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HSEP: Heterogeneity-aware Hierarchical Stable Election Protocol for WSNs

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Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are increasing to handle complex situations and functions. In these networks some of the nodes become Cluster Heads (CHs) which are responsible to aggregate data of from cluster members and transmit it to Base Stations (BS). Those clustering techniques which are designed for homogenous network are not enough efficient for consuming energy. Stable Election Protocol (SEP) introduces heterogeneity in WSNs, consisting of two type of nodes. SEP is based on weighted election probabilities of each node to become CH according to remaining energy of nodes. We propose Heterogeneity-aware Hierarchal Stable Election Protocol (HSEP) having two level of energies. Simulation results show that HSEP prolongs stability period and network lifetime, as compared to conventional routing protocols and having higher average throughput than selected clustering protocols in WSNs.

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... There is some concepts of using multi hop among nodes which also enhance performance in some cases [12]. Actual concept of selecting a cluster head was proposed by LEACH and then that is updated by DEEC and SEP [7,17]. TEEN introduces the concept of thresholds that gives good results in network lifetime by showing reactive nature [8]. ...
... If a CH is unable to send its assigned nodes data to BS due to lack of energy, then the Secondary CH will accept the nodes assigned to the main CH and act as a main CH of the cluster. It will reduce the data loss and increase the network lifetime [17]. The nodes surrounding the BS will reduce network traffic [18]. ...
... Thus, this additional feature of three heterogeneity levels results in increased stability period and network lifetime. [3] It is the next level protocol that was proposed after ESEP. The increasing the distance between the CH and the BS results in increasing the transmission energy because most of the energy is consumed in the transmission process. ...
... The transmission of data consumes more energy than sensing and takes place only when a certain threshold is achieved. HSEP [3] protocol is heterogeneous-aware in the sense that the election probabilities of nodes to become CHs are weighted by their initial energy relative to other nodes in the network which enlarge the time gap before the death of first node in the system thus increasing the stability period. As the distance between the cluster head and sink increases the power consumption is also greatly increased. ...
... For sure, group heads fill in as a switch in a bunch of hubs. Subsequently, it is down to earth to have more energy to handset the information than alternate hubs [34]. Therefore, heterogeneous systems may amplify the lifetime of the system. ...
... However, homogeneous networks are quickly implemented. In addition, cluster heads can be switched off to prevent the death of the nodes [25]. m) Communication Architecture: Sensing and routing of data to the sink are two of the sensor node's major tasks. ...
Article
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Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an innovative technology with a broad range of applications and highly attractive benefits, such as low cost of implementation and data transmission, unmonitored access to the network, autonomous and long-term operation. With extensive demand for the advancement of related technologies (cloud computing, near-field communications and cellular mobile networks), the Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming a very exciting paradigm. By using communication technologies in sensors and sensing features in web devices, WSNs have begun interaction with the Iot devices. IoT provides access to a large amount of information gathered by WSNs. However, the security of WSN and IoT comes at a cost, mainly due to privacy management issues. Therefore, this paper offers a comprehensive analysis of security threats against WSN and IoT, along with the strategies for preventing, detecting and mitigating those threats. The related defense mechanisms can help in building a safe IoT expansion and widespread understanding by getting familiar with the details of these attacks. The aim of this paper is to address and demonstrate the impact of the security problems on WSNs from the viewpoint of the IoT and its applications. In the analysis carried out for this work, a classification of available attacks and threats against these requirements has also been included.
... They propose a model that gives three level heterogeneity. Whereas [19] gives a new protocol that works better than SEP in terms of network stability and life time having two level heterogeneity. T.N. ...
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Wireless sensor networks are appearing as an emerging need for mankind. Though, Such networks are still in research phase however, they have high potential to be applied in almost every field of life. Lots of research is done and a lot more is awaiting to be standardized. In this work, cluster based routing in wireless sensor networks is studied precisely. Further, we modify one of the most prominent wireless sensor network's routing protocol "LEACH" as modified LEACH (MODLEACH) by introducing \emph{efficient cluster head replacement scheme} and \emph{dual transmitting power levels}. Our modified LEACH, in comparison with LEACH out performs it using metrics of cluster head formation, through put and network life. Afterwards, hard and soft thresholds are implemented on modified LEACH (MODLEACH) that boast the performance even more. Finally a brief performance analysis of LEACH, Modified LEACH (MODLEACH), MODLEACH with hard threshold (MODLEACHHT) and MODLEACH with soft threshold (MODLEACHST) is undertaken considering metrics of throughput, network life and cluster head replacements.
... In heterogeneous WSNs, nodes are deployed with different initial energy levels. Heterogeneity in WSN may be the result of re-energizing of WSN in order to extend the network lifetime [14, 15, 16]. Stable Election Protocol (SEP) [14], Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) [17], Developed DEEC (DDEEC) [18], Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC) [19] are protocols for heterogenous WSNs. ...
Article
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In past years there has been increasing interest in field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). One of the major issue of WSNs is development of energy efficient routing protocols. Clustering is an effective way to increase energy efficiency. Mostly, heterogenous protocols consider two or three energy level of nodes. In reality, heterogonous WSNs contain large range of energy levels. By analyzing communication energy consumption of the clusters and large range of energy levels in heterogenous WSN, we propose BEENISH (Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super Heterogenous) Protocol. It assumes WSN containing four energy levels of nodes. Here, Cluster Heads (CHs) are elected on the bases of residual energy level of nodes. Simulation results show that it performs better than existing clustering protocols in heterogeneous WSNs. Our protocol achieve longer stability, lifetime and more effective messages than Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC), Developed DEEC (DDEEC) and Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC).
... Authors in [6], introduced clustering in three level heterogeneous network, results improved in terms of energy consumption to prolong the network lifetime and the stability period. Authors have discussed hierarchical clustering technique within the heterogeneous network model in [7]. Whereas, clustering technique is used by authors to reduce the energy consumption in [8], CHs are elected probabilistically on the basis of ratio between residual energy of each node and average energy of the network. ...
Conference Paper
Energy conservation is one of the most important factors in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for reliability since nodes have limited resources of energy. There is a need to design such routing protocols, which efficiently use available energy and prolong network lifetime and stability period. We implement sink mobility in Clusterless Stable Election Protocol (CL-SEP) and proposed Tunnel Routing Protocol (TRP) for WSNs, which is two level heterogeneous. From the simulation results, it is seen that the proposed protocol outperforms the conventional SEP in stability period, network lifetime and throughput. It efficiently utilizes the available energy of the network by using Moving Sink (MS) and prolongs network lifetime and stability period.
... Heterogeneity aware Hierarchical Stable Election Protocol (HSEP) for WSNs [19] is a cluster based algorithm that shows an improvement over SEP [20]. In SEP, heterogeneity of nodes is considered which evenly consumes the extra amount of energy for advance nodes. ...
... A Stable Election Protocol (SEP) is improved version of LEACH protocol in [15] . In this protocol heterogeneous sensor nodes are used in wireless sensor networks. ...
Article
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A wireless sensor network (WSN) is consisting of anthology of large number of small sensor nodes which are deployed in a defined area to observe the surroundings parameters. Since, energy consumption is significant challenge in WSN. As sensor nodes are equipped with battery which has limited energy. Energy efficient information processing is most importance for many routing protocols were proposed to increase the lifetime of WSN. In order to improve the lifetime of WSN, the proposed MLT routing protocol has implemented where the sensor nodes are randomly deployed in the field. The merged layer node deployment pattern of the sensor nodes system operation maximizes the working time of full coverage in a given WSN. MLT provides energy-balancing while selecting cluster head (CH) for each round. The cluster head selection mechanism is essential and has same procedure like Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) in MLT protocol. The main idea of this paper is combine two layers of sensor nodes which are belonging to the same set but in different group to improve the lifetime of WSN. MATLAB simulations are performed to analyze and compare the performance of MLT with LEACH protocol. The obtained simulation output has enhanced results and superfluous lifetime compared to other protocols.
... HSEP [9] Heterogeneity-aware Hierarchal Stable Election Protocol having two stage of energies. replication results show that HSEP prolongs stability period and network lifetime, as compared to conservative routing protocols and having higher normal throughput than preferred clustering protocols in WSNs. ...
Article
Wireless sensor networks are the networks with wireless sensors disseminated in a region which sense various types of information and then transmit this information to the other nodes or to the final destination. These nodes sense the changes in the physical parameters similar to - temperature, pressure, etc. The data sensed by these nodes are then approved to the Base Station (BS) for estimation. Wireless sensor networks are used for the variety of purposes like military surveillances, habitat monitoring, forest fire detections, landslide detections. This paper presents the new clustering algorithm by modifying SEP (Stable Election Protocol) for heterogeneous wireless sensor network, called EE-SEP. Energy Efficient -SEP protocol is used to increase the number of alive nodes and thereby increasing the energy efficiency, stability period and network lifetime and balancing the energy consumption. Simulation results show that proposed Energy Efficient SEP algorithm performs better as compared to SEP. Keywords - Energy consumption, Energy efficiency, Network life time, Stability period, SEP, EE-SEP, Wireless sensor network.
... N.Javed et al. [21] proposed a protocol Heterogeneity-aware Hierarchical Stable Election (HSEP) protocol in 2012 for WSNs. It is a hierarchal based clustering routing protocol, which reduces the transmission cost between cluster head to base station. ...
... CH selection of the current round will be based on the ECR in previous round. Node selected as a CH in previous round will not became the CH for the next round as its ECR is high compared to the other non CHs Khan et al. [6] investigated a Heterogeneity-aware Hierarchical Stable Election Protocol for WSNs (HSEP). HSEP is proposed to reduce the transmission energy between the CH and base station by reducing the distance between them. ...
Article
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This paper presents a review on energy efficient clustering protocols for heterogeneous wireless sensor network. Energy consumption is the critical design issue in the wireless sensor network since each node has a battery and each battery has limited lifetime. Therefore using the battery in efficient way became an important task for prolonging the lifetime and stability of the wireless sensor network. Clustering based protocols are the best way to enhance the network lifetime. LEACH protocol is the first hierarchical clustering protocol for homogeneous wireless sensor network in which all nodes are having the same energy. The clustering protocols for homogeneous WSN do not performed well for heterogeneous WSN because the nodes in heterogeneous WSN have different energy levels. Thus for energy efficiency in heterogeneous WSN clustering protocols like SEP, DEEC etc was proposed. In this paper, we have discussed the working of heterogeneous protocols and present the comparative study of different clustering routing protocols for heterogeneous wireless sensor network.
... In HSEP algorithm, the probability of being CH is determined from the residual energy/initial energy of each node [26]. CHs named primary CHs in this paper. ...
Article
In the last few years, there are many applications for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). One of the main drawbacks of these networks is the limited battery power of sensor nodes. There are many cases to reduce energy consumption in WSNs. One of them is clustering. Sensor nodes partitioned into the clusters so that one is chosen as Cluster Head (CH). Clustering and selection of the proper node as CH is very significant in reducing energy consumption and increasing network lifetime. In this paper, we have surveyed a multi agent clustering algorithms and compared on various parameters like cluster size, cluster count, clusters equality, parameters used in CHs selection, algorithm complexity, types of algorithm used in clustering, nodes location awareness, inter-cluster and intra-cluster topologies, nodes homogeneity and MAC layer communications.
... W.R. Heinzelman, et al. [5] proposed a LEACH clustering algorithm for homogeneous WSNs in which nodes randomly choose among them to be CHs and transmit this choice criterion over the whole network to issue energy load. G. Smaragdakis, et al. [9] introduced SEP protocol SEP is relied on weighted election possibilities of every sensor node to turn out to be CH as to the residual energy in every node Heterogeneity-aware Hierarchical Stable Election Protocol (HSEP) [16], protocol is heterogeneous-aware in the fact that the initial energy of a node comparative to the other nodes in the network is relied on the weighted election probabilities. ...
... SEP-E outperforms LEACH and SEP in terms of FDN and throughput. HSEP [13] is a heterogeneity aware hierarchical stable election protocol which tends to increase the lifetime of WSNs by choosing two types of CHs i.e. primary and secondary CHs. Primary CH are taken from secondary ones. ...
... In [9], heterogeneity aware hierarchical stable election protocol was proposed which tends to increase lifetime of Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) by reducing transmission cost between CH and BS. Two types of CHs are considered i.e. primary and secondary CHs. ...
Article
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Wireless sensor network consists of application oriented and cheap micro-devices called sensors nodes having potential of connecting the physical world with virtual world by their sensing abilities. These sensor nodes are having restrained battery sources. Efficient energy management is current area of research in wireless sensor networks. Here we advice one such energy aware multi-hop protocol (G-DEEC) for two level heterogeneous networks. In G-DEEC, the Base Station is placed out of sensing area and rechargeable gateway nodes are placed inside field with other randomly deployed sensor nodes. Simulation shows the proposed protocol G-DEEC is better than single-hop DEEC in terms of number of half dead nodes, alive nodes and dead nodes; thereby showing improvement in network lifetime and stability.
... Authors in [9] surveyed variants of Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) on basis of multi level heterogeneous network to two level heterogeneous network. However, hierarchal clustering is discussed in [10] by authors. They have used primary and secondary CHs in their clustering hierarchy . ...
Article
Sink Mobility is becoming popular due to excellent load balancing between nodes and ultimately resulting in prolonged network lifetime and throughput. A major challenge is to provide reliable and energy-efficient operations are to be taken into consideration for differentmobility patterns of sink. Aim of this paper is lifetime maximization of Delay TolerantWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) through the manipulation of Mobile Sink (MS) on different trajectories. We propose Square Routing Protocol with MS (SRP-MS) based on existing SEP (Stable Election Protocol) by making it Cluster Less (CL) and introducing sink mobility.
... LEACH is a clustering protocol that make use of a randomized rotation of the cluster heads to balance the energy consumption in the network. Its principal drawbacks (single hop routing and static cluster head selection and rotation) are addressed in multiple variants of the protocol such as HSEP [13], HEED [14], HEER [15] to mention a few. LEACH uses a probabilistic cluster head selection while the variants introduce additional parameters to select and rotate the cluster heads. ...
Article
In this paper we propose the Zone-based Energy Aware data coLlection (ZEAL) protocol. ZEAL is designed to be used in agricultural applications for wireless sensor networks. In these type of applications, all data is often routed to a single point (named “sink” in sensor networks). The overuse of the same routes quickly depletes the energy of the nodes closer to the sink. In order to minimize this problem, ZEAL automatically creates zones (groups of nodes) independent from each other based on the trajectory of one or more mobile sinks. In this approach the sinks collects data queued in sub-sinks in each zone. Unlike existing protocols, ZEAL accomplish its routing tasks without using GPS modules for location awareness or synchronization mechanisms. Additionally, ZEAL provides an energy saving mechanism on the network layer that puts zones to sleep when there are no mobile sinks nearby. To evaluate ZEAL, it is compared with the Maximum Amount Shortest Path (MASP) protocol. Our simulations using the ns-3 network simulator show that ZEAL is able to collect a larger number of packets with significantly less energy in the same amount of time.
... In [19], Hierarchal Stable Election (HSEP) is introduced which is based on hierarchal clustering routing protocol having two levels of energy and the main goal of this protocol is to reduce transmission energy between CH and BS. HSEP reduces transmission energy by selecting secondary CHs from current primary CHs in each round and this secondary CH is selected based on some probability. ...
Article
Wireless sensor network comprises of thousands of sensor nodes that are deployed in an area to monitor the physical environment. These sensor nodes have limited energy as they are battery powered. To reduce this problem, several routing protocols are designed in order to minimize energy consumption and increase the lifetime of the sensor network. In this paper, we introduced a new heterogeneous routing protocol known as advanced zonal stable election protocol (AZ-SEP) in which communication of sensor nodes with the base station is hybrid, i.e., some nodes communicate directly, while others use clustering mechanism to transmit data to base station. The dimensions of the field are unknown and are divided into three zones on the basis of nodes energy. We examined Z-SEP protocol regarding cluster head selection and communication of cluster head with the base station and introduced a new mechanism of cluster head selection on the basis of residual energy and distance from the base station. The communication between nodes with the base station occurs in a multi-hop fashion. Furthermore, the AZ-SEP is evaluated by taking different evaluation scenarios such as the changing position of the base station, skewed nodes, and variable node energy to compare it with the parent protocol. We implemented the AZ-SEP and compare it with the traditional routing protocol like Z-SEP and SEP protocol. The proposed protocol and its parent protocol are compared through simulation using simulator MATLAB 2014a. The simulation results show that our proposed protocol increases the stability period by increasing the number of alive nodes, packet delivery ratio, and optimizes average energy consumption as related to the existing protocols. INDEX TERMS Hybrid cluster head selection, LEACH protocol, node residual energy, SEP, wireless sensor networks, Z-SEP protocol.
... For increasing the period of time of the network and preventing the loss of data, that the mobile sensor node starts assembling data from cluster head possing lowest power and keeps on aggregation knowledge inside the accumulated order of cluster head power. Khan et al. (2012) proposed EE-CDRDG formula ends up in accumulated network period of time with lower power consumption and reduced overflow. Hoda et al. (2012) produced military operation victimization SenCar. ...
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Nature consists of enormous and various physical and phenomenon, like lightweight, temperature, motion, seismol waves, and plenty of others. For observation and cashing in on the environment it’s necessary to collect the knowledge concerning the phenomenon. Wireless device networks facilitate U.S. in sensing the environment and in obtaining info concerning the natural discernible occurrences. It needs communication protocols to diminish the power consumption. In wireless sensor networks, power is the key one among the foremost necessary resources since every node gathers processes and passes on knowledge to its base station. In general, most of the works in sensor networks are done using static nodes and single base station. Recent researches use mobile knowledge gathering strategies and are planned to prolong the operation time of device networks. One or additional mobile collectors are wont to gather detected knowledge from device nodes at short transmission ranges. This paper presents a novel algorithm for cluster head selection and provides best visiting points and knowledge gathering path for a mobile sink among clusters. With shaping associate best cluster and knowledge gathering path, this methodology improves the information assortment performance yet because the network life extension of device in small scale networks. The performance has been evaluated using LTE and WiFi networks. Also, quality measures for each network have been computed and presented.
... Power constraints HEERP (hierarchical energy efficient routing protocol), Nesrine et al. [67] The number and size of the message is limited Energy efficient and prolonged lifetime Packet delay might happen HSEP (heterogeneity aware hierarchical stable election protocol), Khan et al. [68] The transmission distance between cluster head and sink ...
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Recently, internet of things has drawn attention among the academicians, governments and engineers from various sectors. There are many critical issues in IoT such as security, scalability, big data analytics. Availability, interoperability, performance, mobility. This paper focus on providing optimal routing among the various networking environment such as wired wireless and sensors in the IoT. In this paper the major research issues involved in the existing routing protocols to meet the requirements of internet of things are reviewed the major issues involved in the design of a routing protocol and the different classification of routing protocols are studied. The major challenges of the internet of things, must address the problem of dynamic topology, scalability, mobility of nodes and limited bandwidth. The review covers different kinds of routing protocols such as reactive, proactive, hybrid, location aware, hybrid, multicast, multipath, Geocast, power aware and hierarchical existing geometric routing protocols have been sensibly studied which involves discussion on routing techniques, the advantages and disadvantages of the existing work area analysed in order to help the future researchers. The analysis of existing routing protocols is carried out based on shortest path, least transmission time. Finally, a research open challenge in routing which needs to be addressed by the research and academic community are discussed.
... Some of the protocols are RED, BC-MEM and P-MPC. Randomized, Efficient and Distributed (RED) protocol for the detection of node replication attacks 9,10 . They have introduced the preliminary notion of ID obliviousness and area-obliviousness that convey a measure of the quality of the node replicas detection protocol; that is, its resilience to a smart opponent. ...
Article
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Among security challenges raised by mobile Wireless Sensor Networks, clone attack is particularly dreadful since it makes an adversary able to subvert the behavior of a network just leveraging a few replicas of some previously compromised sensors. In this work, we propose a method named as Detecting Node Masquerade Attack using RLE Method which is used for detecting a clone in the network using RLE method. The main goal of our proposed protocol is to detect the replica of the nodes i.e. clones in the network on the basis of RLE method. RLE method is abbreviated as RSSI and List Exchange method i.e. R represents RSSI means received signal strength indicator. After that we also compare our proposed protocol with the known method i.e. Hip-Hop protocols which are also used to find a clone in mobile WSN and our simulation shows that our proposed protocol outperforms the existing approach in terms of detection rate and time taken to detect a clone. In future work, we can also use a clustering protocol to make this work more efficient.
... Los nodos con energía más alta, son usados para enviar los datos, mientras los nodos con energía más baja se utilizan para detectar la información [17]. Existe una gran cantidad de protocolos jerárquicos, entre los cuales, se tienen: LEACH [9,18], TEEN [9,13], SOP [7], APTEEN [13], HPAR [9], PEGASIS [7], LEACH-C [9,13], VGA [7,9], SEP [19], HEED [20], TTDD [7,9], BCDCP [21], EECS [22], TL-LEACH [23], MIMO [9], E-LEACH [24], M-LEACH [12], ELCH [9], SHPER [9], NHPAR [8], DHAC [9],GBDD [9], CHIRON [9], V-LEACH [25], LEACH-B [26], A-LEACH [27], I-LEACH [28], HEERP [29], U-LEACH [30], HSEP [31]. ...
Conference Paper
The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), have been technological advances that have improved some features to achieve low cost, low power consumption and tiny sizes in wireless sensor nodes. However, one of the issues still restless in Wireless Sensor Networks is the limited battery power of sensor nodes. This paper, share with mechanisms to achieve energy efficiency in a WSN, focusing particularly on routing protocols. Based on the state of the art, is presented a complete taxonomy of routing protocols used in WSN exposing their level of energy efficiency.
... Indeed, cluster heads work as a router in a cluster of nodes. Hence, it is practical to have more energy to transceiver the data than the other nodes [34]. Therefore, heterogeneous networks might maximize the lifetime of the network. ...
Article
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which are associated with IoT, represent useful networks in assisting the monitoring, tracking and sensing different environmental activities. Sensors characteristics play the main role in designing and applying any WSN. Due to the vast advances in communication and networking technology, there are needs to develop, build and apply various smart or intelligent (unmanned) service networks. Equipping the real objects with communication and computing facilities and letting them cooperate with each other in real life applications, is the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT tends toward the process of Controlling, Communicating, Cost saving and Automation. This era will be the IoT era due to its various vital applications. This paper aims to review the status of IoT and its applications requirements. It also aims to survey the role of sensors in this context. The paper will provide a good overview on the most characteristics and applications of the WSNs and IoT. This work may represent a suitable guide for researchers who are interested in such fields.
... CEEC has improvedthroughput and network lifetime.A.A. khan et. al.[2012][12] have proposed Heterogeneity-aware Hierarchal StableElection Protocol (HSEP) with two protocols. In clusteringprotocols farther the CS is from BS more is the amount ofenergy consumed during transmission. ...
... By implementing Stable Election Protocol (SEP), the stability of the cluster has been improved with the help of the parameters like excess energy faction that is available between normal and advanced nodes (α) and the portion of advanced nodes (m). In order to achieve the stability in the cluster, the energy consumed by the SNs has to be balanced [4][6]. Two types of nodes are available in SEP. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main parameter to be considered in the wireless sensor network is the amount of energy that is available in each sensor node. The lifetime of the sensor node (SN) depends on it. As the SNs are deployed in remote locations, if the entire energy is consumed, it would be very difficult to replace or recharge the energy source immediately. Hence the energy consumed by each node is very important. If individual SNs send information directly to the base station (BS), then the availability of energy in such SN decreases very fast. This will lead to reduction in the life time of the SN. Instead, the SNs can send the data to the cluster head (CH), then the CH consolidates the received data. The CH sends it to the BS periodically. In this way, utilizing CH for sending the information to the BS increases the lifetime of the SN. The cluster head selection is very crucial in such networks. This paper proposes a novel fuzzy based BEENSIH protocol for CH selection.
... For sure, group heads fill in as a switch in a bunch of hubs. Subsequently, it is down to earth to have more energy to handset the information than alternate hubs [34]. Therefore, heterogeneous systems may amplify the lifetime of the system. ...
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Remote sensor systems (WSNs), which are related with the Internet of Things (IoT), speak to helpful systems in helping observing, following and detecting distinctive natural exercises. Sensors assume a fundamental part in planning and applying any WSN. Because of the tremendous advances in correspondence and systems administration innovation , there are requirements to create, assemble and apply different keen or savvy (unmanned) benefit systems. The idea of IoT alludes to furnishing genuine items with correspondence and registering offices that empowers cooperation with each other, all things considered, applications. IoT slants toward the way toward controlling, imparting, cost-sparing and robotization. At introduce, this period will be the IoT time because of its various crucial applications .
... An efficient routing protocol is required to overcome this issue of recharging batteries. WSNs have many routing protocols [28], [29], [30], [31] which efficiently utilizes energy. However, WSNs and WBANs have different architectures, applications and operate in different conditions. ...
Thesis
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In current era of technology, applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are rising in various fields. The deployment of WSNs for real life applications is greater than before. Still, the energy constraints remain one of the key issues; it prevents the complete utilization of WSN technology. Sensors typically powered with battery, which have insufficient life span. Even though renewable energy sources like solar energy or piezoelectric means are used as supplementary energy in WSNs, it is still some degree of reserve to consume energy judiciously. Proficient energy routing is thus a key requirement for a trustworthy design of a wireless sensor network. In this article, we advise a new Gateway Based Energy-Efficient Clustering Routing Protocol (M-GEAR) for WSNs. We divide the sensor nodes into four logical regions based on their distance from the gateway node and Base Station (BS). We install BS faraway from sensing area and a gateway node at the centre of the sensing area. If the distance of a sensor node from BS or gateway is less than predefined distance threshold, the node uses direct communication to transmit its sensed data. We divide the rest of nodes into two equal regions whose distance is beyond the threshold distance. We then divide these two regions into clusters and each region elects its own Cluster Heads (CHs) independent of other region. We compare performance of our protocol with LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy). Performance analysis and compared statistic results show that our proposed protocol perform well in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime. We also propose a reliable, power efficient and high throughput routing protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs). We use multi hop topology to minimize energy consumption and maximizing network lifetime. We use a cost function to select parent node or forwarder. Proposed cost function selects a parent node, which has high residual energy and less distance to sink. Residual energy parameter balances the energy consumption among the sensor nodes and distance parameter ensures successful packet delivery to sink. Simulation results shows that proposed protocol enhance the network stability period and nodes stay alive for longer period. Longer stability period contributes high packet delivery to sink which is major interest for continuous patient monitoring.
... In [19], Hierarchal Stable Election (HSEP) is introduced which is based on hierarchal clustering routing protocol having two levels of energy and the main goal of this protocol is to reduce transmission energy between CH and BS. HSEP reduces transmission energy by selecting secondary CHs from current primary CHs in each round and this secondary CH is selected based on some probability. ...
Article
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) comprises of thousands of sensor nodes that are deployed in an area to monitor the physical environment. These sensor nodes have limited energy as they are battery powered. To reduce this problem, several routing protocols are designed in order to minimize energy consumption and increase the lifetime of the sensor network. In this paper, we introduced a new heterogeneous routing protocol known as Advanced Zonal Stable Election Protocol (AZ-SEP) in which communication of sensor nodes with the base station is hybrid, i.e. some nodes communicate directly while others use clustering mechanism to transmit data to base station. The dimensions of the field are unknown and are divided into three zones on the bases of nodes energy. We examined Z-SEP protocol regarding cluster head selection and communication of cluster head with the base station and introduced a new mechanism of cluster head selection on basis of residual energy and distance from the base station. The communication between nodes with the base station occurs in a multi-hop fashion. Furthermore, AZSEP is evaluated by taking different evaluation scenarios such as changing position of the base station, skewed nodes and variable node energy to compare it with the parent protocol. We implemented AZ-SEP and compare it with traditional routing protocol like Z-SEP and SEP protocol. The proposed protocol and its parent protocol are compared through simulation using simulator Matlab 2014a. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol increases the stability period by increasing the number of alive nodes, packet delivery ratio, and optimizes average energy consumption as related to the existing protocols.
Chapter
The main motive of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) node is to sense and gather information from a specific domain and then send it to the sink where the application lies. This chapter proposes an approach for optimum relay node placement. There are many ways to distinguish the sensor nodes in WSN environment, but they are broadly classified into two types: homogenous and heterogeneous network clustering algorithms. WSN consist of n number of sensor nodes out of which m number of cluster heads and a base station. By using the k‐means clustering method, the network is grouped into clusters. This method is approached by taking the mean value of the nodes. For the location calculation an objective function is designed which is based on the values of the number of packets lost, residual energy of nodes in the network and distance between the nodes by using k‐means algorithm.
Conference Paper
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In wireless sensor networks, maintaining the energy of the sensor nodes is the critical design issue. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are defined as the collection of hundreds or more sensor nodes deploy in a region to sense the nearby vicinity. The main constraint of wireless sensor networks is the limited battery of the sensor nodes. The battery of sensor nodes is not replaceable and cannot be recharged, so it is important to introduce the techniques to prolong the lifetime of the wireless sensor networks. Clustering is the most accepted optimizing scheme for improving the lifetime of the wireless sensor networks. In this paper Multi-level Heterogeneous Energy Efficient Hybrid Clustering Protocol (MHEEHCP) has been proposed in which hybrid clustering approach which is the combination of static and dynamic clustering is utilized for elongation of the lifetime of network. Simulation results shows that the MHEEHCP outperformance LEACH and SEEC in terms of FND and Network lifetime.
Chapter
Communication has its roots right from the beginning of the human race. As humans evolved the need for communication increased tremendously and as well the technology of communication progressed. The era of communication from analog to digital has further advanced to wireless with Sensor networks occupying the most of area in communication nowadays. Communication community is highly depending upon wireless sensor networks and they are the key technology in communications. Even though these networks are widely used they are is still need for research such that its full features and the advantages can be fully utilized in the field of communication. The basic concern of these networks is energy and security as the energy is limited and the networks are wireless. Hence more algorithms have been developed for the energy efficiency. The popular among these networks is the Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) algorithm. In this paper, a modification of MODLEACH with cluster based routing is developed as Modified LEACH(MODLEACH) in which the energy efficiency is increased considerably. The method of alternate cluster head is introduced by allotting threshold power levels. The results of this paper are studied along with LEACH and found to be appreciably good. The network metrics of cluster head formation, energy efficiency throughput and network life. An analysis is done with hard and soft threshold levels of the cluster head are studied.
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) contain a large number of sensor nodes that are equipped to handle complex functionalities, the network processing may require the sensors to use the constrained energy level to enhance the network lifetime. Many protocols have been proposed for achieving energy efficiency in heterogeneous structure of the network. In this dissertation, the performance of SEP, ECRSEP and ESEP have been analyzed for different WSNs scenarios. The outcomes of the same have been then analyzed for stability, network lifetime and throughput. The survey done on these protocols has shown that the SEP, ESEP and ECRSEP continues to punish advance and intermediate nodes and have also neglected the use of thresholds i.e. hard and soft thresholds to decrease the energy consumption. The neighbours of sensor nodes going to become CHs have also been neglected in the existing work. This dissertation has proposed two modifications where radius based grouping is used before CH selection to decrease the computation time. The new algorithm is the modification of ECRSEP and hence, is named MECRSEP (Modified ECRSEP). Due to non availability of actual sensor environment, in this dissertation simulation environment has been designed and implemented in the MATLAB tool.
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In Wireless Sensor networks clustering algorithm is an effective technology to save sensor nodes energy and extend network lifetime, but most of these algorithms are often designed for homogeneous sensor networks, which is not realistic and practical. In this paper, we propose an improved clustering protocol BEEC (Balanced and Energy-Efficient Clustering algorithm) for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. In BEEC, it optimizes the threshold for selecting cluster heads and uses coverage radius to balance the distribution of cluster heads. It also introduces a novel approach to choose cluster head for cluster members so as to take fully advantage of energy heterogeneity. Simulation results show that this improved clustering algorithm can effectively prolong network lifetime and enlarge network throughput when compared with other existing clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
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Balancing energy load is a key problem in wireless sensor network (WSN) research. For balancing node energy consumption and prolong the network lifetime, this paper proposes an improved routing algorithm EBRA (Energy Balancing Routing Algorithm) based on energy heterogeneous WSN. To maximize the energy efficiency of network nodes, the EBRA weights the probability of cluster head election. According to the estimate value of the network average remaining energy and the residual energy of network nodes, we can calculate the new cluster head election threshold. The simulation results show that the utilization of energy balance of EBRA algorithm is improved 74%, 30% and 23%, compare with LEACH, SEP and DCHS, respectively.
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The efficiency of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) depends on the routing protocols used, since routing protocol provide the best possible data transmission route from sensor nodes to sink to save energy of nodes in the network. The clustering schemes enhance the network lifetime, raise the scalability and reduce the energy consumption of the sensor network. The work in this paper presents the comparative analysis of the energy efficient routing protocols for WSN such as SEP, TSEP and DSEP. The optimized routing protocol has been proposed on the basis of the network life time, stability and cluster head selection for efficient working of the sensor networks.
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While wireless sensor networks are increasingly equipped to handle more complex functions, in-network processing may require these battery powered sensors to judiciously use their constrained energy to prolong the effective network life time especially in a heterogeneous settings. Clustered techniques have since been employed to optimise energy consumption in this energy constrained wireless sensor networks. We propose an Enhanced-SEP clustering algorithm in a three-tier node scenario to prolong the effective network life-time. Simulation results shows that the Enhanced-SEP achieves better performance in this respect, compared to other existing clustering algorithms in both heterogeneous and homogenous environments.
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We study the impact of heterogeneity of nodes, in terms of their energy, in wireless sensor networks that are hierarchically clustered. In these networks some of the nodes become cluster heads, aggregate the data of their cluster members and transmit it to the sink. We assume that a percentage of the population of sensor nodes is equipped with additional energy resources—this is a source of heterogeneity which may result from the initial setting or as the operation of the network evolves. We also assume that the sensors are randomly (uniformly) distributed and are not mobile, the coordinates of the sink and the dimensions of the sensor field are known. We show that the behavior of such sensor networks becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. Classical clustering protocols assume that all the nodes are equipped with the same amount of energy and as a result, they can not take full advantage of the presence of node heterogeneity. We propose SEP, a heterogeneous-aware protocol to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period), which is crucial for many applications where the feedback from the sensor network must be reliable. SEP is based on weighted election probabilities of each node to become cluster head according to the remaining energy in each node. We show by simulation that SEP always prolongs the stability period compared to (and that the average throughput is greater than) the one obtained using current clustering protocols. We conclude by studying the sensitivity of our SEP protocol to heterogeneity parameters capturing energy imbalance in the network. We found that SEP yields longer stability region for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.
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In order to prolong the network lifetime, energy-efficient protocols should be designed to adapt the characteristic of wireless sensor networks. Clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption, which can increase network scalability and lifetime. This paper studies the performance of clustering algorithm in saving energy for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. A new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks is proposed and evaluated. In the new clustering scheme, cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of node and the average energy of network. The high initial and residual energy nodes will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the low energy nodes. Simulational results show that the clustering scheme provides longer lifetime and higher throughput than the current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
Conference Paper
Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.
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The clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption. It can increase the scalability and lifetime of the network. Energy-efficient clustering protocols should be designed for the characteristic of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. We propose and evaluate a new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, which is called DEEC. In DEEC, the cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network. The epochs of being cluster-heads for nodes are different according to their initial and residual energy. The nodes with high initial and residual energy will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the nodes with low energy. Finally, the simulation results show that DEEC achieves longer lifetime and more effective messages than current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.