 2013). ...
Article
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Existing research has demonstrated that poker is a game predominated by skill. Little is known about the specific characteristics of good poker players however, likely due in part to the lack of a readily available measure of poker skill. In the absence of an available and easily administered poker skill measure, laboratory studies of poker player attributes have used questionable methodologies to assess skill including peer- and self-report. The aim of the current research was to create a valid, reliable, and easily administered measure of poker playing skill. A sample of 100 University of Lethbridge undergraduate students and Lethbridge community members completed the newly created Poker Skills Measure (PSM) and an objective measure of poker playing performance (playing virtual poker). External validity of the measure was demonstrated via significant associations-expected and detected-between the PSM and the objective playing measure. Specifically, significant positive associations were found between PSM scores and hands won, pre- and post flop aggression, and a significant negative relationship was detected between PSM scores and number of hands played. Within the current sample, acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .82) and very good test re-test reliability (r = .78) was achieved with the 35 item PSM. Future directions are discussed.
... While poker is popularly understood as a game of chance, academics are building a consensus that poker is ultimately a game of skill, at both low and high stakes (Croson, Fishman, & Pope, 2008;Levitt & Miles, 2014;Potter van Loon, van den Assem, & van Dolder, 2014). Poker and poker-like games have long proven useful for the experimental study of human strategic behavior (Billings, Davidson, Schaeffer, & Szafron, 2002;Kuhn, 1950;Laakasuo, Palomäki, & Salmela, 2014;Meyer, Meduna, Brosowski, & Hayer, 2013;Rapoport, Erev, Abraham, & Olson, 1997;Seale & Phelan, 2009), and interest in strategic games generally goes back to the very roots of both cognitive science and artificial intelligence (Chase & Simon, 1973;Turing, 1950). Several recent major advances have made versions of two-player Hold'em the first incomplete information games in which artificial intelligence has shown humancompetitive and human-superior performance (Bowling, Burch, Johanson, & Tammelin, 2015;Brown & Sandholm, 2018;Moravčík et al., 2017;Sandholm, 2015). ...
Preprint
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To win at poker, players must exploit public signals from opponents. But using public signals makes the player's own strategy easier to reconstruct and exploit in turn. How should players trade off between exploiting profitable opportunities and remaining unexploitable themselves? We analyze 1.75 million hands of online two-player No-Limit Texas Hold’em and find the important difference between winning and losing players is not the amount of information, but how they process it. Winning players are better at integrative information processing — creating new information from the interaction between their private cards and their opponents' public signals. We argue this does not just improve decisions, but encrypts them, with the player’s cards acting like the private key in public key cryptography. Winning poker players successfully encrypt their reasoning and by doing so are able to exploit others while remaining unexploitable. Uncertainty is often treated only as a problem to be overcome, but we show it can also be leveraged in strategic interactions.
... While poker is popularly understood as a game of chance, academics are building a consensus that poker is ultimately a game of skill, at both low and high stakes (Croson, Fishman, & Pope, 2008;Levitt & Miles, 2014;Potter van Loon, van den Assem, & van Dolder, 2014). Poker and poker-like games have long proven useful for the experimental study of human strategic behavior (Billings, Davidson, Schaeffer, & Szafron, 2002;Kuhn, 1950;Laakasuo, Palom€ aki, & Salmela, 2014;Meyer, Meduna, Brosowski, & Hayer, 2013;Rapoport, Erev, Abraham, & Olson, 1997;Seale & Phelan, 2009), and interest in strategic games generally goes back to the very roots of both cognitive science and artificial intelligence (Chase & Simon, 1973;Turing, 1950). Several recent major advances have made versions of two-player Hold'em the first incomplete information games in which artificial intelligence has shown human-competitive and human-superior performance (Bowling, Burch, Johanson, & Tammelin, 2015;Brown & Sandholm, 2018;Morav c ık et al., 2017;Sandholm, 2015). ...
Article
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There is a tendency in decision‐making research to treat uncertainty only as a problem to be overcome. But it is also a feature that can be leveraged, particularly in social interaction. Comparing the behavior of profitable and unprofitable poker players, we reveal a strategic use of information processing that keeps decision makers unpredictable. To win at poker, a player must exploit public signals from others. But using public inputs makes it easier for an observer to reconstruct that player's strategy and predict his or her behavior. How should players trade off between exploiting profitable opportunities and remaining unexploitable themselves? Using a recent multivariate approach to information theoretic data analysis and 1.75 million hands of online two‐player No‐Limit Texas Hold'em, we find that the important difference between winning and losing players is not in the amount of information they process, but how they process it. In particular, winning players are better at integrative information processing—creating new information from the interaction between their cards and their opponents’ signals. We argue that integrative information processing does not just produce better decisions, it makes decision‐making harder for others to reverse engineer, as an expert poker player's cards act like the private key in public‐key cryptography. Poker players encrypt their reasoning with the way they process information. The encryption function of integrative information processing makes it possible for players to exploit others while remaining unexploitable. By recognizing the act of information processing as a strategic behavior in its own right, we offer a detailed account of how experts use endemic uncertainty to conceal their intentions in high‐stakes competitive environments, and we highlight new opportunities between cognitive science, information theory, and game theory.
... Although there are legitimate arguments about whether professional poker is a form of gambling (Meyer, von Meduna, Brosowski, & Hayer, 2013;Potter van Loon, van den Assem, & van Dolder, 2015, von Dolder, 2015, most researchers and legislators argue that gambling can generally be distinguished from other activities based on the extent to which outcomes are determined by skill and chance. In some countries (e.g. the United States), this is based on what is called the 'dominance test' (Mindell, 2018). ...
Article
Skill-based elements are increasing being introduced to electronic gaming machines to appeal to a broad consumer cohort by offering different play experiences. In this paper, we examine what is meant by skill in gambling and to what extent electronic skilled-gambling games differ from existing forms of gambling. Using examples drawn from recent market releases, we examine the ways in which skill-elements are being incorporated into gaming machines. As we will highlight, the industry could look to profit from skillful games in different ways: one model might allow skillful play, but in a context where the long-term RTP always remains negative. Another model might allow individual players to obtain greater returns through competition against other players or genuine opportunities to obtain a positive RTP, but where this will only be achievable for a minority of players. We discuss the potential implications of these differences for player experiences as well as game profitability. We argue that a deeper understanding of how similar structural differences operate in video-gaming might provide useful insights into how popular and successful (from an industry perceptive) these games are likely to be as well as the potential implications for policies, problem gambling, and treatment.
... Some games include some elements of chance that impact games and game play, however, where chance plays a greater role in determining the outcome of each game than skill, betting on these activities is considered gambling. For example, although skill might predominate over chance in the game of poker in the long run, for each individual session or over a short period of time (months to a year), the outcome of poker is determined by chance (Grohman, 2006;Meyer, von Meduna, Brosowski, & Hayer, 2013). ...
Article
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International Gambling Studies (2014): A taxonomy of gambling and casino games via social media and online technologies, International Gambling Studies, Published online 24 Feb 2014. ABSTRACT The increased popularity of casino games on social media platforms has prompted international jurisdictions to consider the extent to which these games may be similar to Internet gambling activities and therefore subject to regulatory action. Gambling themes are popular in video and computer games and simulated-gambling activities are commonly offered by gambling operators as a way of enticing users to gamble online with money. However, little research has evaluated the impact of the digital convergence of gambling and gaming. The lack of a clear definition of online gambling-themed activities to guide such research undertakings represents a significant hurdle to the fields of gambling and gaming. Based on a review of the extant literature, this paper proposes a taxonomy to distinguish between many types of online activities with gambling-themed content. This taxonomy suggests that the principal features that differentiate online gambling games include the requirement for payment, the role of skill, the type of platform, and the centrality of the gambling theme. The proposed hierarchical framework aims to promote clear and consistent discussion to guide ongoing investigation of new and emerging Internet gambling and gaming technologies.
... There is still a question of whether poker should be considered as a game of skill or a game of chance. On the one hand, research shows that a poker should be regarded as a game of chance (Meyer, Meduna, Brosowski, & Hayer, 2012), but on the other, the literature demonstrates the results of research that confirm the role of skills in poker (Levitt & Miles, 2011). These findings are the rationale behind considering a poker game and an investment as alternative activities. ...
Article
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Aim/purpose – The paper examines the level of investment activity among the last semester master’s degree students of economics fields, including investment in stocks and in forex (FX) in comparison to a poker game. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents the exploration of similarities and differences of stock trading, forex trading and poker playing (a critical analysis of the literature), and questionnaire research among 613 students of the last semester of studies at the University of Economics in Katowice. Findings – A decreasing level of a participation of individuals in financial markets refers to different financial segments like capital markets and trading on, e.g. the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) or the foreign exchange market (forex, FX). The current market situation does not constitute favourable conditions to increase commitment of individual investors on the WSE. In addition, other form of investment among young people is being observed, e.g. poker. The results of the research stress the role of an effective financial education and its influence on a changing the attitudes towards investments. Research implications/limitations – The research sample is limited to the students of one university. Originality/value/contribution – So far, there has not been conducted any research among potential important participants of financial markets which takes into account the listed alternatives: investments on the Warsaw Stock Exchange and in forex, or a poker game.
... Generally, poker is viewed as a game of both skill and chance, but the extent to which one or the other dominates is debated (Croson, Fishman, & Pope, 2008;Dedonno & Detterman, 2008;Fiedler & Rock, 2009;Levitt & Miles, 2014;Meyer, von Meduna, & Brosowski, 2013). Anecdotal evidence supports the view of poker as a game where one's skills can constantly be improved (Brunson, 2005;Sklansky & Malmuth, 1999;Tendler, 2011). ...
Article
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Poker is a game of skill and chance involving economic decision-making under uncertainty. It is also a complex but well-defined real-world environment with a clear rule-structure. As such, poker has strong potential as a model system for studying high-stakes, high-risk expert performance. Poker has been increasingly used as a tool to study decision-making and learning, as well as emotion self-regulation. In this review, we discuss how these studies have begun to inform us about the interaction between emotions and technical skill, and how expertise develops and depends on these two factors. Expertise in poker critically requires both mastery of the technical aspects of the game, and proficiency in emotion regulation; poker thus offers a good environment for studying these skills in controlled experimental settings of high external validity. We conclude by suggesting ideas for future research on expertise, with new insights provided by poker.
... The skill element enables some players to make poker their profession, and encourages some gamblers to continue and try to improve these skills. To play at their highest level, players need to be able to control themselves, their cognitive abilities and their emotions, and must have good concentration faculties [5,6]. ...
Article
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Online poker is a form of gambling where an element of skill may influence the outcome of the game. ‘Tilt’ in poker describes an episode during which the player can no longer control their game by rational decisions. It leads to a loss of control over the game, a loss of emotional regulation, higher cognitive distortion, and a loss of money. This phenomenon, experienced by most players, could be the gateway to excessive gambling. The aim of this study was to assess the links between the frequency of tilt episodes, cognitive distortion, anxiety, depression, sensation seeking and excessive online poker gambling. Our sample is composed of 291 online poker players, with a mean age of 33.8 years (SD = 10.6). Participants completed an online self-assessment questionnaire, measuring the frequency of tilt episodes, cognitive distortion, anxiety, depression and impulsivity. The findings indicated that the frequency of tilt episodes and cognitive distortion were the only significant predictors of excessive online gambling (respectively, r = 0.49 and r = 0.20). Tilt frequency and cognitive distortion were strongly correlated (GRCS, r = 0.60), moderate to low correlations were found for tilt and anxiety (HADS, r = 0.40), and positive and negative urgency (UPPS, r = 0.27). To date, tilt has seldom been studied, and could improve our understanding of online poker gamblers. It could be a new means of identifying at risk gamblers, and thus facilitating preventive measures specifically adapted to this population.
... B. Lotto oder Roulette), besteht in der Fachliteratur mitunter eine Kontroverse bezüglich der Einordung sogenannter Mischspiele, die einen gewissen "Skill-Anteil" aufweisen. Aktuell betrifft dies insbesondere das Pokerspiel in seinen unterschiedlichen Ausprägungen [3], sowie "Fantasy Sports", eine Art Managerspiel, bei dem virtuelle Teams aus tatsächlich existierenden Sportmannschaften zusammengestellt und nach ihrer Leistung im realen Spielbetreib bewertet werden [4]. ...
Article
Zusammenfassung Glücksspiele zeichnen sich unter anderem durch ihren zufallsbasierten Spielausgang aus. Im Fokus des vorliegenden systematischen Reviews steht die Frage, ob Sportwetten als Glücksspiel einzustufen sind oder alternativ ein Geschicklichkeitsspiel darstellen, bei dem bestimmte Kompetenzen der Spielteilnehmenden bei der Vorhersage von Sportereignissen maßgeblich zum Tragen kommen. Im Zuge einer systematischen Literaturrecherche konnten insgesamt 9 Tippstudien gefunden werden, welche die Einschlusskriterien erfüllten, und in denen verschiedene Personengruppen gegeneinander und/oder gegen den Zufall auf den Ausgang realer Spielereignisse wetten. Nahezu alle Studien zeigten, dass gewisse Kenntnisse, Fähigkeiten oder Fertigkeiten beim Sportwetten keine bedeutsame Rolle spielen. Dieser Sachverhalt gilt unabhängig von der Sportart, dem konkreten Sportereignis oder bestimmten Studienparametern. Entsprechend sollten Sportwetten im rechtlichen wie politischen Sinne zur Kategorie der Glücksspiele zählen und die entsprechenden Maßnahmen des Jugend- und Spielerschutzes aus dem Glücksspielbereich greifen. Ein zentrales Ziel besteht dabei in der Vorbeugung der Entstehung von kognitiven Verzerrungen wie Kontrollillusionen bzw. dem Irrglauben, beim Sportwetten durch die eigene Expertise Geld verdienen zu können.
... This has been reflected in both an abundance of new players and increased media visibility (see Bjerg 2011). Although poker has not been comprehensively researched into, there has been an apparent accumulation of empirical evidence in recent years concerning diverse aspects of the game (e.g., Dedonno and Detterman 2008;Griffiths et al. 2010;Linnet et al. 2011;Meyer et al. 2012;Mitrovic and Brown 2009;Siler 2010). ...
Article
In poker, detrimental decision-making as a result of losing control due to negative emotions is known as tilting. Previous evidence suggests that poker experience is related to better emotion regulation in dealing with poker losses, and possibly to reduced severity of tilting in the game. A correlational on-line study (N = 417) was conducted to operationalize the tilting phenomenon by defining certain experiential characteristics that conceivably protect players from tilting or predispose them to it. These characteristics, as well as a measurement of poker experience, were then used in predicting the severity of tilting. It was hypothesized that (1) players with more poker experience are more likely to perceive having tilted less severely, as a result of accumulating poker experience; (2) players with more poker experience have lower severity of tilting; (3) players with more poker experience report lower emotional sensitivity to losses; and (4) players with a higher emotional sensitivity to losses have higher severity of tilting. Hypotheses 1 and 4 were supported, hypothesis 3 was weakly supported, but contrary to hypothesis 2, poker experience was associated with higher tilting severity. It is argued that these results are sensible if experienced players are less likely to tilt in relative terms, per single hand, but more likely to tilt in the long run.
... At first, we were surprised by this grouping because we expected that games with an element of skill would form a class in themselves, and in any case that they would group with a lottery game. Indeed, current literature focuses on the distinction between skillful and non-skillful games and insists on the importance of studying the skill component of the game to explain differences in gamblers (Stevens and Young 2010;Turner and Fritz 2001;Meyer et al. 2013;Kelly et al. 2007;Dreef et al. 2004;Grant et al. 2012). With a second look, we deduced that the delay in obtaining the result may be the most important feature in differentiating profiles of gamblers. ...
Article
The objective of this study was to identify profiles of gamblers to explain the choice of preferred gambling activity among both problem and non-problem gamblers. 628 non-problem and problem gamblers were assessed with a structured interview including "healthy" (sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits and personality profile assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125) and "pathological" [diagnosis of pathological gambling, gambling-related cognitions (GRCs) and psychiatric comorbidity] variables. We performed a two-step cluster analysis based solely on "healthy" variables to identify gamblers' profiles which typically reflect the choice of preferred gambling activity. The obtained classes were then described using both "healthy" and "pathological" variables, by comparing each class to the rest of the sample. Clusters were generated. Class 1 (Electronic Gaming Machines gamblers) showed high cooperativeness, a lower level of GRC about strategy and more depressive disorders. Class 2 (games with deferred results gamblers) were high novelty seekers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more addictive disorders. Class 3 (roulette gamblers) were more often high rollers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more manic or hypomanic episodes and more obsessive-compulsive disorders. Class 4 (instant lottery gamblers) showed a lower tendency to suicide attempts. Class 5 (scratch cards gamblers) were high harm avoiders and showed a lower overall level of GRC and more panic attacks and eating disorders. The preference for one particular gambling activity may concern different profiles of gamblers. This study highlights the importance of considering the pair gambler-game rather than one or the other separately, and may provide support for future research on gambling and preventive actions directed toward a particular game.
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espanolEl juego esta cada dia mas presente en la sociedad con prevalencias muy importantes, sobre todo, en jovenes y adolescentes. Como consecuencia, este estudio tiene como objetivo estudiar la relacion entre el juego patologico, el juego a nivel aficionado el juego profesional (ajedrez y poquer) en el control de impulsos y en el consumo de alcohol. Para ello, se ha utilizado una muestra compuesta por jugadores aficionados y profesionales de ajedrez y poquer, un grupo de jugadores patologicos y un grupo control. Los instrumentos han medido conducta de riesgo de ingesta de alcohol, control de impulsos y los criterios diagnosticos de juego patologico. Los principales resultados han mostrado que existen diferencias significativas en el control de impulsos entre el grupo control, los jugadores aficionados, los profesionales y los jugadores patologicos. Ademas, con respecto a los criterios diagnosticos del trastorno de juego, los jugadores patologicos han mostrado diferencias significativas en los criterios de perdida de control y deposito de la confianza en otros. Por ultimo, se ha encontrado que los jugadores aficionados y profesionales de poquer presentan, de forma significativa, algunos de los criterios diagnosticos del trastorno de juego: relaciones en riesgo, conducta de caza, abstinencia y mentiras. catalaEl joc esta cada dia mes present en la societat amb prevalences molt importants, sobretot, en joves i adolescents. Com a consequencia, aquest estuditrobat que els jugadors aficionats i professionals de poquer presenten de forma significativa alguns dels criteris diagnostics del trastorn de joc: relacions en risc, conducta de caca, abstinencia i mentides. te l�objectiu d�estudiar la relacio entre el joc patologic, el joc a nivell d�aficionats i el joc professional (escacs i poquer) en el control d�impulsos i en el consum d�alcohol. Per a aixo, hem utilitzat una mostra de jugadors aficionats i professionals d�escacs i poquer, un grup de jugadors patologics i un grup de control. Els instruments han mesurat la conducta de risc d�ingesta d�alcohol, control d�impulsos i els criteris diagnostics del joc patologic. Els principals resultats han mostrat que hi ha diferencies significatives en el control d�impulsos entre el grup de control, els jugadors aficionats, els professionals i els jugadors patologics. A mes, respecte als criteris diagnostics del trastorn de joc, els jugadors patologics han mostrat diferencies significatives en els criteris de perdua de control i diposit de la confianca en altres. Per ultim, hem trobat que els jugadors aficionats i professionals de poquer presenten de forma significativa alguns dels criteris diagnostics del trastorn de joc: relacions en risc, conducta de caca, abstinencia i mentides.
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We find that experienced poker players typically change their style of play after winning or losing a big pot-most notably, playing less cautiously after a big loss, evidently hoping for lucky cards that will erase their loss. This finding is consistent with Kahneman and Tversky's (Kahneman, D., A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47(2) 263-292) break-even hypothesis and suggests that when investors incur a large loss, it might be time to take a vacation or be monitored closely.
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This paper investigates the forecasting performance and confidence of experts and non-experts. 251 participants with four different levels of knowledge of soccer (ranging between expertise and almost ignorance) took part in a survey and predicted the outcome of the first round of World Cup 2002. The participating experts (i.e., sport journalists, soccer fans, and soccer coaches) and the non-experts were found to be equally accurate and better than chance. A simple prediction rule that followed world rankings outperformed most participants. Experts overestimated their performance and tended to be overconfident, while the opposite tendency was observed for the participants with limited knowledge. Providing non-experts with information did not improve their performance, but increased their confidence.
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Poker is a competitive, social game of skill and luck, which presents players with numerous challenging strategic and interpersonal decisions. The adaptation of poker into a game played over the internet provides the unprecedented opportunity to quantitatively analyze extremely large numbers of hands and players. This paper analyzes roughly twenty-seven million hands played online in small-stakes, medium-stakes and high-stakes games. Using PokerTracker software, statistics are generated to (a) gauge the types of strategies utilized by players (i.e. the 'strategic demography') at each level and (b) examine the various payoffs associated with different strategies at varying levels of play. The results show that competitive edges attenuate as one moves up levels, and tight-aggressive strategies--which tend to be the most remunerative--become more prevalent. Further, payoffs for different combinations of cards, varies between levels, showing how strategic payoffs are derived from competitive interactions. Smaller-stakes players also have more difficulty appropriately weighting incentive structures with frequent small gains and occasional large losses. Consequently, the relationship between winning a large proportion of hands and profitability is negative, and is strongest in small-stakes games. These variations reveal a meta-game of rationality and psychology which underlies the card game. Adopting risk-neutrality to maximize expected value, aggression and appropriate mental accounting, are cognitive burdens on players, and underpin the rationality work--reconfiguring of personal preferences and goals--players engage into be competitive, and maximize their winning and profit chances.
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With most Western countries expanding the availability of gambling facilities in recent decades, considerable research interest has developed in those people who develop problematic levels of gambling. In the recent decade, a large body of research has been conducted into the determinants of gambling behavior in an attempt to understand this complex social and psychological problem. Research has varied in its nature from investigating underlying biological, psychological, or social factors that are hypothesized to contribute to gambling behavior. Evidence now exists that biological, psychological, and social factors are all relevant to the development of problematic levels of gambling. However, the theoretical explanation for gambling has lagged behind the advances in empirical work in recent years. The purpose of the current paper is to provide a review of the major research findings in the area of gambling and propose a biopsychosocial model that integrates diverse areas of research. The model described is empirically derived, and it is hoped it will stimulate future research work that investigates not only individual factors and their relationship to gambling, but also the interactions between different variables.
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To date there has been very little empirical research into Internet gambling and none relating to the recent rise in popularity of online poker. Given that recent reports have claimed that students may be a vulnerable group, the aim of the current study was to establish basic information regarding Internet poker playing behavior among the student population, including various motivators for participation and predictors of problematic play. The study examined a self-selected sample of student online poker players using an online survey (n=422). Results showed that online poker playing was undertaken at least twice per week by a third of the participants. Almost one in five of the sample (18%) was defined as a problem gambler using the DSM-IV criteria. Findings demonstrated that problem gambling in this population was best predicted by negative mood states after playing, gender swapping whilst playing, and playing to escape from problems.
Article
Strategy and skill in games are two closely related concepts. A strategy describes how to play the game. The relative skill level of a game indicates to what extent the strategic choices of the players influence the game result and to what extent this result is determined by random factors. Relative skill is important when the exploitation of games is concerned. Gaming acts, in The Netherlands but also in other countries, distinguish between games of skill and games of chance. This thesis consists of two parts. Part I deals with relative skill and the role of random factors in games. Part II is devoted to the computation of optimal strategies in two interesting classes of games: poker and take-and-guess games.
Alex Rodriguez, a monkey, and the game of scrabble: The hazard of using illogic to define the legality of games of mixed skill and chance
  • A N Cabot
  • G J Light
  • K F Rutledge
  • AN Cabot
Cabot, A. N., Light, G. J., & Rutledge, K. F. (2009). Alex Rodriguez, a monkey, and the game of scrabble: The hazard of using illogic to define the legality of games of mixed skill and chance. Drake Law Review, 57, 383-412.
Using WinPoker 6.0 to study gambling behavior
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Jackson, J. W. (2007). Using WinPoker 6.0 to study gambling behavior. Analysis of Gambling Behavior, 1, 59-75.
Der Markt fu¨r Onlinepoker: Spielerherkunft und Spielerverhalten [The online poker market: Players'nationality and players'gambling habits
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  • A.-C Wilcke
Fiedler, I., & Wilcke, A.-C. (2011). Der Markt fu¨r Onlinepoker: Spielerherkunft und Spielerverhalten [The online poker market: Players'nationality and players'gambling habits]. Norderstedt: BoD Verlag.
Verabschiedet sich Poker aus dem Glu ¨cksspielrecht? [Does poker say goodbye to the gambling law?]
  • W Hambach
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Hambach, W., Hettich, M., & Kruis, T. (2009). Verabschiedet sich Poker aus dem Glu ¨cksspielrecht? [Does poker say goodbye to the gambling law?]. Medien und Recht International, 6(2), 41–50
Poker superstars: Skill or luck? Similarities between golf— thought to be a game of skill—and poker
  • R Croson
  • P Fishman
  • D G Pope
Croson, R., Fishman, P., & Pope, D. G. (2008). Poker superstars: Skill or luck? Similarities between golf— thought to be a game of skill—and poker. Chance, 21(4), 25–28
Toward legalization of poker: The skill vs. chance debate
  • R C Hannum
  • A N Cabot
  • RC Hannum
Hannum, R. C., & Cabot, A. N. (2009). Toward legalization of poker: The skill vs. chance debate. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 13(1), 1-20.
Quantitative Methoden Band1: Einfü in die Statistik fü Psychologen und Sozialwissenschaftler [Quantitative methods Volume1: Introduction in statistics for psychologists and social researchers A reformulated cognitive-behavioural of problem gambling: A biopsychosocial per-spective
  • B Rasch
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  • M Friese
  • E Naumann
Rasch, B., Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Naumann, E. (2010). Quantitative Methoden Band1: Einfü in die Statistik fü Psychologen und Sozialwissenschaftler [Quantitative methods Volume1: Introduction in statistics for psychologists and social researchers]. Berlin: Springer. Sharpe, L. (2002). A reformulated cognitive-behavioural of problem gambling: A biopsychosocial per-spective. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 1–25.
Internet poker-Prevalence and problems in Sweden
  • K Tryggvesson
Tryggvesson, K. (2009). Internet poker-Prevalence and problems in Sweden 2006. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 26, 503-519.
Poker-Glücksspiel mit Geschicklichkeitsanteil und Suchtpotential [Poker-Gambling with skill elements and addictive potential
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Meyer, G., & Hayer, T. (2008). Poker-Glücksspiel mit Geschicklichkeitsanteil und Suchtpotential [Poker-Gambling with skill elements and addictive potential]. Zeitschrift fu¨r Wett-und Glu¨cks-spielrecht, 3, 153-160.
Quantitative Methoden Band1: Einfu¨hrung in die Statistik fu¨r Psychologen und Sozialwissenschaftler [Quantitative methods Volume1: Introduction in statistics for psychologists and social researchers
  • B Rasch
  • W Hofmann
  • M Friese
  • E Naumann
Rasch, B., Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Naumann, E. (2010). Quantitative Methoden Band1: Einfu¨hrung in die Statistik fu¨r Psychologen und Sozialwissenschaftler [Quantitative methods Volume1: Introduction in statistics for psychologists and social researchers]. Berlin: Springer.
Poker: Public policy, law, mathematics, and the future of an American tradition. Thomas M
  • A Cabot
  • R Hannum
Cabot, A., & Hannum, R. (2005). Poker: Public policy, law, mathematics, and the future of an American tradition. Thomas M. Cooley Law Review, 22, 443-513.
Verabschiedet sich Poker aus dem Glücksspielrecht?
  • W Hambach
  • M Hettich
  • T Kruis
Hambach, W., Hettich, M., & Kruis, T. (2009). Verabschiedet sich Poker aus dem Glücksspielrecht? [Does poker say goodbye to the gambling law?].