Structure and assembly of a paramyxovirus matrix protein

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2032, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 08/2012; 109(35):13996-4000. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1210275109
Source: PubMed


Many pleomorphic, lipid-enveloped viruses encode matrix proteins that direct their assembly and budding, but the mechanism of this process is unclear. We have combined X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron tomography to show that the matrix protein of Newcastle disease virus, a paramyxovirus and relative of measles virus, forms dimers that assemble into pseudotetrameric arrays that generate the membrane curvature necessary for virus budding. We show that the glycoproteins are anchored in the gaps between the matrix proteins and that the helical nucleocapsids are associated in register with the matrix arrays. About 90% of virions lack matrix arrays, suggesting that, in agreement with previous biological observations, the matrix protein needs to dissociate from the viral membrane during maturation, as is required for fusion and release of the nucleocapsid into the host's cytoplasm. Structure and sequence conservation imply that other paramyxovirus matrix proteins function similarly.

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Available from: Dennis C Winkler, Mar 13, 2014
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    • "In case of RSV matrix, such interactions may be achieved in the protein itself, with NP, the viral glycoprotein HN and F, via their cytolplasmic tails and with the host cell and viral membrane which are thought to be essential for the assembly and budding of a virion particle and could contribute to stabilizing the structure (Money et al. 2009). On the other hand, no such large difference in secondary structure composition of NDV matrix were observed, determined in solution by CD and FT-IR (Table 2), and obtained from crystal structure (Battisti et al. 2012). This might be due to reason that the crystal structure of NDV M-protein is a dimer whereas RSV matrix is monomer; hence stabilized by multiple interactions between monomers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an infectious agent of a large variety of birds, including chicken, which poses a real threat to the agriculture industry. Matrix (M) proteins of NDV and many other viruses perform critical functions during viral assembly and budding from the host cell. M-proteins are well conserved and therefore are potential targets for antiviral therapies. To validate this, we expressed the NDV M-protein in its native form in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Proper refolding of the recombinant protein produced in E. coli was verified using circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopies and electron microscopy. Immunization of chickens with the NDV M-protein elicited significant serum antibody titers. However, the antibodies conferred little protection against the ND following lethal viral challenges. We conclude that the M-protein is not exposed on the surface of the host cell or the virus at any stage during its life cycle. We discuss how the conserved M-protein can further be exploited as an antiviral drug target.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • "M proteins are likely to be transported to the plasma membrane in part by an association with envelope glycoproteins [8]. In virions, the M protein is found underneath the envelope and interacts with both envelope glycoproteins and vRNPs [9]. This would suggest that the M protein acts as an organizer of viral components to concentrate the proteins at a defined budding site at the plasma membrane [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions between viral glycoproteins, matrix protein and nucleocapsid sustain assembly of parainfluenza viruses at the plasma membrane. Although the protein interactions required for virion formation are considered to be highly specific, virions lacking envelope glycoprotein(s) can be produced, thus the molecular interactions driving viral assembly and production are still unclear. Sendai virus (SeV) and human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) are highly similar in structure, however, the cytoplasmic tail sequences of the envelope glycoproteins (HN and F) are relatively less conserved. To unveil the specific role of the envelope glycoproteins in viral assembly, we created chimeric SeVs whose HN (rSeVhHN) or HN and F (rSeVh(HN+F)) were replaced with those of hPIV1. rSeVhHN grew as efficiently as wt SeV or hPIV1, suggesting that the sequence difference in HN does not have a significant impact on SeV replication and virion production. In sharp contrast, the growth of rSeVh(HN+F) was significantly impaired compared to rSeVhHN. rSeVh(HN+Fstail) which expresses a chimeric hPIV1 F with the SeV cytoplasmic tail sequence grew similar to wt SeV or rSeVhHN. Further analysis indicated that the F cytoplasmic tail plays a critical role in cell surface expression/accumulation of HN and F, as well as NP and M association at the plasma membrane. Trafficking of nucelocapsids in infected cells was not significantly affected by the origin of F, suggesting that F cytoplasmic tail is not involved in intracellular movement. These results demonstrate the role of the F cytoplasmic tail in accumulation of structural components at the plasma membrane assembly sites.
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    ABSTRACT: This review is a partially personal account of the discovery of virus structure and its implication for virus function. Although I have endeavored to cover all aspects of structural virology and to acknowledge relevant individuals, I know that I have favored taking examples from my own experience in telling this story. I am anxious to apologize to all those who I might have unintentionally offended by omitting their work. The first knowledge of virus structure was a result of Stanley's studies of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the subsequent X-ray fiber diffraction analysis by Bernal and Fankuchen in the 1930s. At about the same time it became apparent that crystals of small RNA plant and animal viruses could diffract X-rays, demonstrating that viruses must have distinct and unique structures. More advances were made in the 1950s with the realization by Watson and Crick that viruses might have icosahedral symmetry. With the improvement of experimental and computational techniques in the 1970s, it became possible to determine the three-dimensional, near-atomic resolution structures of some small icosahedral plant and animal RNA viruses. It was a great surprise that the protecting capsids of the first virus structures to be determined had the same architecture. The capsid proteins of these viruses all had a 'jelly-roll' fold and, furthermore, the organization of the capsid protein in the virus were similar, suggesting a common ancestral virus from which many of today's viruses have evolved. By this time a more detailed structure of TMV had also been established, but both the architecture and capsid protein fold were quite different to that of the icosahedral viruses. The small icosahedral RNA virus structures were also informative of how and where cellular receptors, anti-viral compounds, and neutralizing antibodies bound to these viruses. However, larger lipid membrane enveloped viruses did not form sufficiently ordered crystals to obtain good X-ray diffraction. Starting in the 1990s, these enveloped viruses were studied by combining cryo-electron microscopy of the whole virus with X-ray crystallography of their protein components. These structures gave information on virus assembly, virus neutralization by antibodies, and virus fusion with and entry into the host cell. The same techniques were also employed in the study of complex bacteriophages that were too large to crystallize. Nevertheless, there still remained many pleomorphic, highly pathogenic viruses that lacked the icosahedral symmetry and homogeneity that had made the earlier structural investigations possible. Currently some of these viruses are starting to be studied by combining X-ray crystallography with cryo-electron tomography.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics
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