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Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

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Abstract

This work focusses on analyzing the optimization strategies of routing protocols with respect to energy utilization of sensor nodes in Wireless Sensor Network (WSNs). Different routing mechanisms have been proposed to address energy optimization problem in sensor nodes. Clustering mechanism is one of the popular WSNs routing mechanisms. In this paper, we first address energy limitation constraints with respect to maximizing network life time using linear programming formulation technique. To check the efficiency of different clustering scheme against modeled constraints, we select four cluster based routing protocols; Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network (TEEN), Stable Election Protocol (SEP), and Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC). To validate our mathematical framework, we perform analytical simulations in MATLAB by choosing number of alive nodes, number of dead nodes, number of packets and number of CHs, as performance metrics.

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... By 1998 Vapnick proposed using the parameter ε is called a noise-sensitive parameter to resolve high-density clusters that overlap, where one node is not only attached to a cluster but can belong to one cluster or many different clusters. Since then, εFCM [10][11][12][13][14] has always been a top choice for fuzzy clustering. ...
... The The SEP protocol [10][11][12] takes into account the energy level in the main node selection process. SEP improves the stability of the hierarchical clustering process using the characteristic parameters of the heterogeneous, additional energy between the advanced node and the normal node. ...
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... When the CH head does not receive any data from its member, the packet is considered to be loss and the CH consequently discharges the sensor nodes membership at the end of the timeslot. In energy efficient transmission, the transmitter will send the message according to the received signal strength of data request message from CH [7][8][9][10]. The above figure (1) shows that communication between the mobile nodes using clustering approach. ...
... So the main advantage in this protocol is that it reduces the effects of mobility by decreasing packet loss by changing the TDMA scheduling adaptively and using round free cluster-head. [7][8][9][10] ...
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... Chee-Yee Chong and al. presents in [13] some recent research results in sensor network algorithms, including localized algorithms and directed diffusion, distributed tracking in wireless ad hoc networks, and distributed classification using local agents. K.Beydoun treated in [14] the problem of routing in wireless sensor networks and proposed a design of a hierarchical routing protocol for sensor networks based on network zones partitioning. Routing allows information transport from source to destination through a network connection. ...
... This combination is achieved in order to exploit the advantages of each method and bypass their limitations. ZRP and CBRP are two examples of protocols hybrids [14]. In fact, numerous research investigations on the performance and benefit of routing protocols can improve throughput, increase reliability, reduce end to end delay, and mitigate network congestion. ...
... Multiple clustering techniques have been proposed in WSNs for competent routing between wireless nodes and sink [18]. A WSN is mostly divided into many groups and each group is called cluster. ...
... If d nodes want to be a part of this network, then total energy consumed during CAP in j session (E CAP j ) is computed as: (18) Contention access period is followed by data slots allocation period. During this period, CH informs all source nodes about their allocated data slots by sending ADS_ANN message as shown in Figure. 5. ADS_ANN message also includes the information about start of next control period. ...
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... Various clustering techniques are proposed for efficient routing between wireless nodes and sink in a WSN [14]. Those schemes divide WSN in different groups, called clusters. ...
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In this paper, we propose an adaptive TDMA based MAC protocol, called Bitmap-assisted Shortest job first based MAC (BSMAC), for hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The main contribution of BS-MAC is that: (a) it uses small size time slots. (b) the number of those time slots is more than the number of member nodes. (c) Shortest Job First (SJF) algorithm to schedule time slots. (d) Short node address (1 Byte) to identify member nodes. First two contributions of BS-MAC handle adaptive traffic loads of all members in an efficient manner. The SJF algorithm reduces node’s job completion time and to minimize the average packet delay of nodes. The short node address reduces the control overhead and makes the proposed scheme an energy efficient. The simulation results verify that the proposed BS-MAC transmits more data with less delay and energy consumption compared to the existing MAC protocols.
... Many routing algorithms were developed for wireless networks in general. All major routing protocols proposed for WSNs may be divided into this categories [16][17][18][19][20][21][22] as shown in Fig.2. Hierarchal routing is technique knows very well with special advantages relative to scalability and communication efficiently. ...
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... Based on the simulation results, the authors argued that PEGASIS outperforms the two others, then LEACH and finally VGA which has the worst power consumption when the sensing range is limited, and the best when the sensing range is increased. Bansal et al. [10] analyzed only LEACH and PEGASIS based on total energy consumption, overheads, and sensors lifetime. They argued that PEGASIS outperforms LEACH in terms of network lifetime, communication overhead and the percentage of node deaths. ...
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... Based on the simulation results, the authors argued that PEGASIS outperforms the two others, then LEACH and finally VGA which has the worst power consumption when the sensing range is limited, and the best when the sensing range is increased. Bansal et al. [13] analyzed only LEACH and PEGASIS based on total energy consumption, overheads, and sensors lifetime. They argued that PEGASIS outperforms LEACH in terms of network lifetime, communication overhead and the percentage of node deaths. ...
... After the initial deployment, the sensors can self-organize into an appropriate network infrastructure, often in multi-hop mode or clustered mode. Data collected by these sensors are fed directly or via an intermediate node to a base station, which can be connected to a powerful computer via internet or a satellite [4]. ...
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... Data aggregation [4] Energy efficiency[4] Scalability [4] CH selection [5] Load balancing [4] Complexity International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security (IJCSIS), Vol. 14, No. 6, June 2016 II. ...
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WSN is an evolving technology since last ten years. As wireless nodes work have less power supply in the form of a battery, it is necessary for the nodes to work for maximum time. Different techniques are adopted to achieve better energy optimization. This paper presents a survey on energy efficient routing techniques, which will help in understanding the factors which affect energy efficiency and other performance parameters and will help to analyse the techniques for further optimizations.
... The SAR [63] is based on the association of a priority level to each packet. In this routing, first creation of multiple trees is done. ...
... Based on the simulation results, the authors argued that PEGASIS outperforms the two others, then LEACH and finally VGA which has the worst power consumption when the sensing range is limited, and the best when the sensing range is increased. Bansal et al. [10] analyzed only LEACH and PEGASIS based on total energy consumption, overheads, and sensors lifetime. They argued that PEGASIS outperforms LEACH in terms of network lifetime, communication overhead and the percentage of node deaths. ...
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... After the initial deployment, the sensors can self-organize into an appropriate network infrastructure, often in multi-hop mode or clustered mode. Data collected by these sensors are fed directly or via an intermediate node to a base station, which can be connected to a powerful computer via internet or a satellite [4]. ...
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... In addition to these functionalities a sensor nodes also has the capability of routing. Due to the remote nature of WSNs deployment, sensor nodes face energy optimization and quick routing discovery problems [2]. To address these issues different routing techniques have been proposed. ...
... Sensing, Processing, Radio and Power are the four basic components of a Sensor node which normally operates in unattended mode. In sensor Node, the main energy dissipation factor is radio communication [1] and typically they consist of number of sensor nodes, sink or gateway sensor node [2]. ...
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... If node has enough energy then protocol uses 3-way handshake security mechanism for transmission. In addition, data transmission occurs only when party is interested thus saving energy [12]. LEACH (L) ...
... 2, dynamic priority-schedulingbased MAC protocol, coined as TASA-MAC, has been proposed. Many proposed IoTNet-hierarchical approaches stochastically choose nodes with higher resources and/or greater T N i as CHs with capabilities similar to their CMs and that act as a router between the wirelessly spread source nodes and BS [31]. An efficient WSN that ...
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... In the future, a more accurate energy costs function will be developed with due emphasis on parameters, components, and playoff factors for components. The energy cost function should therefore be considered [40]. We think that a nonlinear cost function would allow the model to better adapt to a specific WSN application rather than a linear combination. ...
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... Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) [1, 2, 3] have become popular in variety of applications such as military surveillance, environmental, transportation traffic, temperature, pressure and vibration monitoring. To achieve fault tolerance, WSNs consist of hundreds or even thousands of sensor randomly distributed with in the region [4, 5, 6]. All the nodes report sensed data to Base Station (BS) often called sink. ...
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Chapter
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Recently, with the improvement of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), numerous new routing protocols have been developed for WSNs. Routing protocols in WSNs, in any case, may vary depend on the application and network systems. Besides, WSNs are presented to various types of security threats. In this manner, it is headachy for us to pick secure routing protocol for application in WSNs. In regard that the decision of secure routing protocol for WSNs is personally related with the application prerequisites and routing protocol qualities and the assaults on routing protocol, there is no "panacea" secure routing protocol. In this paper we give a review of secure routing protocols that can be utilized as a part of remote sensor systems since it is imperative to give a characterization of the accessible conventions. Along these lines, a few conventions were audited in this paper. The directing conventions can be grouped into two principle classifications to be specific topology based and convention task based. The principle objective of the work proposed in this paper is to give analysts an unmistakable thought regarding the accessible security based directing conventions and their properties.
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Recently, with the improvement of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), numerous new routing protocols have been developed for WSNs. Routing protocols in WSNs, in any case, may vary depend on the application and network systems. Besides, WSNs are presented to various types of security threats. In this manner, it is headachy for us to pick secure routing protocol for application in WSNs. In regard that the decision of secure routing protocol for WSNs is personally related with the application prerequisites and routing protocol qualities and the assaults on routing protocol, there is no "panacea" secure routing protocol. In this paper we give a review of secure routing protocols that can be utilized as a part of remote sensor systems since it is imperative to give a characterization of the accessible conventions. Along these lines, a few conventions were audited in this paper. The directing conventions can be grouped into two principle classifications to be specific topology based and convention task based. The principle objective of the work proposed in this paper is to give analysts an unmistakable thought regarding the accessible security based directing conventions and their properties.
Thesis
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Energy saving is a critical issue in Wireless Sensor Networks as they have limited amount of energy and non rechargeable batteries. There are different met hods to preserve energy in WSNs and clustering is one of them . Clustering plays an effective role in utilization and saving of the limited energy resources of the deployed sensor nodes, where nodes are grouped into clusters and one node, called the cluster head is responsible for collecting data from other nodes, aggregates them and sends them to the BS, where data can be retrieved later. Cluster head is responsible to provide communication bridge between members and the base station. In this thesis , we propose a distributed clustering scheme that uses multiple criteria i.e. residual energy, node degree, distance to the base station and average distance between a node and its neighbors, to select a cluster head. Fuzzy Technique for Preference by similarity to Ideal Solution (Fuzzy-TOPSIS) method is used to outrank the potential nodes as cluster heads. The realistic multi-hoping communication model is used in both, inter-cluster and intra-cluster communication, instead of single hop as in previous schemes. Simulation results show that our purposed technique performs almost five times better than previous methods in terms of energy efficiency, network life time, less cluster heads deformation and control overhead.
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Recently, with the improvement of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), numerous new routing protocols have been developed for WSNs. Routing protocols in WSNs, in any case, may vary depend on the application and network systems. Besides, WSNs are presented to various types of security threats. In this manner, it is headachy for us to pick secure routing protocol for application in WSNs. In regard that the decision of secure routing protocol for WSNs is personally related with the application prerequisites and routing protocol qualities and the assaults on routing protocol, there is no "panacea" secure routing protocol. In this paper we give a review of secure routing protocols that can be utilized as a part of remote sensor systems since it is imperative to give a characterization of the accessible conventions. Along these lines, a few conventions were audited in this paper. The directing conventions can be grouped into two principle classifications to be specific topology based and convention task based. The principle objective of the work proposed in this paper is to give analysts an unmistakable thought regarding the accessible security based directing conventions and their properties.
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One of the main constraints in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the energy consumption. To mitigate this limitation and to prolong network life-time, stability period and throughput, this paper proposes new cluster-heads selection protocols, they based on Stable Election Protocol (SEP) and Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DEEC). We first propose Enhanced Zonal-SEP (EZSEP) and Zonal Threshold-DEEC (ZTDEEC) protocols, the proposed protocols are based on dividing the network field into certain zones, this will improve the connectivity of the far normal nodes with the base station (BS). Several evaluation metrics are used to compare between the proposed protocols and the conventional ZSEP and TDEEC protocols such as: network stability, instability period, life-time and throughput. Considering the same total initial energy, the obtained results show that the proposed EZSEP slightly outperforms the conventional ZSEP in terms of network stability, instability period and life-time, it achieves enormous improvements in terms of throughput as more nodes can transmit direct to BS. On the other hand, the proposed ZTDEEC provides huge improvements in terms of all the evaluation metrics mentioned above. To further improve the network life-time and network throughput, we propose Threshold-based EZSEP (TE-ZSEP) and Enhanced-ZTDEEC (EZ-TDEEC) protocols, in these two new protocols we redefine the threshold formula used in EZSEP and ZTDEEC to consider both weighted energy and weighted distance parameters. By combining the idea of dividing the network field into certain zones and the new threshold formula, the proposed TE-ZSEP and EZ-TDEEC protocols can effectively improve the energy consumption in heterogeneous WSN and prolong its life-time as proved by the obtained results.
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We study the impact of heterogeneity of nodes, in terms of their energy, in wireless sensor networks that are hierarchically clustered. In these networks some of the nodes become cluster heads, aggregate the data of their cluster members and transmit it to the sink. We assume that a percentage of the population of sensor nodes is equipped with additional energy resources—this is a source of heterogeneity which may result from the initial setting or as the operation of the network evolves. We also assume that the sensors are randomly (uniformly) distributed and are not mobile, the coordinates of the sink and the dimensions of the sensor field are known. We show that the behavior of such sensor networks becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. Classical clustering protocols assume that all the nodes are equipped with the same amount of energy and as a result, they can not take full advantage of the presence of node heterogeneity. We propose SEP, a heterogeneous-aware protocol to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period), which is crucial for many applications where the feedback from the sensor network must be reliable. SEP is based on weighted election probabilities of each node to become cluster head according to the remaining energy in each node. We show by simulation that SEP always prolongs the stability period compared to (and that the average throughput is greater than) the one obtained using current clustering protocols. We conclude by studying the sensitivity of our SEP protocol to heterogeneity parameters capturing energy imbalance in the network. We found that SEP yields longer stability region for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.
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In order to prolong the network lifetime, energy-efficient protocols should be designed to adapt the characteristic of wireless sensor networks. Clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption, which can increase network scalability and lifetime. This paper studies the performance of clustering algorithm in saving energy for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. A new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks is proposed and evaluated. In the new clustering scheme, cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of node and the average energy of network. The high initial and residual energy nodes will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the low energy nodes. Simulational results show that the clustering scheme provides longer lifetime and higher throughput than the current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
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Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.
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The clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption. It can increase the scalability and lifetime of the network. Energy-efficient clustering protocols should be designed for the characteristic of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. We propose and evaluate a new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, which is called DEEC. In DEEC, the cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network. The epochs of being cluster-heads for nodes are different according to their initial and residual energy. The nodes with high initial and residual energy will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the nodes with low energy. Finally, the simulation results show that DEEC achieves longer lifetime and more effective messages than current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
Energy-Efficient Communication protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks
  • W Rabiner Heinzelman
  • A Chandrakasan
W. Rabiner Heinzelman and A. Chandrakasan, "Energy-Efficient Communication protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks", Proceedings of the 33 rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2000.