Article

On Performance Evaluation of Variants of DEEC in WSNs

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Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) contain numerous sensor nodes having limited power resource, which report sensed data to the Base Station (BS) that requires high energy usage. Many routing protocols have been proposed in this regard achieving energy efficiency in heterogeneous scenarios. However, every protocol is not suitable for heterogeneous WSNs. Efficiency of protocol degrades while changing the heterogeneity parameters. In this paper, we first test Distributed Energy- Efficient Clustering (DEEC), Developed DEEC (DDEEC), Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC) and Threshold DEEC (TDEEC) under several different scenarios containing high level heterogeneity to low level heterogeneity. We observe thoroughly regarding the performance based on stability period, network life time and throughput. EDEEC and TDEEC perform better in all heterogeneous scenarios containing variable heterogeneity in terms of life time, however TDEEC is best of all for the stability period of the network. However, the performance of DEEC and DDEEC is highly effected by changing the heterogeneity parameters of the network.

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... In past couple of years increasing interest have been observed in field if Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). WSNs consists of several minute power limited sensor units randomly distributed over area of interest [1], [2]. WSNs have numerous military based as well as industrial applications including environmental, temperature, vibration, transport traffic, automated machines, smart offices monitoring and battle field surveillance. ...
... A simple first order model is assumed in which energy is required for reciever and transmitter circuit to make it alive and for amplification of bits at transmitter side to achieve a certain necessary for transmission. bit data packet is sent through distance therefore energy consumed is as below [2], [6], [13]: ...
... VII. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA Performance evaluation of selected protocols under different heterogeneity scenarios are done on basis of following metrices as below [2], [6]. defined as decaying of first node since deployment. ...
Conference Paper
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In last decade researchers have a growing attention in domain of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) due to numerous increasing automated industry and battle field applications. WSNs comprises of hundreds or even thousands of unsystematically deployed energy lacking sensor units. These sensors are aimed to transfer data from the field to distant Base Station (BS). This operation necessitate excessive energy. Minimizing energy expenditure and spreading WSN lifetime are prodigious tasks. Development of energy saving routing mechanism is one of the main issues in WSNs. In practical scenario almost all the WSNs are heterogenous or become heterogenous after small life span. Practically efficiency of every protocol changes with diverse heterogeneity environment. There is a dire need for testing of routing protocols underling varying heterogeneous parameters to cope with the practical scenario problems. In this paper performance of DEEC (Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering), DDEEC (Developed DEEC), TDEEC (Threshold DEEC) and BEENISH (Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super Heterogenous) are evaluated with respect to varying heterogeneity metrics. Testing shows the variable behaviour of protocols with changing environment. However BEENISH performs the best in all cases and performance is sustained in varying heterogeneous scenarios.
... Thus they perform better than homogeneous WSNs in a real application scenario with variety of sensors such as warehouses, home monitoring and surveillance. Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) [7], Developed DEEC (DDEEC) and Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC) [8] are some of the heterogenous WSN protocols. These distributed clustering algorithms for heterogeneous WSNs have similar topological structure to an IoT system. ...
... (1) The system is distributed in two-levels based on their initial energy as normal nodes with standard battery energy and advanced nodes with a times more energy than normal nodes [8]. We use the RFID tagging and reading mechanism to reduce the energy consumption during the cluster head (CH) selection phase till all the advanced nodes (also called gateway nodes) have their energy exhausted. ...
... Thus we can find the lifetime of network R by putting (1), (8) and (9) in (6). End ...
... If 'm' is the fraction of advanced sensors, then N(1-m) will be the amount of normal sensors and Nm is the total amount of advanced nodes. hence the overall preliminary energy of the network is the summation of energies of normal as well as advanced nodes 10 and is written as: ...
... The normal and advanced nodes follow the same principle as that of the two-level network. The super-nodes of fraction 'm 0 ' have 'b' times more energy than normal nodes 10 . hence the energy of super-nodes can be written as E 0 (1+b). ...
... If the number of sensors in the network is N, then Nmm 0 is the number of super-nodes. Similarly, Nm(1-m 0 ) will be the number of advanced nodes 10 . hence the overall preliminary energy of the network is the summation of energies of all type of node, i.e. normal, advanced nodes and super-node which is given as: The value of p i is given as: Figure 1 shows the number of nodes alive with each round. ...
Article
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Extending the Internet to connect any physical device with smart technology can be called as the Internet of Things (IoT).It is a proposed development of the Internet in which everything can be connected to the internet enabling them to send and receive data. Selection of energy efficient routing protocols has become an essential step in designing any IoT network. Moreover, the protocol should also be selected to enhance the lifetime of the network. In this article, we evaluate the performance analysis of DEEC (Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering), DDEEC (Developed DEEC), EDEEC (Enhanced DEEC) and TDEEC (Threshold DEEC) for the application in IoT. From MATLAB simulation, it was observed that TDEEC outperforms other routing protocols and is well suited for IoT application.
... Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) [1, 2, 3] have become popular in variety of applications such as military surveillance, environmental, transportation traffic, temperature, pressure and vibration monitoring. To achieve fault tolerance, WSNs consist of hundreds or even thousands of sensor randomly distributed with in the region [4, 5, 6]. ...
... Nodes in WSNs are power constrained due to limited battery resource, and they might be placed where they can not be accessed, so,impossible to recharge or replace. To save energy, regular and long distance communication should be avoided to prolong network lifetime [1]. Sensor nodes take self decisions to accomplish sensing tasks, constructing network topology and routing policy. ...
... Efficiently Grouping sensor nodes in form of clusters is beneficial in minimizing the energy utilization. Numerous energy efficient protocols are made based on clustering structure[1, 7, 8]. In clustering, nodes assemble themselves in form of clusters with one node acting as the Cluster Head (CH). ...
Article
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In past years there has been increasing interest in field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). One of the major issue of WSNs is development of energy efficient routing protocols. Clustering is an effective way to increase energy efficiency. Mostly, heterogenous protocols consider two or three energy level of nodes. In reality, heterogonous WSNs contain large range of energy levels. By analyzing communication energy consumption of the clusters and large range of energy levels in heterogenous WSN, we propose BEENISH (Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super Heterogenous) Protocol. It assumes WSN containing four energy levels of nodes. Here, Cluster Heads (CHs) are elected on the bases of residual energy level of nodes. Simulation results show that it performs better than existing clustering protocols in heterogeneous WSNs. Our protocol achieve longer stability, lifetime and more effective messages than Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC), Developed DEEC (DDEEC) and Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC).
... When number is lower than threshold Ts then the node decides to be an aggregator node for that particular round. Threshold value in TDEEC is adjusted and on the basis of that value, node makes the decision to be an aggregator node by taking residual energy and average energy of the round with respect to optimal number of aggregator nodes [12]. ...
... While simulating these results we have ignored any energy losses caused by collision of packets and interference caused by channel conditions between different nodes. [12], these simulation results take into consideration the varying probability i.e. 0.5, 0.05, 0.1 for the results shown in Fig [1 The following results are compiled by varying the probability with four specific values i.e. 0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 from simulation for 100 and 50 wireless sensor nodes respectively and tabulated as shown in Table. #2 ...
Conference Paper
Maximization of life of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a challenging task. As WSNs are energy-constraint networks, it is very important for them to use their energy in an efficient manner so that their network life is prolonged. This aspect has attracted many researchers to work on different parameters for determining the method for increasing the efficient energy utilization in WSN. One approach is to choose an optimal number of cluster heads or aggregator nodes for data aggregation. For every protocol in a multi-hop environment an average energy per round is calculated and optimal probability of node becoming the aggregator node is determined and hence a selection of an optimal number of aggregator nodes. This leads to the minimization of the average energy per round for the network in question. In this paper, we carry out the comparative analysis of variants of Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) protocol by following probabilistic approach for calculating the number of cluster heads to analyze the network life time and number of packets transmitted to the base station. The results from comparative analysis provide the basis for further investigating the use of probability factor to extend network life time. We propose a method to dynamically calculate the probability for selecting the optimal number of aggregator nodes to maximize the network lifetime as well as to maximize the number of packets sent to the base station.
... Another improvement of LEACH proposed by Power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems (PEGASIS) protocol [13]. The protocol uses Chain based concept and nodes are organized in chain. ...
Article
p class="0abstractCxSpFirst"> Wireless communication network has a significant success in scientific and industrial communities. Due to its various advantages, this technology is considered as a key element in current network architectures. It represents the architecture that allows to group a large number of sensors to collect information about a physical process in different environments. The gathered data is transmitted to base station which communicates the information to the end user. Several protocols are proposed for WSNs routing, by considering the limited capacities of sensor nodes according to a specific topology that allows to organize the nodes within the network. However, the performance of each routing protocol mainly depends on the application requirements and its results in terms of the lifetime of WSN and satisfaction of objectives defined. According of the structure of WSN, the routing techniques can be divided in three types hierarchical, location-based flat routing. This paper, present the different routing techniques in WSN, based on the organization of nodes in sensor area. We focus specially to study the three types, cluster-based, chain-based and location-based routing techniques. These techniques will be simulated in order to compared their performances with our protocol Location-Based LEACH (LOC-LEACH). </p
... Afterwards, several reactive routing protocols were proposed for heterogeneous networks following the goal of SEP. A reactive routing protocol is used for time critical applications, such as Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) [13,15], Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Routing (TEEN), and Heterogeneity-aware Hierarchical Stable Election Protocol (HSEP). In TEEN, [12] transmission is done only if a severe change occurs in the value. ...
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The major challenges in wireless sensor network include energy conservation, node life time, stability and throughput of network and its node. Clustering is widely used to reduce the energy consumption and to improve the stability of the network. The efficient routing protocol in a cluster plays an important role in energy saving and stability of the cluster and its nodes. Enhance Threshold Sensitive Stable Election Protocol (ETSSEP) is proposed for heterogeneous wireless sensor network in the paper. It is based on dynamically changing cluster head election probability. It selects cluster heads on the basis of residual energy level of nodes and minimum number of clusters per round. The ETSSEP is simulated using MATLAB and found that it performs better than Stable Election Protocol (SEP) and Threshold Sensitive Stable Election protocol (TSEP) in terms of stability and network lifetime. ETSSEP builds more stable routing environment as compared TSEP and SEP. It is also found that ETSSEP stability is increased by 33.5 % in comparison to TSEP and more than twice in comparison to SEP. The overall lifetime of ETSSEP is also increased by 37.79 % in comparison to TSEP and about thrice in comparison to SEP.
... DDEEC [10] is also extension which improved the DEEC further. But [11] has evaluated the performance of improvements of DEEC where it found that EDEEC is better than DDEEC. EDEEC protocol used three types of nodes i.e. normal, advanced and super nodes. ...
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In this paper, we study the two different type of routing strategies used in wireless sensor networks i.e. proactive and reactive routing mechanisms. These routing mechanisms are applied in different kind of applications for efficient routing in the network. In this paper, we have studied the different routing protocols which use these routing mechanisms and have compared them. We have also taken the homogenous and heterogeneous type of networks and also see the effect of homogeneity and heterogeneity on the routing in the network. So, we have taken LEACH and SEP routing protocols for homogenous and heterogeneous network respectively using proactive mechanism for routing and TEEN and TADEEC protocols for homogenous and heterogeneous using reactive mechanisms. Lastly we have compared the results of two routing strategies in term of stability period (the round in which first node dies), lifetime of the network and throughput i.e. data send to the base station per unit round.
... EDEEC [9], which was enhanced version of DEEC proposed to insert another node in the network (super node) with the existing normal and advanced nodes which increased the heterogeneity and lifetime as well. It has been evaluated in [10] that DDEEC has low stability period, lifetime and throughput as compared to the EDEEC. So EDEEC act as motivating factor to work on and improve it further. ...
Article
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In Wireless sensor networks, several routing protocols have been developed to improve the various parameters such as stability period, throughput etc .After a homogenous protocol leach, many heterogeneous protocol were developed which successfully improved the routing in WSNs .In this Paper we studied one of the heterogeneous protocol DEEC and its improved version EDEEC and we tried to work on two parameters i.e. Stability period and throughput of the network to improve these further .In this Paper we introduced a new node i.e. super advanced node with the existing heterogeneous nodes in the EDEEC which successfully improved its stability period and we also incorporated a reactive protocol i.e. TEEN in our paper to make our network communication more efficient .Thus we used the best of EDEEC and TEEN and made TADEEC protocol. This has been simulated in Matlab and results have outperformed the LEACH, DEEC, EDEEC etc.
... Three level heterogeneous networks contain normal, advances, and super nodes whereas super node have highest energy level as compare to normal and advanced nodes. They are discriminating each protocol on the basis of prolonging network life time of nodes during rounds for three level heterogeneous networks [12]. ...
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Wireless body area networks are widely used for applications such as health care system, where wireless sensors (nodes) monitor the parameter(s) of interest. Sensors play a critical role in many sensor network applications. Mac layer operates on non-beacon and beacon enabled mode. The IEEE 802. 15. 4 standard provide two modes of connections: beacon enabled mode and non-offer transmission determinism. The non-beacon enabled mode does not suggest any assurance on traffic determinism. In this network an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access method is used beacon mode. In beacon-enabled networks, the extraordinary network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit episodic beacons to verify their existence to other network nodes i. e. it can. Opposing to the non-beacon enabled mode, the beacon analyze delay, packet loss ratio, network life time, throughput of the wireless body area network. There will be three states nodes, sleep, awake, idle, which will be used to do transmission of data packets. AR-MAC protocol is based upon TDMA technique to reduce energy utilization. AR-MAC assigns Guaranteed Times Slot (GTS) to every sensor node for com-munication based upon the necessities of sensor node. Analysis of this parameter is performed on TDMA and CSMA/CA techniques that will be used to do the comparison on MAC layer. The performance will be judged on beacon and non-beacon enabled mode. Enabled mode does not permit us to shape mesh topology in order to interrelate numerous beacon networks.
... Developing technologies aim to bring ease in human life lead to automation of different manual processes through electric machines. Increment in power sources is very slow as compare to power consumption rate due to different automation machines increasing day by day [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. Conventional Grid (CG) system is unable to cope with increasing power demand [7]. ...
... Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) [8][9] is one of the cluster-based hierarchical protocol used especially for multilevel communication in a heterogeneous routing environment. In DEEC [10] protocol, the selection of cluster head is based on the ratio between the residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network [8].The protocol functions with the estimation of the ideal value of network lifetime in order to compute a reference energy which will be consumed by a node for each round. So that lower energy nodes have less probability than the higher initial and residual energy node to be the cluster head. ...
... Some of them are, distributed energy-efficient clustering (DEEC), enhanced DEEC (EDEEC), threshold DEEC (TDEEC), threshold sensitive energy efficient routing (TEEN), threshold sensitive stable election protocol (TSEP), enhance threshold sensitive stable election protocol (ETSSEP). In DEEC [13], for CH selection process residual and initial energy are considered. DEEC contain three types of nodes i.e., normal, advanced and super nodes having different energy level, perform well in terms of stability period. ...
Article
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This paper introduces dual cluster head routing protocol with super node (DCHRP4) having dual cluster head with four level of heterogeneity to improve the lifetime of a wireless sensor network. The main objective is to reduce the number of selection of cluster head so that the energy consumption can be minimized. In a clustering based sensor network cluster head does all the work from collecting to transmitting data to sink. Therefore, Cluster head loses its energy very fast. Energy plays an important role in efficient management of sensor network. Due to the handling of multiple tasks, energy of a cluster head is lost very fast. So, the paper focuses on reduces the energy consumption, improving the stability, the lifetime of the network, and throughput. From the simulation performed it is observed that the stability period of DCHRP4 upgrade 56.11% over enhanced threshold sensitive stable election protocol (ETSSEP) and twice and more than thrice over threshold sensitive stable election protocol (TSEP) and stable election protocol (SEP) respectively. The overall lifetime of DCHRP4 also upgrade by 8.29% and 49.22% over ETSSEP and TSEP respectively whereas about thrice in comparison with SEP. The throughput improved by 7.75% over ETSSEP, twice over TSEP and SEP respectively.
... In future we would like to reduce deficiencies which are expected in this paper and implementation of DREEM-ME in other clustering protocols like Threshold sensitive energy efficient sensor network protocol [15], stable election protocol [16], distributed energy efficient clustering [17], etc. In future, we aim to introduce multiple QoS path parameters [27], energy efficient MAC protocols [18] [37], sink mobility and heterogeneity [32] in our work. Application of Routing Link Matrices on the proposed scheme can be useful in achieving efficient consumption of energy in the network [25]. ...
... Therefore, a key subject for WSNs is to curtail energy expenditures of sensor nodes to prolong lifetime of network. Several protocols based on clustering topology [14], [15], [16], [17] [18], [19], [20], [21] are available and used in many applications. In these protocols, cluster heads collects data and then transfer to BS. ...
Thesis
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In current era of technology, applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are rising in various fields. The deployment of WSNs for real life applications is greater than before. Still, the energy constraints remain one of the key issues; it prevents the complete utilization of WSN technology. Sensors typically powered with battery, which have insufficient life span. Even though renewable energy sources like solar energy or piezoelectric means are used as supplementary energy in WSNs, it is still some degree of reserve to consume energy judiciously. Proficient energy routing is thus a key requirement for a trustworthy design of a wireless sensor network. In this article, we advise a new Gateway Based Energy-Efficient Clustering Routing Protocol (M-GEAR) for WSNs. We divide the sensor nodes into four logical regions based on their distance from the gateway node and Base Station (BS). We install BS faraway from sensing area and a gateway node at the centre of the sensing area. If the distance of a sensor node from BS or gateway is less than predefined distance threshold, the node uses direct communication to transmit its sensed data. We divide the rest of nodes into two equal regions whose distance is beyond the threshold distance. We then divide these two regions into clusters and each region elects its own Cluster Heads (CHs) independent of other region. We compare performance of our protocol with LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy). Performance analysis and compared statistic results show that our proposed protocol perform well in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime. We also propose a reliable, power efficient and high throughput routing protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs). We use multi hop topology to minimize energy consumption and maximizing network lifetime. We use a cost function to select parent node or forwarder. Proposed cost function selects a parent node, which has high residual energy and less distance to sink. Residual energy parameter balances the energy consumption among the sensor nodes and distance parameter ensures successful packet delivery to sink. Simulation results shows that proposed protocol enhance the network stability period and nodes stay alive for longer period. Longer stability period contributes high packet delivery to sink which is major interest for continuous patient monitoring.
... Usually nodes in WSNs are power constrained due to limited battery resource. It is also not possible to recharge or replace the battery of already deployed sensor nodes [1, 2, 3]. Routing protocols play important role in achieving energy efficiency in WSNs. ...
Article
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of large number of randomly deployed energy constrained sensor nodes. Sensor nodes have ability to sense and send sensed data to Base Station (BS). Sensing as well as transmitting data towards BS require high energy. In WSNs, saving energy and extending network lifetime are great challenges. Clustering is a key technique used to optimize energy consumption in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering based routing technique: Enhanced Developed Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering scheme (EDDEEC) for heterogeneous WSNs. Our technique is based on changing dynamically and with more efficiency the Cluster Head (CH) election probability. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol achieves longer lifetime, stability period and more effective messages to BS than Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC), Developed DEEC (DDEEC) and Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC) in heterogeneous environments.
... Power levels of sensor nodes compared to bound threshold and most power levels are thought-about for choosing the cluster head. Some algorithms use distance from base station and its neighbourhood sensors as input for cluster head alternative by Qureshi et al. (2012). Altogether these algorithms first cluster heads ar selected. ...
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Nature consists of enormous and various physical and phenomenon, like lightweight, temperature, motion, seismol waves, and plenty of others. For observation and cashing in on the environment it’s necessary to collect the knowledge concerning the phenomenon. Wireless device networks facilitate U.S. in sensing the environment and in obtaining info concerning the natural discernible occurrences. It needs communication protocols to diminish the power consumption. In wireless sensor networks, power is the key one among the foremost necessary resources since every node gathers processes and passes on knowledge to its base station. In general, most of the works in sensor networks are done using static nodes and single base station. Recent researches use mobile knowledge gathering strategies and are planned to prolong the operation time of device networks. One or additional mobile collectors are wont to gather detected knowledge from device nodes at short transmission ranges. This paper presents a novel algorithm for cluster head selection and provides best visiting points and knowledge gathering path for a mobile sink among clusters. With shaping associate best cluster and knowledge gathering path, this methodology improves the information assortment performance yet because the network life extension of device in small scale networks. The performance has been evaluated using LTE and WiFi networks. Also, quality measures for each network have been computed and presented.
... To prolong the lifetime of sensors, route selection is of key importance. Thus, Authors in [1], [2] and [3] proposed energy efficient routing protocols. A common method for maximizing the sensors lifetime is minimization of communication between sensors. ...
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Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs) consist of on-body or in-body sensors placed on human body for health monitoring. Energy conservation of these sensors, while guaranteeing a required level of performance, is a challenging task. Energy efficient routing schemes are designed for the longevity of network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a routing protocol for measuring fatigue of a soldier. Three sensors are attached to soldier's body that monitor specific parameters. Our proposed protocol is an event driven protocol and takes three scenarios for measuring the fatigue of a soldier. We evaluate our proposed work in terms of network lifetime, throughput, remaining energy of sensors and fatigue of a soldier.
... DEEC is a heterogeneous protocol having nodes with extra energy which can send packets to BS than other protocols. DEEC is compared with its variants to evaluate the performances of all proposed protocols [7]. ...
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Energy efficient routing protocols are consistently cited as efficient solutions for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) routing. The area of WSNs is one of the emerging and fast growing fields which brought low cost, low power and multi-functional sensor nodes. In this paper, we examine some protocols related to homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. To evaluate the efficiency of different clustering schemes, we compare five clustering routing protocols; Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Sensor Network (TEEN), Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) and two variants of TEEN which are Clustering and Multi-Hop Protocol in Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Sensor Network (CAMPTEEN) and Hierarchical Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Sensor Network (H-TEEN). The contribution of this paper is to introduce sink mobility to increase the network life time of hierarchal routing protocols. Two scenarios are discussed to compare the performances of routing protocols; in first scenario static sink is implanted and in later one mobile sink is used. We perform analytical simulations in MATLAB by using different performance metrics such as, number of alive nodes, number of dead nodes and throughput.
... In [8] MS lowers the saturation from the nodes which are close to sink and resulting increase the network life. Authors in [9] surveyed variants of Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) on basis of multi level heterogeneous network to two level heterogeneous network. However, hierarchal clustering is discussed in [10] by authors. ...
Article
Sink Mobility is becoming popular due to excellent load balancing between nodes and ultimately resulting in prolonged network lifetime and throughput. A major challenge is to provide reliable and energy-efficient operations are to be taken into consideration for differentmobility patterns of sink. Aim of this paper is lifetime maximization of Delay TolerantWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) through the manipulation of Mobile Sink (MS) on different trajectories. We propose Square Routing Protocol with MS (SRP-MS) based on existing SEP (Stable Election Protocol) by making it Cluster Less (CL) and introducing sink mobility.
... In Priyadarshi et al. (2020), A review on clustering protocols with energy heterogeneity in wireless sensor networks is presented. Well known probabilistic clustering protocols for homogeneous network being LEACH, Hybrid Energy Efficient Distributed Clustering (HEED) (Younis & Fahmy, 2004) etc. and well known protocols for heterogeneous network are Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) (Qureshi, Javaid, Malik, Qasim, & Khan, 2012), Enhanced DEEC(EDEEC) (Javaid et al., 2013), Energy efficient heterogeneous clustered scheme for wireless sensor networks(EEHC) (Kumar, Aseri, & Patel, 2009). In these protocols, CHs are selected based on a probability value defined by a threshold. ...
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Sensor webs consisting of nodes with limited battery power and wireless communications are deployed to collect useful information from the field. Gathering sensed information in an energy efficient manner is critical to operate the sensor network for a long period of time. In W. Heinzelman et al. (Proc. Hawaii Conf. on System Sci., 2000), a data collection problem is defined where, in a round of communication, each sensor node has a packet to be sent to the distant base station. If each node transmits its sensed data directly to the base station then it will deplete its power quickly. The LEACH protocol presented by W. Heinzelman et al. is an elegant solution where clusters are formed to fuse data before transmitting to the base station. By randomizing the cluster heads chosen to transmit to the base station, LEACH achieves a factor of 8 improvement compared to direct transmissions, as measured in terms of when nodes die. In this paper, we propose PEGASIS (power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems), a near optimal chain-based protocol that is an improvement over LEACH. In PEGASIS, each node communicates only with a close neighbor and takes turns transmitting to the base station, thus reducing the amount of energy spent per round. Simulation results show that PEGASIS performs better than LEACH by about 100 to 300% when 1%, 20%, 50%, and 100% of nodes die for different network sizes and topologies.
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Routing in ad-hoc networks is a difficult challenge that involves a tradeoff between efficiency and responsiveness. An ad-hoc network routing algorithm must adapt rapidly enough to topology changes to meet the performance demands of users, without over-utilizing network resources. This paper presents the (α,t) cluster framework which utilizes a distributed dynamic clustering strategy to organize nodes into clusters in which the probability of path failure due to node movement can be bounded over time. The objective of the clustering strategy is to achieve scalability and support robust, efficient routing subject to a wide range of mobility rates. Based on the (α,t) cluster scheme, routes within clusters are maintained on a proactive basis, whereas hierarchical routing between clusters is managed on a demand-basis. Simulation results show that the cluster organization can be effectively adapted to node mobility and that routing is both more robust and efficient than routing in fully proactive, reactive or fixed-hybrid schemes
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Topology control in a sensor network balances load on sensor nodes, and increases network scalability and lifetime. Clustering sensor nodes is an effective topology control approach. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed clustering approach for long-lived ad-hoc sensor networks. Our proposed approach does not make any assumptions about the presence of infrastructure or about node capabilities, other than the availability of multiple power levels in sensor nodes. We present a protocol, HEED (Hybrid Energy-Efficient Distributed clustering), that periodically selects cluster heads according to a hybrid of the node residual energy and a secondary parameter, such as node proximity to its neighbors or node degree. HEED terminates in O(1) iterations, incurs low message overhead, and achieves fairly uniform cluster head distribution across the network. We prove that, with appropriate bounds on node density and intra-cluster and inter-cluster transmission ranges, HEED can asymptotically almost surely guarantee connectivity of clustered networks. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed approach is effective in prolonging the network lifetime and supporting scalable data aggregation.
An applicationspecific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks
  • W R Heinzelman
  • A P Chandrakasan
  • H Balakrishnan
W.R. Heinzelman, A.P. Chandrakasan, H. Balakrishnan, "An applicationspecific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks", IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 1 (4) (2002) 660-670.
PEGASIS: "power efficient gathering in sensor information systems
  • S Lindsey
  • C S Raghavenda
S. Lindsey, C.S. Raghavenda, PEGASIS: "power efficient gathering in sensor information systems", in: Proceeding of the IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, March 2002.
SEP: A Stable Election Protocol for clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor network
  • G Smaragdakis
  • I Matta
  • A Bestavros
G. Smaragdakis, I. Matta, A. Bestavros,"SEP: A Stable Election Protocol for clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor network", in: Second International Workshop on Sensor and Actor Network Protocols and Applications (SANPA 2004), 2004.