Income of Living Kidney Donors and the Income Difference Between Living Kidney Donors and Their Recipients in the United States

Division of Nephrology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA Center for Health Evaluation and Outcomes Sciences, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Division of Nephrology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Alberta Kidney Disease Network, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 5.68). 08/2012; 12(11). DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04211.x
Source: PubMed


Disincentives for living kidney donation are common but are poorly understood. We studied 54 483 living donor kidney transplants in the United States between 2000 and 2009, limiting to those with valid zip code data to allow determination of median household income by linkage to the 2000 U.S. Census. We then determined the income and income difference of donors and recipients. The median household income in donors and recipients was $46 334 ±$17 350 and $46 439 ±$17 743, respectively. Donation-related expenses consume ≥ 1 month's income in 76% of donors. The mean ± standard deviation income difference between recipients and donors in transplants involving a wealthier recipient was $22 760 ± 14 792 and in 90% of transplants the difference was <$40 000 dollars. The findings suggest that the capacity for donors to absorb the financial consequences of donation, or of recipients to reimburse allowable expenses, is limited. There were few transplants with a large difference in recipient and donor income, suggesting that the scope and value of any payment between donors and recipients is likely to be small. We conclude that most donors and recipients have similar modest incomes, suggesting that the costs of donation are a significant burden in the majority of living donor transplants.

Download full-text


Available from: James Jianghu Dong, Oct 08, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The annual number of living kidney donors in the United States peaked at 6647 in 2004. The preceding decade saw a 120% increase in living kidney donation. However, since 2004, living kidney donation has declined in all but 1 year, resulting in a 13% decline in the annual number of living kidney donors from 2004 to 2011. The proportional decline in living kidney donation has been more pronounced among men, blacks, younger adults, siblings, and parents. In this article, we explore several possible explanations for the decline in living kidney donation, including an increase in medical unsuitability, an aging transplant patient population, financial disincentives, public policies, and shifting practice patterns, among others. We conclude that the decline in living donation is not merely reflective of random variation but one that warrants action by the transplant centers, the broader transplant community, and the state and national governments.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Transplantation
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of racial disparities in access to living donor kidney transplantation focus mainly on patient factors, whereas donor factors remain largely unexamined. Here, data from the US Census Bureau were combined with data on all African-American and white living kidney donors in the United States who were registered in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) between 1998 and 2010 (N=57,896) to examine the associations between living kidney donation (LKD) and donor median household income and race. The relative incidence of LKD was determined in zip code quintiles ranked by median household income after adjustment for age, sex, ESRD rate, and geography. The incidence of LKD was greater in higher-income quintiles in both African-American and white populations. Notably, the total incidence of LKD was higher in the African-American population than in the white population (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.17 to 1.24]), but ratios varied by income. The incidence of LKD was lower in the African-American population than in the white population in the lowest income quintile (IRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.90), but higher in the African-American population in the three highest income quintiles, with IRRs of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.22 to 1.41) in Q3, 1.50 (95% CI, 1.39 to 1.62) in Q4, and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.73 to 2.02) in Q5. Thus, these data suggest that racial disparities in access to living donor transplantation are likely due to socioeconomic factors rather than cultural differences in the acceptance of LKD.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Living-donor kidney transplantation is an established practice. Traditionally a combination of renal scintigram and computed tomography (CT) is used to select the kidney that is to be harvested in each donor. To evaluate the ability of split renal volume (SRV) calculated from volumetric examination of CT images compared to nuclear split renal function (nSRF) derived from gamma camera scintigram to predict donor residual single kidney function after donor nephrectomy. This pilot study comprised a retrospective analysis of CT images and renal scintigrams from 12 subsequent live kidney donors who had at least 12 months post-donation renal function follow-up. nSRF derived from the renal scintigram, expressed as the right kidney's function in percent of the total, was 50.2 ± 3.3 (range, 44.1-54.0%) and SRV estimated following analysis of CT imaging was 49.0 ± 2.9 (range, 46.4-52.3%). Although the correlation between nSRF and SRV was moderate (R = 0.46), there was 92% agreement on the dominant kidney if a difference of <2% in nSRF versus SRV was considered. Post-donation glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by CKD-EPI formula was 92 ± 10 mL/min/1.73m2 at 1 year and the correlation between estimated GFR (eGFR) at 1 year and extrapolated single kidney eGFR adjusted by nSRF (R(2 )= 0.69, P = 0.0007) or SRV (R(2 )= 0.74, P = 0.0003) was similar. Calculation of SRV from pre-donation CT examination is a valid method to estimate nSRF with good concordance with nSRF determined by renal scintigram and could replace the latter in the assessment of potential kidney donors.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Acta Radiologica
Show more