Risk factors for pseudogout in the general population

Section of Rheumatology and the Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Boston University School of Medicine, 650 Albany Street, Suite 200, Boston, MA 02118, USA. .
Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (Impact Factor: 4.48). 08/2012; 51(11):2070-4. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kes204
Source: PubMed


Objective. To evaluate the association between the purported risk factors for chondrocalcinosis and gout and the risk of pseudogout in the general population. Methods. We conducted a case-control study nested within a UK general practice database (The Health Improvement Network) by identifying incident cases of pseudogout between 1986 and 2007 and up to 10 control subjects matched to each case, based on age, sex and follow-up time. We evaluated the purported risk factors for chondrocalcinosis (i.e. OA, RA, hyperparathyroidism and diuretics) and established risk factors for gout (as comparison exposures) using conditional logistic regression analysis. Results. We identified 795 cases of pseudogout and 7770 matched control subjects. The risk of pseudogout was associated with hyperparathyroidism [odds ratio (OR) 4.87; 95% CI 2.10, 11.3], OA (OR 2.91; 95% CI 2.48, 3.43) and loop diuretic use (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.09, 1.67). RA, thiazide diuretic use, BMI and other gout risk factors were not associated with the risk of pseudogout, except for chronic renal failure (OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.30, 4.01). Conclusion. This general population study based on physician-recorded pseudogout suggests that most of the previously observed associations with chondrocalcinosis are replicable with the risk of pseudogout, but there are notable differences, such as thiazide diuretics, RA and chronic renal failure, highlighting the need to study the clinical outcome, pseudogout. Avoiding loop diuretics may help individuals with recurrent pseudogout.

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