Article

Analyzing Energy-Efficiency and Route-Selection of Multi-level Hierarchal Routing Protocols in WSNs

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The advent and development in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in recent years has seen the growth of extremely small and low-cost sensors that possess sensing, signal processing and wireless communication capabilities. These sensors can be expended at a much lower cost and are capable of detecting conditions such as temperature, sound, security or any other system. A good protocol design should be able to scale well both in energy heterogeneous and homogeneous environment, meet the demands of different application scenarios and guarantee reliability. On this basis, we have compared six different protocols of different scenarios which are presenting their own schemes of energy minimizing, clustering and route selection in order to have more effective communication. This research is motivated to have an insight that which of the under consideration protocols suit well in which application and can be a guide-line for the design of a more robust and efficient protocol. MATLAB simulations are performed to analyze and compare the performance of LEACH, multi-level hierarchal LEACH and multihop LEACH.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... It operates in multi-hop networks and uses an adaptive transmission power in the inter-clustering communication. Multilevel hierarchal routing protocols under the umbrella of energy efficiency through proper route selection are analyzed in [18]. In DEEC [19] and DDEEC [20], the cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between the residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wireless Sensor Networks need energy efficient protocols for communication and data fusion to consolidate data and prolong the lifetime of the network. In this paper, an adaptive hierarchical clustering and routing method has been proposed. This clustering and routing method is based on maximum bottleneck energy routing (MBER) from a node to the sink. This method favors the routes with the highest energy instead of the neighboring node with the highest energy. MBER minimizes the possibility of a node dying in the route of sending a packet to the sink. Due to MBER’s hierarchical structure, data fusion can be applied in different forms and at different levels to send more data from each node to the sink, depending on the application. It can be adapted to varying transmission ranges for communication among nodes. Compared to some of the well-known protocols in the field MBER’s results show that it outperforms them in terms of the overall lifetime of the network and the number of packets sent to the sink.
... After deployment, the nodes batteries cannot be replaced. The lifetime of the WSNs ends when the batteries of these sensor nodes are empty [1]. As a result, the WSNs sensor nodes always meet a severe energy problem. ...
Article
Full-text available
The longer network lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a goal which is directly related to energy consumption. This energy consumption issue becomes more challenging when the energy load is not properly distributed in the sensing area. The hierarchal clustering architecture is the best choice for these kind of issues. In this paper, we introduce a novel clustering protocol called Markov chain model-based optimal cluster heads (MOCHs) selection for WSNs. In our proposed model, we introduce a simple strategy for the optimal number of cluster heads selection to overcome the problem of uneven energy distribution in the network. The attractiveness of our model is that the BS controls the number of cluster heads while the cluster heads control the cluster members in each cluster in such a restricted manner that a uniform and even load is ensured in each cluster. We perform an extensive range of simulation using five quality measures, namely: the lifetime of the network, stable and unstable region in the lifetime of the network, throughput of the network, the number of cluster heads in the network, and the transmission time of the network to analyze the proposed model. We compare MOCHs against Sleep-awake Energy Efficient Distributed (SEED) clustering, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Zone Based Routing (ZBR), and Centralized Energy Efficient Clustering (CEEC) using the above-discussed quality metrics and found that the lifetime of the proposed model is almost 1095, 2630, 3599, and 2045 rounds (time steps) greater than SEED, ABC, ZBR, and CEEC, respectively. The obtained results demonstrate that the MOCHs is better than SEED, ABC, ZBR, and CEEC in terms of energy efficiency and the network throughput.
... However, this additional responsibility results in a higher rate of energy drainage for the cluster heads. However, selecting the optimal number of cluster heads is a good way to increase the life time of WSNs [18]. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is the most popular clustering mechanism [1]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hierarchical clustering technique is an effectual topology control methodology in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This technique is used to increase the life time of the network by reducing the number of transmissions towards the base station. We propose and validate a new routing protocol termed as Sleep-awake Energy Efficient Distributed (SEED) clustering algorithm. We divide the network sensing field into three energy regions because in SEED cluster heads are communicating directly with the base station. The cluster heads of the high energy region are communicating with the base station through a longer distance and paying extra energy cost as compared to the cluster heads of the low energy region. Same application base sensor nodes form sub-clusters to decrease the number of transmissions towards the base station. In every round, one node from these sub-clusters nodes awake and transmit the data and the rest of them sleep to save available resources. We select six criteria to check the performance of our algorithm. The simulation results show that SEED achieves longer network life time and high throughput as compared to the existing clustering protocols.
... In every cluster, 17 a cluster head (CH) is selected on the basis of different parameters, such as energy or distance from the base station. A cluster 18 head is responsible for transmitting any gathered information sensed by the nodes in its cluster. The cluster head may aggregate 19 and diffuse [11] the data before transmitting it to the base station. ...
... Authors in [10] compared six different protocols of different scenarios which are presenting their own schemes of energy minimizing, clustering and route selection in order to have more effective communication. This research is motivated to have an insight that which of the under consideration protocols suit well in which application and can be a guide-line for the design of a more robust and efficient protocol. ...
... This paper discuses and compares few hierarchical routing protocols like LEACH, LEACH-Centralized (LEACH-C), solar-aware LEACH (sleach), Multi-Hop LEACH, Mobile LEACH (M-LEACH) and LEACH-Selective Cluster (LEACH-SC). In [22], authors present a technique to select an energy efficient and shortest route for data transmission. These are all energy efficient, well-defined routing protocols. ...
Article
An energy efficient routing protocol is the major attentiveness for researcher in field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In this paper, we present some energy efficient hierarchal routing protocols, prosper from conventional Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) routing protocol. Fundamental objective of our consideration is to analyze, how these ex- tended routing protocols work in order to optimize lifetime of network nodes and how quality of routing protocols is improved for WSNs. Furthermore, this paper also emphasizes on some issues experienced by LEACH and also explains how these issues are tackled by other enhanced routing protocols from classi- cal LEACH. We analytically compare the features and performance issues of each hierarchal routing protocol. We also simulate selected clustering routing protocols for our study in order to elaborate the enhancement achieved by ameliorate routing protocols.
... [18] gives a detailed comparison analysis on different variants of LEACH as A-LEACH, S-LEACH and M-LEACH in terms of energy efficiency and applications. A very interesting comparison analysis between LEACH, Multi level Hierarchal LEACH and Multi hop LEACH is undertaken in [23]. Authors of [17] enhances SEP in terms of heterogeneity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless sensor networks are appearing as an emerging need for mankind. Though, Such networks are still in research phase however, they have high potential to be applied in almost every field of life. Lots of research is done and a lot more is awaiting to be standardized. In this work, cluster based routing in wireless sensor networks is studied precisely. Further, we modify one of the most prominent wireless sensor network's routing protocol "LEACH" as modified LEACH (MODLEACH) by introducing \emph{efficient cluster head replacement scheme} and \emph{dual transmitting power levels}. Our modified LEACH, in comparison with LEACH out performs it using metrics of cluster head formation, through put and network life. Afterwards, hard and soft thresholds are implemented on modified LEACH (MODLEACH) that boast the performance even more. Finally a brief performance analysis of LEACH, Modified LEACH (MODLEACH), MODLEACH with hard threshold (MODLEACHHT) and MODLEACH with soft threshold (MODLEACHST) is undertaken considering metrics of throughput, network life and cluster head replacements.
Article
Objective - This paper aims to analyse the impact of the China-Laos railway on export trade from China to Thailand. The paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the new route and other routes base on driven factors, identifies what trade industry is suitable for this new route and provides some reference for Thai trade exporters. This will enable Thai export traders to understand the new transportation route formed by the railway and improve the trade volume and competitiveness of Thai products through this route. Methodology/Technique - Literature review method, secondary data method, in-depth interview method. Findings - It is found that the new route formed after the completion of the China-Laos railway has many advantages base on driven factors and many industries are suitable for the use of this new route. Novelty - Few people know much about the China-Laos railway, and even less about the analysis of its impact on Thailand's trade. The author's in-depth interview method allows him to get in touch with experts who are very relevant to the China-Laos railway, providing valuable insights. Type of Paper - Empirical. Keywords: Thai Products; Driving Factors; Route Selection; China-Laos Railway; In-depth Interviews; Secondary Data Method JEL Classification: F16, F18, F19.
Chapter
Communication has its roots right from the beginning of the human race. As humans evolved the need for communication increased tremendously and as well the technology of communication progressed. The era of communication from analog to digital has further advanced to wireless with Sensor networks occupying the most of area in communication nowadays. Communication community is highly depending upon wireless sensor networks and they are the key technology in communications. Even though these networks are widely used they are is still need for research such that its full features and the advantages can be fully utilized in the field of communication. The basic concern of these networks is energy and security as the energy is limited and the networks are wireless. Hence more algorithms have been developed for the energy efficiency. The popular among these networks is the Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) algorithm. In this paper, a modification of MODLEACH with cluster based routing is developed as Modified LEACH(MODLEACH) in which the energy efficiency is increased considerably. The method of alternate cluster head is introduced by allotting threshold power levels. The results of this paper are studied along with LEACH and found to be appreciably good. The network metrics of cluster head formation, energy efficiency throughput and network life. An analysis is done with hard and soft threshold levels of the cluster head are studied.
Research
Full-text available
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been organized for a scope of aspects that includes information collection, security, armed applications and many more. The biggest challenge amongst the existing difficulties of this system is yet to be dealt i.e., the absence of energy efficiency which degrades the systems lifetime. Several energy efficient protocols have been originated amongst which LEACH is the primary one. MODLEACH (Modified LEACH) is an enhancement over LEACH protocol. It introduced two new techniques namely efficient cluster head replacement scheme and dual transmission power levels to diminish energy utilization. However, this protocol like several others has not taken into consideration the influence of parameters p (probability of becoming a cluster head) on the performance of the network. So, iMODLEACH (Improved MODLEACH) which can be called as the extension to the MODLEACH have been proposed in the paper. Further, mathematical analysis has been done to select nominal value of probability (p) for various sensor network applications. Simulations are performed using MATLAB (R2013a) to verify the mathematical results obtained. Finally, the comparative analysis demonstrates that iMODLEACH outperforms MODLEACH in terms of network lifetime and packets transferred to the base station.
Research
Full-text available
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been organized for a scope of aspects that includes information collection, security, armed applications and many more. The biggest challenge amongst the existing difficulties of this system is yet to be dealt i.e., the absence of energy efficiency which degrades the systems lifetime. Several energy efficient protocols have been originated amongst which LEACH is the primary one. MODLEACH (Modified LEACH) is an enhancement over LEACH protocol. It introduced two new techniques namely efficient cluster head replacement scheme and dual transmission power levels to diminish energy utilization. However, this protocol like several others has not taken into consideration the influence of parameters p (probability of becoming a cluster head) on the performance of the network. So, iMODLEACH (Improved MODLEACH) which can be called as the extension to the MODLEACH have been proposed in the paper. Further, mathematical analysis has been done to select nominal value of probability (p) for various sensor network applications. Simulations are performed using MATLAB (R2013a) to verify the mathematical results obtained. Finally, the comparative analysis demonstrates that iMODLEACH outperforms MODLEACH in terms of network lifetime and packets transferred to the base station.
Conference Paper
A three-level hybrid clustering routing protocol algorithm (MLHP) based on the Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) for wireless sensor networks is proposed in this paper. A centralized selection is proposed for Level One, in which the base station (BS) plays a great role in selecting cluster heads. In Level Two, a GWO routing for data transfer is proposed, were nodes select the best route to the BS to save more energy. And, a distributed clustering based on a cost function is proposed for Level Three. The algorithm was evaluated through tests of a network's energy efficiency, lifetime, and stability period. Comparisons were made with the best-known routing protocols to measure the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results showed improved performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of longer network lifetime, longer stability period, and more residual energy when compared with the other algorithms.
Article
Increased use of Wireless sensor Networks (WSNs) in variety of applications has enabled the designers to create autonomous sensors, which can be deployed randomly, without human supervision, for the purpose of sensing and communicating valuable data. Many energy-efficient routing protocols are designed for WSNs based on clustering structure. In this paper, we have proposed iMODLEACH protocol which is an extension to the MODLEACH protocol. Simulation results indicate that iMODLEACH outperforms MODLEACH in terms of network life-time and packets transferred to base station. The mathematical analysis helps to select such values of these parameters which can suit a particular wireless sensor network application.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wireless sensor networks are designed to extract data from the deployment environment and combine sensing, data processing and wireless communication to provide useful information for the network users. Hundreds or thousands of small embedded units, which operate under low-energy supply and with limited access to central network control, rely on interconnecting protocols to coordinate data aggregation and transmission. Energy efficiency is crucial and it has been proposed that cluster based and distributed architectures such as LEACH are particularly suitable. We analyse the random cluster hierarchy in this protocol and provide a solution for low-energy and limited-loss optimization. Moreover, we extend these results to a multi-level version of LEACH, where clusters of nodes again self-organize to form clusters of clusters, and so on.
Article
Full-text available
For mission-critical applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) involving extensive battlefield surveillance, medical healthcare, etc., it is crucial to have low-power, new protocols, methodologies and structures for transferring data and information in a network with full sensing coverage capability for an extended working period. The upmost mission is to ensure that the network is fully functional providing reliable transmission of the sensed data without the risk of data loss. WSNs have been applied to various types of mission-critical applications. Coverage preservation is one of the most essential functions to guarantee quality of service (QoS) in WSNs. However, a tradeoff exists between sensing coverage and network lifetime due to the limited energy supplies of sensor nodes. In this study, we propose a routing protocol to accommodate both energy-balance and coverage-preservation for sensor nodes in WSNs. The energy consumption for radio transmissions and the residual energy over the network are taken into account when the proposed protocol determines an energy-efficient route for a packet. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol is able to increase the duration of the on-duty network and provide up to 98.3% and 85.7% of extra service time with 100% sensing coverage ratio comparing with LEACH and the LEACH-Coverage-U protocols, respectively.
Article
Full-text available
A cluster-based cooperative multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) scheme is proposed to reduce the adverse impacts caused by radio irregularity and fading in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. This scheme extends the LEACH protocol to enable the multi-hop transmissions among clusters by incorporating a cooperative MIMO scheme into hop-by-hop transmissions. Through the adaptive selection of cooperative nodes and the coordination between multi-hop routing and cooperative MIMO transmissions, the scheme can gain effective performance improvement in terms of energy efficiency and reliability. Based on the energy consumption model developed in this paper, the optimal parameters to minimize the overall energy consumption are found, such as the number of clusters and the number of cooperative nodes. Simulation results exhibit that the proposed scheme can effectively save energy and prolong the network lifetime.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an energy efficient cluster ID based routing scheme with maximum residual node energy as one of routing metrics. The uneven load in network is minimized by cluster size adaptation technique. Our new routing protocol CIDRSN (Cluster ID based Routing in Sensor Networks) takes the cluster ID as next hop address instead of cluster-head ID) in routing table and eliminate the cluster formation phase and routing phase from being executed in each round. Both cluster formation and routing phases are only executed during the initialization of network, which reduces the energy consumption and increases the network life to about 16%. Robustness is increased by multi-path routing. Simulation results show that CIDRSN outperforms the preceding hierarchical routing protocols.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the area of wireless sensor networks (WSN) there is still a significant gap between theory and practice: system designs and protocols are rapidly out-pacing analysis. We develop formal computational models of a WSN based on non-linear optimization and use them to analyze the impact of fairness constraints on network performance. The optimization framework presented is very general and can also be used to analyze the optimal performance of WSN subject to other design parameters such as the topology, number of nodes, energy levels, source rates, reception power, etc. Our results show that the maximum information that can be extracted for a fixed amount of energy increases and that the minimum energy required outputting a fixed amount of information decreases as we reduce the fairness requirement in the network. We present these functions for a fixed network topology and observe that they exhibit sharp changes in gradient due to qualitative changes in optimal routes.
Article
Full-text available
Networking together hundreds or thousands of cheap microsensor nodes allows users to accurately monitor a remote environment by intelligently combining the data from the individual nodes. These networks require robust wireless communication protocols that are energy efficient and provide low latency. We develop and analyze low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), a protocol architecture for microsensor networks that combines the ideas of energy-efficient cluster-based routing and media access together with application-specific data aggregation to achieve good performance in terms of system lifetime, latency, and application-perceived quality. LEACH includes a new, distributed cluster formation technique that enables self-organization of large numbers of nodes, algorithms for adapting clusters and rotating cluster head positions to evenly distribute the energy load among all the nodes, and techniques to enable distributed signal processing to save communication resources. Our results show that LEACH can improve system lifetime by an order of magnitude compared with general-purpose multihop approaches.
Conference Paper
A sensor network system consisting of a large number of small sensors with low-power can be an effective tool for collection and integration of data by each sensor in a variety of environments. The collected data by each sensor node is communicated through the network to a single base station that uses all collected data to determine properties of the data. Clustering sensors into groups, yields that sensors communicate information only to cluster heads and then the cluster-heads communicate the aggregated information to the base station. We estimate the optimal number of cluster-heads among randomized sensors in a bounded region. We derive solutions for the values of parameters of our algorithm that minimize the total energy spent in the wireless sensor network when all sensors communicate data from the cluster-heads to the base station. Computer simulation shows that the energy consumption reduce as the optimal number of cluster-heads for the proposed method.
Conference Paper
Distributed clustering architecture has been considered an effective and practical model to offer energyefficient, load-balancing, scalable, and robust communication for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In this paper, we compare and analyze various clustering schemes based on a comprehensive classification. We propose a bi-dimensional Markov chain model for analyzing a class of distributed, dynamic, and randomized (DDR) clustering schemes. With this model, we present extensive evaluation of stochastic properties of a representative DDR clustering scheme – Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), in terms of the distribution of cluster number, the mean, the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of number of clusters. The results indicate that the number of clusters generated in LEACH-like DDR schemes is a random variable, which can not concentrate with in a narrow range of the optimal value. This variability in the number of clusters adversely affects the system lifetime.
Estimation of the optimal number of cluster-heads in sensor network, in Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems
  • H Kim
  • S Kim
  • S Lee
  • B Son
H. Kim, S. Kim, S. Lee, and B. Son, Estimation of the optimal number of cluster-heads in sensor network, in Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems. Springer, 2005, pp. 181181.