Article

Analytical Survey of Wearable Sensors

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Abstract

Wearable sensors inWireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) provide health and physical activity monitoring. Modern communication systems have extended this monitoring remotely. In this survey, various types of wearable sensors discussed, their medical applications like ECG, EEG, blood pressure, detection of blood glucose level, pulse rate, respiration rate and non medical applications like daily exercise monitoring and motion detection of different body parts. Different types of noise removing filters also discussed at the end that are helpful in to remove noise from ECG signals. Main purpose of this survey is to provide a platform for researchers in wearable sensors for WBANs.

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Thesis
Interest continues rapidly increasing in the remote measurement of physiological signs using camera imaging technologies for clinical and biomedical applications. Physiological signs are vital parameters that indicate the internal state of the human body. Conventionally, these signs are measured using adhesive sensors and electrodes, which may cause discomfort and constrain the patient if used for long periods. These methods may also cause skin damage and infection, especially when applied to premature infants or people with sensitive skin. Thus, this project aims to explore possible remote monitoring systems based on camera imaging technologies to monitor heart rate and respiratory rate from different regions of the human body where cardiorespiratory signals can be detected. The work in this thesis relies on magnification of nearly imperceptible variations resulting from the cardiorespiratory activity of the human body, which include skin colour variations, arterial pulse motion, head motion, and thoracic and abdominal motion. A range of image and signal processing techniques are applied to extract the cardiorespiratory signal and differentiate the various forms of abnormal cardiorespiratory events. The contributions of this thesis are towards addressing the issue of creating robust remote image–based monitoring systems when different challenges exist, including different applied regions of interest, the existence of noise and motion artefacts correlated with the signal, monitoring multiple people at a given time (up to six people), monitoring from a long distance (up to 60 metres) and long-term monitoring. The experimental results show promising performance in comparison with the reference measurements from clinical instruments, with close agreement, strong correlation and low error rate. Therefore, this thesis leads to a new perspective for remote physiological monitoring and remote sensing assessment, showing promising performance in clinical and biomedical applications.
... : WSN Applications be wearable sensors [1] attached on the body, depending upon the application requirements. ...
... Entertainment and Sports Aerospace WSN Applications be wearable sensors [1] attached on the body, depending upon the application requirements. In the field of sports, WBASN can be deployed by using a heart rate measuring sensor placed on players body to replace him/her when, the rate reaches a critical level while playing, in order to avoid the bad performance of a particular team. ...
Article
In recent years, interests in the applications of Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) is noticeably developed. WBASN is playing a significant role to get the real time and precise data with reduced level of energy consumption. It comprises of tiny, lightweight and energy restricted sensors, placed in/on the human body, to monitor any ambiguity in body organs and measure various biomedical parameters. In this study, a protocol named Distance Aware Relaying Energy-efficient (DARE) to monitor patients in multi-hop Body Area Sensor Networks (BASNs) is proposed. The protocol operates by investigating the ward of a hospital comprising of eight patients, under different topologies by positioning the sink at different locations or making it static or mobile. Seven sensors are attached to each patient, measuring different parameters of Electrocardiogram (ECG), pulse rate, heart rate, temperature level, glucose level, toxins level and motion. To reduce the energy consumption, these sensors communicate with the sink via an on-body relay, affixed on the chest of each patient. The body relay possesses higher energy resources as compared to the body sensors as, they perform aggregation and relaying of data to the sink node. A comparison is also conducted conducted with another protocol of BAN named, Mobility-supporting Adaptive Threshold-based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (M-ATTEMPT). The simulation results show that, the proposed protocol achieves increased network lifetime and efficiently reduces the energy consumption, in relative to M-ATTEMPT protocol.
... Rapid advancements in wireless communications and networking technologies [1], [2], embedded systems [3], software agent systems [4], wearable computers and sensors [5] continues to motivate the proliferation of pervasive and ubiquitous computing. In turn, progress in these domains has propelled notable advancements in smart environments [6]. ...
... It has been concluded that by using this wearable technology method, we can transmit data which has been received from the patient's body using various sensors to the caregiver (Rehman et al., 2012). Wearable sensors have been integrated which makes it easy to track the patient anytime from anywhere. ...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to design a human health monitoring system (HHMS) which helps in improving diagnostics at an earlier stage and monitoring after recoup. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology involves a combination of three subsystems which monitors the human parameters such as temperature, heart rate, SpO2, fall and location of the person. Various sensors are used to extract the human parameters, and the data are analysed in a computer subsystem, through Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Internet of Things (IoT) subsystem; the parameters measured are communicated to the caregiver and doctor. Findings – Results have successfully demonstrated monitoring human temperature human temperature, heart rate, SpO2 and fall and location continuously using the HHMS prototype. Reliability of the technique used for monitoring these parameters is assessed by Proteus Professional 8 and LabVIEW simulators. Practical implications – The HHMS enables long-term monitoring without any sort of interference from regular activities and allows daily health monitoring, elderly monitoring and so on. Originality/value – First, the proposed HHMS simultaneously monitors five human parameters. Second, unlike most monitoring systems which uses older communication module, the proposed system is made smart using IoT. The proposed method has been made into a prototype system as detailed in this paper. The proposed HHMS can achieve high detection accuracy. Therefore, this system can be reliably deployed into a consumer product for use as monitoring device with high accuracy.
... It is also referred to as Body Area Sensor Networks (BASNs) or Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). They consist of either in-vivo sensors, i.e. implanted inside the body or wearable sensors, i.e. attached on the body, depending upon the application requirements [3]. The BAN field is an interdisciplinary area which, could allow inexpensive and continuous health monitoring with real-time updates of medical records through the internet. ...
... However, with regards to such device-to-device (D2D) communications, we notice a lack of services provisioned for this specific type of connectivity. With the recent influx of wearables in the consumer markets [4], [5], researchers recognize the boost of direct communications between such devices and their hosts. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The mobile devices of today evolve towards offering uninterrupted connectivity while attempting to achieve untethered mobility of their users. Further technological advances in hardware often lead to an increased data consumption. Combining these two factors, we notice that the data rates on the current Internet connections are starting to lag behind. Ultimately, we observe a mismatch between the data transfer rate requirements and the actual throughput availability. In this paper, we utilize direct links between proximate devices to help offload the large amounts of user-originated data from the conventional cellular links. The paper explores the implementation possibilities of this technology on the consumer Android devices, as well as substantiates our application development choices. The proposed approach employs the infrastructure-based connections for coordination, while most data transfers happen over the device-to-device links. This allows the developers to utilize our data offloading platform for other proximate applications.
... Each such sensor node is deployed to monitor a specific health parameter. For instance, a pulse oximeter measures the oxygen saturation level in blood and the heart rate [16], and an EKG sensor monitors and records the EKG-graph for a patient [17], [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In critical medical emergency situations, Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) equipped health monitoring systems treat data packets with critical information regarding patients' health in the same way as data packets bearing regular healthcare information. This snag results in a higher average waiting time for the local data processing units (LDPUs) transmitting data packets of higher importance. In this paper, we formulate an algorithm for Priority-based Allocation of Time- Slots (PATS) that considers a fitness parameter characterizing the criticality of health-data that a packet carries, energy consumption rate for a transmitting LDPU, and other crucial LDPU properties. Based on this fitness parameter, we design the constant model hawk-dove game that ensures prioritizing the LDPUs based on crucial properties. In comparison with the existing works on priority-based wireless transmission, we measure and take into consideration the urgency, seriousness, and criticality associated with an LDPU, and, thus, allocate transmission timeslots proportionately. We show that, the number of transmitting LDPUs in medical emergency situations, can be reduced by 25:97%, in comparison with the existing time-division based techniques.
... Due to their low size they are power constrained as life-time of battery strictly depends upon the size of device. Therefore, main goal in WSNs is to enhance network lifetime by efficient utilization of available energy resources [1]. There are many strategies devised for the optimization of energy consumption in WSNs. ...
Article
Due to small size of sensor nodes deployed in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), energy utilization is a key issue. Poor channel conditions lead to retransmissions and hence, result in energy wastage. Error control strategies are usually utilized to accommodate channel impairments like noise and fading in order to optimize energy consumption for network lifetime enhancement. Meanwhile, cooperative communication also emerges to be an appropriate candidate to combat the effects of channel fading. Energy efficiency of cooperative scheme when applied with Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ), Hybrid-ARQ (HARQ) and Forward Error Correction (FEC) is investigated in this work. Moreover, the expressions for energy efficiency of Direct Transmission, Single Relay Cooperation and Multi Relay Cooperation are also derived. In all, our work is focused towards energy optimal communication in WSNs. Our results show that error control strategies with cooperative schemes can significantly enhance system performance in form of energy optimization.
... Due to their low size they are power constrained as life-time of battery strictly depends upon the size of device. Therefore, main goal in WSNs is to enhance network lifetime by efficient utilization of available energy resources [1]. There are many strategies devised for the optimization of energy consumption in WSNs. ...
Conference Paper
Due to small size of sensor nodes deployed in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), energy utilization is a key issue. Poor channel conditions lead to retransmissions and hence, result in energy wastage. Error control strategies are usually utilized to accommodate channel impairments like noise and fading in order to optimize energy consumption for network lifetime enhancement. Meanwhile, cooperative communication also emerges to be an appropriate candidate to combat the effects of channel fading. Energy efficiency of cooperative scheme when applied with Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ), Hybrid-ARQ (HARQ) and Forward Error Correction (FEC) is investigated in this work. Moreover, the expressions for energy efficiency of Direct Transmission, Single Relay Cooperation and Multi Relay Cooperation are also derived. In all, our work is focused towards energy optimal communication in WSNs. Our results show that error control strategies along with the cooperative scheme significantly enhances system performance in the form of energy optimization.
... In our previous work [1], we have briefly discussed the types of wearable sensor with their designing issues, however in this paper wireless wearable sensors for health and physical activity monitoring are reviewed with the sensor placement issues and noise reduction ECG filters. Section II presents different types of wearable sensor that are used for detection and prediction of different motion scenarios and physical activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wearable sensors are the major part of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) for provision of health care services and physical activity monitoring. In this paper, a brief survey of different types of wearable sensors presented along with sensor placement. Designing of wearable sensors for ECG and Blood pressure also discussed. Comparative study of FIR and IIR noise reduction ECG filters discussed at the end. With the help of MATLAB R2008b, different types of FIR and IIR filters designed to remove Baseline Wander Noise, Muscle Noise and Power line Interference from raw ECG signals of different subjects and have compared which filter provides best result.
Chapter
Previous medical services for humans provided healthcare information using the static-based computing of space-constrained hospitals or healthcare centers. In contrast, current mobile health information management computing and services are being provided so that they utilize both the mobility of mobile computing and the scalability of cloud computing to monitor in real-time the health status of patients who are moving. In addition, data capacity has sharply increased with the expansion of the principal data generation cycle from the traditional static computing environment to the dynamic computing environment. This chapter presents mobile cloud healthcare computing systems that simultaneously leverage the portability and scalability of healthcare services. This chapter also presents the wearable computing system as an application of mobile healthcare.
Chapter
Previous medical services for humans provided healthcare information using the static-based computing of space-constrained hospitals or healthcare centers. In contrast, current mobile health information management computing and services are being provided so that they utilize both the mobility of mobile computing and the scalability of cloud computing to monitor in real-time the health status of patients who are moving. In addition, data capacity has sharply increased with the expansion of the principal data generation cycle from the traditional static computing environment to the dynamic computing environment. This chapter presents mobile cloud healthcare computing systems that simultaneously leverage the portability and scalability of healthcare services. This chapter also presents the wearable computing system as an application of mobile healthcare.
Chapter
This chapter aims at giving an insight into a variety of available monitoring technologies and techniques, which aim to provide solutions to the issues listed in Chap. 3. First, we start with discussing possible data collection approaches, by revealing choices of available sensors and underlying constrains. Second, we provide a summary of sensors used for data acquisition in regard to needed medical applications, revealing what relevant parameters can be derived from those sensor measurements. We then summarize what common data processing and analysis techniques are used for interpreting this data, with a special focus on machine learning approaches. Third, we derive important requirements and underlying challenges for the involved machine learning strategies and discuss possible implications for applying the different monitoring approaches. Finally, we refer to a number of established standards, which are needed to be complied with, when developing and implementing home monitoring systems for older adults.
Chapter
Previous medical services for humans provided healthcare information using the static-based computing of space-constrained hospitals or healthcare centers. In contrast, current mobile health information management computing and services are being provided so that they utilize both the mobility of mobile computing and the scalability of cloud computing to monitor in real-time the health status of patients who are moving. In addition, data capacity has sharply increased with the expansion of the principal data generation cycle from the traditional static computing environment to the dynamic computing environment. This chapter presents mobile cloud healthcare computing systems that simultaneously leverage the portability and scalability of healthcare services. This chapter also presents the wearable computing system as an application of mobile healthcare.
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A wireless EEG/ECG system using non-contact sensors is presented. The system consists of a set of simple capacitive electrodes manufactured on a standard printed circuit board that can operate through fabric or other insulation. Each electrode provides 46 dB of gain over a .7-100 Hz bandwidth with a noise level of 3.80μV RMS for high quality brain and cardiac recordings. Signals are digitized directly on top of the electrode and transmitted in a digital serial daisy chain, minimizing the number of wires required on the body. A small wireless base unit transmits EEG/ECG telemetry to a computer for storage and processing.
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As the world's aged population grows many governments are looking to remote healthcare monitoring solutions. It is certainly cheaper to keep the elderly and infirm in their own homes rather than in aged-care facilities. However will these remote and wireless monitoring devices deliver what they promise? The medical profession needs strong evidence before they embrace such techniques. In this paper the authors describe the building of a remote monitoring prototype which uses motes, a PDA and a network management application to show that commodity-based hardware may provide one answer to the problem of remotely monitoring people in their own homes. Privacy and security issues associated with such monitoring are also discussed.
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Three-axis generation and sensing of quasi-static magneticdipole fields provide information sufficient to determine both the position and orientation of the sensor relative to the source. Linear rotation transformations based upon the previous measurements are applied to both the source excitation and sensor output vectors, yielding quantities that are linearly propotional to small changes in the position and orientation. Changes are separated using linear combinations of sensor output vectors, transformed to the desired coordinate frame, and used to update the previous measurements. Practical considerations for a head-tracking application are discussed.
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