Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation: Possible aetiological factors in children from urban and rural areas

Univ Estadual Paulista, Rua Humaitá, Araraquara, SP Brazil.
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 08/2012; 13(4):164-70. DOI: 10.1007/BF03262865
Source: PubMed


To analyse factors potentially associated with molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) development. METH¬ODS: A population-based study was carried out with 903 children aged from 6-12 years old, born and residing in rural and urban areas of the town of Botelhos, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Their mothers completed a structured medical history questionnaire, from pregnancy to the child's 3rd year of life. Two examiners evaluated children for MIH according to criteria suggested by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Descriptive analyses of the data and odds ratios (OR) with 95% test-based confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences between groups.
The prevalence of MIH in children from rural area (RA) was significantly higher than those from the urban area (UA) (24.9% versus 17.8%, p= 0.01). In urban children, neither significant associations with MIH nor medical problems were found. In rural children, however, MIH was significantly more common among those whose mothers had experienced medical problems during pregnancy (OR=2.11; 1.01-4.37 CI 95%; p=0.04), who had throat infections (OR=2.93; 1.47-5.87 CI 95%; p=0.01), who had high fever (OR=1.91; 1.07-3.39 CI 95%; p=0.02), and who had used amoxicillin associated with other antibiotics (OR=1.92; 1.02-3.62 CI 95%; p=0.04) during the first 3 years of life.
This study suggests a link between MIH and health problems during pregnancy, as well as environmental factors.

Download full-text


Available from: Juliana Feltrin Souza
    • "Thereafter, the enamel is further matured until the tooth erupts into the oral cavity. Based on the development schedule of FPM, the first years of the child's life is the target time period in many etiological studies, including the present study [5] [6] [7] [8]. A number of studies have been made trying to shed more light on the cause of MIH. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a common developmental enamel defect characterized by demarcated opacities in permanent molars and incisors. Its etiology still remains unclear. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess if the socioeconomic environment of the child is associated with MIH. Materials and methods: The study was located in two rural towns and three urban cities in Finland. A total of 818 children, between 7-13 years old, were examined for MIH using the evaluation criteria in line with those of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, but excluding opacities smaller than 2 mm in diameter. The mothers filled in a questionnaire which included questions related to the family's way of living (e.g. area of residency, farming, day care attendance) and socioeconomic status (family income, number of mother's school years, level of maternal education). Results: The prevalence of MIH in the study population was 17.1%. Family income, urban residency and day care attendance were associated with MIH in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression, only urban residency during a child's first 2 years of life remained associated with MIH. The prevalence of MIH in urban areas was 21.3% and in rural areas 11.5% (OR = 2.18, CI = 1.35-3.53, p = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of MIH was related to urban residency and could not be explained by any other factor included in the study.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation (DMH) are frequently occurring dental problems in children. Children with MIH have demarcated opacities in their erupting first permanent molars often in combination with demarcated opacities in their permanent incisors. Children with DMH have comparable demarcated opacities in their second primary molars. The hypomineralised enamel contains less mineral, often resulting in an easy post eruptive enamel loss with rapid caries progression. Results: The prevalence of MIH and DMH varies between birth-years and countries and even between cities. The most recent prevalence of MIH in Germany is 9.9 %, the prevalence of DMH has not been described yet in Germany. The aetiology of MIH and DMH is still unclear. Many possible determinants have been described in literature. The determinants for DMH can be found earlier in life than the determinants for MIH, but they show overlap. This can be related to the dental development. Children with DMH have an increased risk of having MIH. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of DMH and MIH is important, so extra attention can be paid to these children by dentists and their team in the period of eruption of the second primary molars and first permanent molars.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Oralprophylaxe und Kinderzahnheilkunde
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine the aetiological factors involved in the development of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). The study population comprised 4,049 children (2,029 girls, 2020 boys) aged 7-12 years. Children were examined for MIH in the school environment. Putative aetiological factors were evaluated using a questionnaire sent to children's families. The questionnaire included questions on prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal systemic conditions. Multivariate analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression, and Pearson's Chi-square test was used to evaluate nominal or ordinal variables with Fisher's exact test used in cases of small sample sizes. A level of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. MIH was observed in 7.7 % of the study population. A total of 3,827 completed questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 95.3 %. MIH was found to be associated with prematurity (7 %), gastrointestinal problems (3.9 %), pneumonia (6.3 %), frequent fever (26.1 %), measles (14.7 %), and chickenpox (29.3 %) before age 4 years. Prevalence did not vary significantly between girls and boys (p > 0.05). Prematurity, gastrointestinal problems, pneumonia, frequent high fever, measles, and chickenpox before age 4 years were found to be significantly related with MIH (p < 0.05). The aetiology of MIH is not clear yet, and the results of this study support the results of previous studies regarding the putative causal effect of several factors.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry.
Show more