Article

A new species of Dendrelaphis Boulenger, 1890 (Squamata: Colubridae)from Thailand and Myanmar

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A new species of the colubrid genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger 1890 is described. Dendrelaphis nigroserratus sp. nov. occurs in a part of West Thailand as well as in the extreme south of Myanmar. Morphologically, D. nigroserratus sp. nov. is similar to D. cyanochloris (Wall, 1921) with which it occurs sympatrically. It is distinguished from the latter by its highly conspicuous neck coloration, high incidence of paired postparietal shields and its much larger size. In coloration, it resembles D. striatus (Cohn, 1906) from which it is distinguished by several aspects of its morphology. The discovery of D. nigroserratus sp. nov. underscores the notion that the hilly western parts of Thailand are in need of further exploration.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... One of the more recent additions to the genus is D. nigroserratus Vogel, Van Rooijen and Hauser, 2012, from Myanmar and Thailand, a relatively large-sized species with a conspicuous black zigzag pattern on the neck resembling saw-teeth. Otherwise, most of its morphological characteristics are very similar to those of D. cyanochloris Wall, 1921, which was in 2012 considered widespread in much of South and Southeast Asia, including most of Thailand, but is now believed to consist of a number of cryptic species (Jiang et al., 2020). ...
... In the description of D. nigroserratus, its much larger size, the high incidence of a paired central postparietal shield and the serrated neck pattern were stressed as discriminating it from D. cyanochloris (Vogel et al., 2012). Of more than ten records of the new species, most were from the mountains of Umphang and Phop Phra District in Tak Province in north-western Thailand, whereas two records from more southern localities were poorly documented and in need of confirmation. ...
... The characteristic black saw-tooth neck pattern, olive green upperside of the head, the paired central postparietal shield and the robust size identified it as D. nigroserratus (Table 1). This record extends the range of the species about 70 km to the north compared to the most northern locality in Phop Phra District, Tak Province, as listed in Vogel et al. (2012) and Vogel and Hauser (2014). ...
Full-text available
Article
The original description of the colubrid snake Dendrelaphis nigroserratus Vogel, Van Rooijen and Hauser, 2012 was mainly based on specimens from the mountains of Thailand's Tak Province. Other localities were poorly documented. We here report nearly twenty new records, extending the range of the species some 480 km to the south in Surat Thani Province, 70 km to the north in Mae Ramat District, Tak Province, and 30 km to the east in Kamphaeng Phet Province. The records also confirm the validity of the range localities in Phetchaburi and Kanchanaburi Province. We present the variability of various characters of 12 new DOR specimens and new data on the natural history.
... The colubrid snakes of the genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger, 1890, currently containing 45 species, are distributed throughout central, South and Southeast Asia, including southern China, New Guinea and Australia (van Rooijen et al. 2015;van Rooijen & Vogel 2016;Uetz et al. 2019). The cryptic diversity in the genus Dendrelaphis was revealed in the past decade when many new species were described from South and Southeast Asia (van Rooijen & Vogel 2008a& Vogel , b, 2012Vogel & Rooijen 2007, 2011aVogel et al. 2012;Wickramasinghe 2016). Five species of the genus Dendrelaphis are currently known from China, including D. biloreatus Wall, D. hollinrakei Lazell, D. ngansonensis (Bourret), D. pictus (Gmelin) and D. subocularis (Boulenger) (Zhao et al. 1998;Lazell 2002;Nicodemo & Bain 2007). ...
... Morphological data of congeners were obtained from vouchered specimens (Appendix) as well as from literatures (Wall 1921;Ziegler & Vogel 1999;Lazell 2002;van Rooijen & Vogel 2008a, b, c, 2009, 2016Vogel & van Rooijen 2007, 2011aYang & Rao 2008;Vogel et al. 2012;Wickramasinghe 2016 ...
... In addition, according to Wall (1921), van Rooijen & Vogel (2008) and Vogel et al. (2012), three newly collected male specimens (CIB 110716, CIB 116817, and CIB 116101) from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, are morphologically similar to the D. cyanochloris complex. However, these male specimens can be distinguished from the D. cyanochloris complex by having fewer subcaudals (130-135 SC vs. 135-157 SC); a shorter hemipenis (retracted hemipenis extending to the 6-7th SC vs. 11-18th SC); indistinct transverse bands on lateral side of anterior part of body (vs. ...
Article
The genus Amolops (“torrent frogs”) is one of the most species-rich genera in Ranidae, with 59 recognized species. This genus currently includes six species groups diagnosed mainly by morphology. Several recent molecular studies indicated that the classification of species groups within Amolops remains controversial, and key nodes in the phylogeny have been inadequately resolved. In addition, the diversity of Amolops remains poorly understood, especially for those from incompletely sampled regions. Herein, we investigate species-level diversity within the genus Amolops throughout southern China and Southeast Asia, and infer evolutionary relationships among the species using mtDNA data (16S, COI, and ND2). Molecular analyses indicate nine unnamed species, mostly distributed in the Himalayas. We then utilized anchored hybrid enrichment to generate a dataset representing the major mitochondrial lineages to resolve phylogenetic relationships, biogeography, and pattern of species diversification. Our resulting phylogeny strongly supports the monophyly of four previously identified species groups (the A. ricketti, A. daiyunensis, A. hainanensis, and A. monticola groups), but paraphyly for the A. mantzorum and A. marmoratus groups, as previously defined. We erect one new species group, the A. viridimaculatus group, and recognize Dubois (1992) ‘subgenus’ Amo as the A. larutensis species group. Biogeographic analysis suggests that Amolops originated on the Indo-Burma/Thai-Malay Peninsula at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, and dispersed outward, exemplifying a common pattern observed for the origin of Asian biodiversity. The early divergence within Amolops coincides with the Himalayas uplift and the lateral extrusion of Indochina at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary. Our results show that paleoclimatic and geomorphological events have profoundly influenced the patterns of lineage diversification within Amolops.
... The colubrid snakes of the genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger, 1890, currently containing 45 species, are distributed throughout central, South and Southeast Asia, including southern China, New Guinea and Australia (van Rooijen et al. 2015;van Rooijen & Vogel 2016;Uetz et al. 2019). The cryptic diversity in the genus Dendrelaphis was revealed in the past decade when many new species were described from South and Southeast Asia (van Rooijen & Vogel 2008a& Vogel , b, 2012Vogel & Rooijen 2007, 2011aVogel et al. 2012;Wickramasinghe 2016). Five species of the genus Dendrelaphis are currently known from China, including D. biloreatus Wall, D. hollinrakei Lazell, D. ngansonensis (Bourret), D. pictus (Gmelin) and D. subocularis (Boulenger) (Zhao et al. 1998;Lazell 2002;Nicodemo & Bain 2007). ...
... Morphological data of congeners were obtained from vouchered specimens (Appendix) as well as from literatures (Wall 1921;Ziegler & Vogel 1999;Lazell 2002;van Rooijen & Vogel 2008a, b, c, 2009, 2016Vogel & van Rooijen 2007, 2011aYang & Rao 2008;Vogel et al. 2012;Wickramasinghe 2016 ...
... In addition, according to Wall (1921), van Rooijen & Vogel (2008) and Vogel et al. (2012), three newly collected male specimens (CIB 110716, CIB 116817, and CIB 116101) from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, are morphologically similar to the D. cyanochloris complex. However, these male specimens can be distinguished from the D. cyanochloris complex by having fewer subcaudals (130-135 SC vs. 135-157 SC); a shorter hemipenis (retracted hemipenis extending to the 6-7th SC vs. 11-18th SC); indistinct transverse bands on lateral side of anterior part of body (vs. ...
Full-text available
Article
A new species of the genus Dendrelaphis is described from Xishuangbanna, southern Yunnan, China, based on molecular and morphological data. The new species can be differentiated from other congeners by the following combination of characters: 1) ground color of body bronze, a black postocular stripe extending onto the neck only; 2) pale and dark ventrolateral stripe absent; 3) relatively indistinct transverse bands on the anterior part of lateral body; 4) loreal single; 5) vertebral scales strongly enlarged; 6) dorsal scale rows 15-15-11, all smooth; 7) ventrals 193–197, subcaudals 130–135, paired; 8) SVL/TOL ratio 0.292–0.301; 9) supralabials 9, 4th through 6th touching the eye; 10) the outermost row of dorsal scales the same color as other dorsal scales; 11) retracted hemipenis extending to the 6–7th subcaudal scales. According to molecular and morphological data, D. ngansonensis likely belongs to the D. cyanochloris complex. We further discussed D. cyanochloris complex from Tibet, Yunnan and Hainan, China. A key to Chinese species of Dendrelaphis is provided.
... This record was believed to originate from western North Thailand, and the authors expected more extensive surveys to reveal new taxa, in particular in the western part of the country. This came true with two new records from Tak Province: Pareas hamptoni (Boulenger, 1905), a first country record (Vogel, 2010), and Dendrelaphis nigroserratus Vogel, Van Rooijen and Hauser, 2012, a new species (Vogel et al., 2012). Moreover, a new, yet undescribed species of pit-viper in the genus Protobothrops Hoge and Romano-Hoge, 1983 was found in Tak's Tha Song Yang and Chiang Mai's Omkoi districts (Sjon Hauser, unpublished data). ...
... This record was believed to originate from western North Thailand, and the authors expected more extensive surveys to reveal new taxa, in particular in the western part of the country. This came true with two new records from Tak Province: Pareas hamptoni (Boulenger, 1905), a first country record (Vogel, 2010), and Dendrelaphis nigroserratus Vogel, Van Rooijen and Hauser, 2012, a new species (Vogel et al., 2012). Moreover, a new, yet undescribed species of pit-viper in the genus Protobothrops Hoge and Romano-Hoge, 1983 was found in Tak's Tha Song Yang and Chiang Mai's Omkoi districts (Sjon Hauser, unpublished data). ...
Article
This contribution reports the first records for Thailand of two colubrid snake species, both fromthe eastern part of the country's northern region. A living specimen of Liopeltis frenatus )Günther, 1858( was observed and photographed in submontane forest at an elevation of 1700 m in eastern Nan Province. A fresh and intact road-killed )DOR( specimen of Cyclophiops multicinctus )Roux, 1907( was collected in the low hills of eastern Uttaradit Province. The total range of both species is plotted in locality dot maps. The locality and habitat of the new records in Thailand are discussed in biogeographic perspective.
... purpureomaculatus occurs at the Isthmus of Kra (De Bruyn et al., 2005;Hughes et al., 2003;Parnell, 2013), which serves as a biogeographic divide for numerous vertebrate species including reptiles (Grismer et al., 2022;Mulcahy et al., 2017;Olivier S.G. Pauwels et al., 2016;Trivalairat et al., 2022;van Rooijen & Vogel, 2010;Vogel et al., 2012;Zug et al., 2017), amphibians (Buddhachat & Suwannapoom, 2018;Poyarkov et al., 2020;Yodthong et al., 2014), birds (Hughes et al., 2003;Lim et al., 2020), and mammals (Tougard, 2001). Our results also show that phylogeographic structure is latitudinally stratified and consistent with IBD and IBE, with colour polymorphisms appearing to be latitudinally structured as well. ...
Full-text available
Article
We present the first multilocus molecular phylogeny focused on mangrove pit vipers of the Trimeresurus erythrurus‐purpureomaculatus complex based on novel topotypic material and expanded geographic sampling. Previously inferred paraphyly of T. purpureomaculatus was resolved and our results demonstrate distinct phylogeographic patterns that are latitudinally stratified and consistent with isolation‐by‐distance and isolation‐by‐environment. A clear genetic break is detected at the Isthmus of Kra biogeographic divide and niche overlap among major genetic clades is limited. The association between colour polymorphisms and phylogeographic structure suggests that contemporary or historical introgression between T. erythrurus and T. purpureomaculatus could have occurred. This study provides a clear roadmap to guide future genomic research to improve our understanding of this charismatic, yet poorly studied group of snakes.
... The new species has not been recorded from Tak's Mae Ramat and Mae Sot districts, but it is expected that it also occurs in these districts and will be eventually discovered within this 'gap'. Hitherto, two other snake species seem to be confined to this part of the Tenasserim Range, Protobothrops kelomohy Sumontha, Vasaruchapong, Chomngam, Suntrarachun, Pawangkhanant, Sompan, Smits, Kunya & Chanhome, 2020, known within a small area in Tha Song Yang and Omkoi districts, and Dendrelaphis nigroserratus Vogel, Van Rooijen & Hauser, 2012, occurring in a much larger area stretching from Phop Phra, Umphang and Kanchanaburi provinces to the south in Phetchaburi Province. Recently it was shown that the range of the latter species extends as far to the south as Surat Thani Province in the Thai peninsula, but throughout this southern extension, it seems restricted to mountains or foothills of the Tenasserim Range (Hauser et al. 2021). ...
Full-text available
Article
We examined and identified preserved specimens, skins, and photographs from a collection of 83 snakes from northern Thailand presenting the characters of the genus Hebius Thompson, 1913. They belong to at least six different taxa divided into five species including a new one described here, namely H. bitaeniatus (Wall, 1925), H. deschauenseei (Taylor, 1934), H. igneus David, Vogel, Nguyen, Orlov, Pauwels, Teynié & Ziegler, 2021, Hebius khasiensis (Boulenger, 1890), and a series of specimens with strong similarities to H. khasiensis that are here preliminary identified as “Hebius cf. khasiensis”. Furthermore, we obtained a series of 21 different specimens in the most western strip of the region that we could not refer to any presently known species. We refer these specimens to a new species that we describe here. For each of these taxa, we provide the list of localities and specify the geographic range in northern Thailand. Lastly, we also discuss the diversity of the snake fauna of northern Thailand.
... The herpetological diversity of montane forest is high. Herpetological surveys in the montane forests in northern Thailand during the last decade have led to numerous discoveries of species of amphibians and reptiles, including the first record of snakes, Plagiopholis blakewayi Boulenger (Tillack et al., 2006), Sinonatrix yunnanensis Rao and Yang (Pauwels et al., 2009), Ptyas nigromarginata (Vogel and Hauser, 2013), Parafimbrios laos Teynié et al. (Teynié and Hauser, 2017), Protobothrops (Vasaruchapong et al., 2017), Dendrelaphis nigroserratus Vogel et al., (2012), Liopeltis frenatus (Günther) and Ptyas multicincta (Roux) (Figueroa et al., 2016;Hauser, 2018); rare species were rediscovered, such as Opisthotropis spenceri Smith (Chuaynkern et al., 2014) and Paratapinophis praemaxillaris Angel (Murphy et al., 2008); new species and new country records were also recorded of lizards, Diploderma yunnanense (Anderson) (Manthey and Denzer, 2012;Wang et.al., 2018), Hemiphyllodactylus chiangmaiensis Grismer et al. (2014), Cyrtodactylus doisuthep Kunya et al. (2014), C. inthanon Kunya et al. (2015) and Pseudocalotes kakhienensis (Anderson) from Doi Pui, Doi Inthanon and Omkoi District, Chiangmai Province (Montri Sumontha and Kirati Kunya observed data); new species of amphibians include Limnonectes taylori Matsui et al. (2010), Leptolalax zhangyapingi Jiang et al. (2013), Tylototriton anguliceps Le et al. (2015), T. uyenoi Nishikawa et al. (2013), Gracixalus seesom Matsui et al. (2015), Minervarya chiangmaiensis (Suwannapoom et al.) (Suwannapoom et al., 2016;Niyomwan et al., 2019). We suggest that the further research in montane forests in northern Thailand and adjacent Myanmar and Laos requires additional attention. ...
Full-text available
Article
Protobothrops kelomohy sp. nov. is described from dry evergreen forest in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand, based on morphology and a molecular phylogeny. It differs from congeners by the following combination of characters: 1) relatively large body size (total length up to 1,310 mm); 2) dorsal scale rows 23-23-17, all keeled; 3) ventral scales 231-234; 4) subcaudal scales 80-84, paired; 5) supralabials 8-9; 6) infralabials 12-13; 7) typical lance-pattern on upper head surface; 8) three bold vertical facial stripes; and 9) dorsal and tail brown, each scale with dark reddish-brown transverse blotches, edged in black, somewhat fused together as a median zigzag line on dorsum, a row of large ventrolateral blotches on each side, each darker marking edged by a narrow yellow line. The new discovery and other recent findings suggest that further herpetological research is required in the montane forest of northern Thailand and adjacent Myanmar and Laos. Data on the natural history of the new species and an updated key to the species of Protobothrops are provided. This is the second species of Lance-headed Pit Viper recorded from Thailand after P. mucrosquamatus.
... Therefore, it is likely that these populations represent a cryptic, yet undescribed species. Recent studies focusing on the Isthmus of Kra region of Myanmar and Thailand have discovered several endemic reptile species (Vogel et al. 2012;Pauwels et al. 2016;Zug et al. 2017;Connette et al. 2017). As yet, we have discovered no diagnostic character that separates the northern clade of T. popeiorum from the southern one. ...
Full-text available
Article
The taxonomic identity of the Trimeresurus (Popeia) popeiorum complex from the Isthmus of Kra and to the north was investigated. Several studies over the last decade have produced several specimens and associated mtDNA sequence data for a variety of individuals of the T. popeiorum and “T. sabahi” complexes. Here, we combine four mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, ND4, and CytB) from all available specimens in GenBank with the addition of five new specimens collected from the mainland, Tanintharyi Region of Myanmar. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses identified that T. popeiorum sensu lato is paraphyletic with two geographically distinct clades: a northern clade representing populations from northern Myanmar, Laos and northern Thailand and a southern clade representing samples from the Tanintharyi Region and adjacent west Thailand. While the two clades have considerable genetic distance, they appear to be morphologically identical, leading to the hypothesis that the southern clade represents a cryptic, undescribed species. Because they appear to be cryptic species and the limitation of only five specimens from the southern lineage, this does not permit us to formally describe the new species. In accordance to past molecular studies, we uncovered paraphyly and lack of genetic support for the validity of taxa within the T. sabahi complex. However, we suggest recognizing these populations as subspecies within T. sabahi.
... Boulenger (1894), Wall (1921), Meise & Hennig (1932), Mertens (1934), Smith (1943), and Leviton (1968) have in turn revised the systematics of this genus. Lately however, a comprehensive revision of the taxonomy of the Asian members of this genus has led to the description of ten new species, the revalidation of five more taxa, and the elevation to specific status of five former subspecies (van Rooijen & Vogel 2008a, b, c, 2009, 2010, 2012, Vogel & van Rooijen 2007, 2008, 2011a, b, c, Vogel et al. 2012). This study deals with the taxonomy of a principally Australo-Papuan group within Dendrelaphis, which is characterized by having 13 dorsal scale rows at midbody and enlarged vertebral scales. ...
Full-text available
Article
This study investigates the taxonomy of an Australo-Papuan species group within the colubrid snake genus Dendrelaphis, which is characterised by the combination of 13 dorsal scale rows at midbody and enlarged vertebral scales. Members of this group inhabit the southeastern Moluccas, Palau Islands, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and the northern and eastern parts of Australia. The taxonomy of this group has been reviewed several times in the past, resulting in a sequence of completely different sets of species as well as groupings into higher-order taxa. The capricious succession of taxo-nomic interpretations can be attributed to a lack of objectivity in most previous studies. This study attempts to clarify the taxonomy of this group by applying multivariate techniques to a set of morphological data taken from 171 museum specimens covering the entire geographic range. In addition, all extant type specimens of this species group were examined. The results provide evidence for the validity of nine species: 1) D. calligaster (Günther, 1867) which inhabits New Guinea and adjacent islands, the Solomon Islands as well as Australia (Cape York Peninsula); 2) D. gastrostictus (Bou len ger, 1894) from mainland New Guinea; 3) D. keiensis (Mertens, 1926) from the Moluccan islands of Babar, Timor-Laut, and Kei-Du-lah; 4) D. lineolatus (Jaquinot & Guichenot, 1853) from mainland New Guinea and several adjacent islands; 5) D. lorentzii (van Lidth de Jeude, 1911) from mainland New Guinea, Normanby Island, and Salawati Island; 6) D. ma crops (Günther, 1877) from mainland New Guinea, Daru Island, Numfoor Island, and Duke of York Island; 7) D. papuensis Boulenger, 1895 from the Trobriand Islands; 8) D. punctulatus (Gray, 1826) from northern and eastern Australia as well as several of the Torres Strait Islands; and 9) D. striolatus (Peters, 1867) from the Palau Islands. The presented taxonomy entails revali-dating D. keiensis, D. lineolatus, and D. macrops, synonymysing D. salomonis with D. calligaster, and elevating to specific status D. punctulatus striolatus. Neotypes are designated for Dendrophis punctulatus var. atrostriata Meyer, 1874 and Dend­ rophis punctulatus var. fasciata Meyer, 1874, which are considered synonyms of D. lineolatus.
Full-text available
Article
Xenochrophis bellulus (Stolickza, 1871) was described as Tropidonotus bellulus based on a single specimen collected from Myanmar in the late 19 th century. Since then the holotype has been lost, and the species has been transferred to several genera in the subfamily Natricinae including Natrix, Sinonatrix and finally Xenochrophis based on one museum specimen matching the original description. Herpetofaunal surveys of the Moyingyi Wildlife Sanctuary and vicinity, Bago Region, Myanmar revealed three individuals obtained in 2001 and 2003 that match the type description of X. bellulus. This small series of newly collected specimens allows us to redescribe this species based on all known material, provide a description of the hemipenis, designate a neotype and comment on its taxonomic status.
Full-text available
Article
Updated information on the herpetofaunal composition of the borderlands (upland systems and archipelagos) fringing the Sunda Shelf is presented for Vietnam, Cambodia, and Peninsular Malaysia. It is suggested that the herpetofaunal composition of this region has been shaped by climatic fluctuations throughout Southeast Asia and episodic marine transgressions of the South China Sea, specifically in the region of the Sunda Shelf, resulting in significant degrees of endemism in montane areas and archipelagos. These preliminary findings highlight the understudied nature of these borderlands, especially in Peninsular Thailand and Borneo. Even in the regions discussed, several islands and mountain ranges remain unexplored. As fieldwork progresses into these areas and additional species records are documented, and new lineages discovered and described, it is believed that an awareness of the unappreciated importance of these borderlands to the overall biodiversity and biogeography of Southeast Asia will emerge.
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Based on the examination of museum specimens, original field observations and literature data, we established a preliminary list of the reptiles of Phetchaburi Province (Western Thailand, in the upper part of the peninsula). There are 70 species of reptiles including 4 turtles, 1 crocodile, 21 lizards and 44 snakes, and not less than 45 (64.3 %) are new records for the province. Several species reach here their southernmost (Naja siamensis) or northernmost (Cyrtodactylus brevipalmatus, Dendrelaphis striatus) distribution limits. Of the 65 land species (marine snakes and Acrochordus excluded), 61 (93.8 %) are also found south of the Isthmus of Kra. Thorough surveys of forested areas (especially the Kaeng Krachan National Park) might markedly increase this list of species. Main human threats on herpetofauna are deforestation, agriculture, and selected hunting for food (concerning especially Malayemys subtrijuga, Leiolepis belliana, Varanus spp. and Naja spp.). Two alien species (Trionyx sinensis and Trachemys scripta elegans) might have been locally introduced. Interviews with farmers and hunters provided additional species records, which need to be confirmed, and local vernacular names. Citation: PAUWELS, O.S.G., DAVID, P., CHIMSUNCHART, C. & VAN DIJK, P.-P. 2000. Preliminary herpetological investigations on Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand. In: Abstracts. Fourth Asiatic Herpetological Conference, Chengdu, China, July 16-20, 2000: 135.
Full-text available
Article
Paratapinophis praemaxillaris was described by Angel (1929) on the basis of two neonate specimens from Xieng-Khouang in northern Laos. Pope later placed the genus in the synonymy of Opisthotropis Günther, 1872. We collected five adult specimens along the Nan River, in northern Thailand. Here we describe the adults of Angel's Stream Snake, discuss the monotypic genus, its distribution, habitat, and diet. Based upon morphology we remove Paratapinophis Angel, 1929 from the synomomy of Opisthotropis. An identification matrix is provided for identifying snakes in the genera Opsithotropis, Parahelicops, and Paratapinophis Bourret, 1934, all have been considered Opisthotropis at one time or another, and we comment on the status of Opisthotropis.
Full-text available
Article
The rare natricine snake Xenochrophis punctulatus (Günther, 1858), previously known only from Myanmar and perhaps eastern India, is added to the herpetofauna of Thailand on the basis of an adult specimen collected in Muang District, Mae Hong Son Province. The specimen is described in detail and compared with voucher material. The species is for the first time depicted by photographs. A brief discussion on biogeographical implications is given.
Full-text available
Article
We update the knowledge on the distribution of the rare mountain stream dweller snake Amphiesma khasiense in Thailand, including the first records from northern Thailand, in Chiang Mai (Doi Inthanon) and Chiang Rai provinces. Morphological data are provided for these specimens. Our biological observations confirm the species' riparian and nocturnal habits.
Full-text available
Article
The aquatic natricid snake Sinonatrix yunnanensis, so far known only from Yunnan Province, China, is recorded for the first time from Thailand based on a specimen from Chiang Rai Province, extending the species' known distribution more than 370 airline kilometers southwards. This addition brings the number of Thai natricid species to 21 and of Thai snake species to 192. Morphological and ecological data are provided for the new specimen. © 2009 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Herpetologie und Terrarienkunde e.V. (DGHT).
Full-text available
Article
A new species of the colubrid genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger 1890 is described. Dendrelaphis kopsteini sp. nov. ranges from Thailand through Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore to Sumatra. A detailed statistical analysis of the differences between D. kopsteini sp. nov., D. formosus (Boie, 1827) and D. cyanochloris (Wall, 1921) is provided as the three spe-cies have been mixed up frequently in the literature. D. kopsteini sp. nov. differs from all other Dendrelaphis species by a brick red neck coloration. A neotype is designated and described for D. formosus and a lectotype is designated and described for D. cyanochloris.
Full-text available
Article
The taxonomic status of the colubrid snake Dendrelaphis tristis (Daudin, 1803) was investigated on the basis of morphological data taken from 64 museum specimens. Univariate and multi-variate analyses of these data reveal that Dendrelaphis tristis is composed of two species. One of these species agrees with the description of Dipsas schokari Kuhl, 1820 which is revalidated in the combination Dendrelaphis schokari (Kuhl, 1820). The syntypes of D. schokari have been lost and a type for D. tristis has never been deposited in a collection. Neotypes are desig-nated and described for both species in order to stabilize the names. D. schokari differs from D. tristis in having a lower number of ventrals and subcaudals, a larger eye, a shorter verte-bral stripe and the absence of a bright interparietal spot. D. tristis and D. schokari exhibit a partially overlapping distribution. D. tristis ranges from Sri Lanka northward through most of India to Myanmar whereas the distribution of D. schokari is restricted to Sri Lanka and South-west India (Western Ghats). Although the two species coexist on Sri Lanka and in South-west India, these species presumably do not occur syntopically as suggested by their distribution patterns and morphology.
Full-text available
Article
The distribution of Borneo's species across the island is far from well-known. This is particularly true for snakes which are hard to find. Given the current rate of habitat destruction and consequent need for conservation strategies, more information is required as to the species composition and richness of spe-cific areas of potential conservation priority. An example is the Santubong Peninsula, Sarawak, Malaysia, part of which has re-cently been gazetted as a National Park. In this paper, the snake species richness of the Santubong Peninsula is estimated on the basis of data obtained during 450 survey-hours. Thirty-two spe-cies were recorded. Negative exponential and Weibull func-tions were fitted to the rarefaction curve. The Weibull function exhibited a high goodness-of-fit, as opposed to the negative ex-ponential function. On the basis of the fitted Weibull function, the total number of snake species was estimated to be 42. A similar estimate of 40 was obtained by applying the nonpara-metric Chao I estimator. Thus, less than a third of Borneo's known 139 land snakes inhabit the Santubong Peninsula. Ex-trapolation of the fitted Weibull function demonstrated that di-rect measuring of herpetofaunal species richness of species-rich tropical ecosystems is unfeasible given the required search time. I advocate that the use of estimates is unavoidable.
Full-text available
Article
The population systematics of the closely related colubrid snakes Dendrelaphis tristis (Daudin, 1803) and Dendrelaphis schokari (Kuhl, 1820) were investigated on the basis of morphological data taken from 82 museum specimens. Multivariate and univariate analyses of these data reveal the existence of a third species that occurs sympatrically with D. tristis in south India. This hitherto unrecognized species agrees with the description of Dendrophis chairecacos Boie, 1827 which is consequently revalidated under the combination Dendrelaphis chairecacos (Boie, 1827). A neotype is designated to objectively define this taxon. Dendrelaphis chairecacos inhabits south India and D. schokari inhabits Sri Lanka. D. tristis occurs sympatrically with both species, ranging from Sri Lanka through most of India to Nepal. A key to the three species is provided. Observed differences in head morphology are probably correlates of niche partitioning between D. tristis on the one hand and D. chairecacos and D. schokari on the other hand. The revalidation of D. chairecacos strengthens the notion that Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats are faunally more distinct than previously recognized.
Full-text available
Article
throughout Indochina, the southern limit of its range corresponding with the Isthmus of Kra, an important biogeographic barrier that separates the Indochinese biota from the Sundaic biota. This study presents five museum specimens that represent a hitherto unknown population that inhabits the Sundaic island Java. Thus, the distribution of Dendrelaphis subocularis is disjunct, with the Javan population being isolated by 2000 kilometres from the nearest mainland population. Principal Components Analysis was applied to morphological data taken from the five Javan specimens as well as from 26 museum specimens of Indochinese origin. Regression analysis of the spatial pattern of the resulting scores indicated that: 1) the Javan population exhibits negligible morphological differentiation, and 2) a phenetic cline exists from which the Javan population does not appreciably deviate in spite of its isolated status. These findings suggest a vicariant origin of the Javan population entailing climatic changes and formation of land bridges during Pleistocene glaciations. The Javan and Indochinese populations represent independent sister lineages, and are therefore valid species within the framework of a lineage-based species concept. However, to conform to current taxonomic practice, the Javan population is not named separately due to the fact that it is not diagnosable.
Full-text available
Article
The systematics of the wide-ranging southeast Asian colubrid snake Dendrelaphis caudolineatus (Gray, 1834) was investigated on the basis of multivariate analyses of morphological and coloration data for 131 museum specimens representing 28 geographically isolated populations. The results demonstrate that the current taxonomy of D. caudolineatus underestimates species diversity in the Philippines. The following revisions are implemented. 1) Populations from the Philippine island Palawan and adjacent islands currently referred to D. c. caudolineatus (Gray, 1834) are described as a new species, D. levitoni sp. nov. 2) Populations from the Philippine islands Negros, Panay, Mindoro and Masbate, currently assigned to D. c. terrificus (Peters, 1872) and D. c. luzonensis Leviton, 1961 are referred to D. fuliginosus Griffin 1909, which is revalidated. 3) Populations from the southern Philippine islands Basilan, Mindanao, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte, Samar, Polillo, Kalotkot, Catanduanes as well as Southeast Luzon currently referred to D. c. terrificus (Peters, 1872) are referred to D. philippinensis Günther, 1879 which is revalidated. 4) The population from Sulawesi is referred to D. terrificus (Peters, 1872). Currently regarded as a polytypic species composed of five subspecies, D. caudolineatus is here considered to be a monophyletic group comprising eight species. The distributions of these eight species correspond largely with aggregate island complexes formed during periods of reduced sea level during the Pleistocene. However, some deviations indicate post-Pleistocene dispersals across sea barriers.
Full-text available
Article
The population systematics of the colubrid snake so far referred to as Dendrelaphis gorei (Wall, 1910) were investigated by carrying out a multivariate analysis of geographic variation. The results reveal the existence of two distinct and apparently disjunct phenotypes. These phenotypes are assumed to represent independent evolutionary lineages. The first lineage corresponds with D. gorei which inhabits the Assam Valley and adjoining Himalayan foothills. However, the name Dendrophis gorei Wall, 1910 is actually a junior synonym of Dendrelaphis biloreatus Wall, 1908. Consequently, the latter name is adopted for this lineage. The second lineage, described in this paper as a new species, inhabits the South Myanmar lowlands and neighbouring mountain chains. It is distinguished from D. biloreatus on the basis of its higher ventral count (203–212 versus 190–199), its undivided anal shield (divided in D. biloreatus) and its higher average number of anterior temporal shields (usually 2 versus usually 1).
Full-text available
Article
A new species of the colubrid snake genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger, 1890, Dendrelaphis underwoodi, new species, is described herein. Dendrelaphis underwoodi is endemic to Java, Indonesia. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the differences between D. underwoodi and the congeneric taxa D. cyanochloris (Wall, 1921), D. formosus (Boie, 1827), D. humayuni Tiwara & Biswas, 1973, D. kopsteini Vogel & Van Rooijen, 2007, and D. pictus (Gmelin, 1789) demonstrate that D. underwoodi constitutes a distinct insular lineage. The available data on the three known specimens suggest that D. underwoodi is an inhabitant of hilly or mountainous habitat. An updated key to the Dendrelaphis species of the Sunda region is provided.
Full-text available
Article
A study of herpetological biodiversity was conducted in Phetchaburi Province, in the upper part of peninsular Thailand. On the basis of a review of available literature, original field observations and examination of museum collections, a preliminary list of 81 species (12 chelonians, 2 crocodiles, 23 lizards, and 44 snakes) is established, of which 52 (64 %) are reported from the province for the first time. The possible presence of additional species is discussed. Some biological data on the new specimens are provided including some range extensions and new size records. The herpetofauna of Phetchaburi shows strong Sundaic affinities, with about 88 % of the recorded species being also found south of the Isthmus of Kra. A biogeographic affinity analysis suggests that the Isthmus of Kra plays the role of a biogeographic filter, due both to the repeated changes in climate during the Quaternary and to the current increase of the dry season duration along the peninsula from south to north. A biogeographic boundary seems to occur at the northern end of the peninsula, corresponding with the current position of a dry season of four month's duration.
Full-text available
Article
The status of populations from Northeast Thailand previously referred to as Trimeresurus cf. stejnegeri is reevaluated on the basis of morphological characters. These preliminary data confirm the distinct specific status of these populations, for which a new species, Trimeresurus gumprechti sp. nov., is here established. Preliminary comparisons with T. vogeli, another taxon from Thailand, and especially T. stejnegeri are provided.
Full-text available
Article
A new species of the colubrid genus Oligodon is described from Krabi Province, southern Peninsular Thailand. Although known from a single specimen, the new species Oligodon jintakunei is readily distinguished by an unusual combination of characters, like fused internasals and prefrontals, an elongated body, a high number of ventrals and subcaudals, a low number of maxillary teeth, and a unique dorsal banded pattern and immaculate ventral surface. Its possible relationships are discussed, and a key to the species of Oligodon, currently known from Thailand and West Malaysia, is given.
Full-text available
Article
Aim To establish the geographical position of the biogeographical transition between Indochinese and Sundaic faunas using distributional data for the best-documented taxon, the birds. Methods Distributional data of 544 resident forest and forest edge bird species of Thailand and the Thai–Malay peninsula were examined at 45 sites spanning 15° of latitude from northern-most Thailand to the southern peninsular Malaysia. Sites were grouped into 23 degree or half-degree latitudinal zones and avifaunal similarity coefficients were calculated between each zone. Results A Mantel test revealed a significant transition between northern Indochinese and southern Sundaic (Indomalay) avifauna assemblages just north of the Isthmus of Kra (10°30′ N). Northern and southern range limits of 152 species (> 269 species and subspecies combined) lie between 11° and 13° N. Main conclusions This transition between zoogeographical subregions is not coincident with the widely recognized transition between floristic provinces which is traditionally placed 400–500 km further south at the Kangar–Pattani line, but is associated with a change from wet seasonal evergreen dipterocarp rain forest to mixed moist deciduous forest north of the Isthmus of Kra in the northern Thai–Malay peninsula. Climatological and ecological factors associated with the distribution of forest types today are reviewed and it is hypothesized that the avian transition tracks the northern phytogeographical boundary. Palaeogeographical factors, including hypothetical Neogene seaways, which may account for the historical development of both phytogeographical and avifaunal transitions are also described.
Full-text available
Article
A new species of the colubrid genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger 1890 is described from the Western Ghats, India. Dendrelaphis girii sp. nov. resembles Dendrelaphis bifrenalis (Boulenger, 1890) which inhabits Sri Lanka. It differs from the latter predominantly in the absence of a ventrolateral stripe, the much narrower and shorter postocular stripe and the broader snout. The description of D. girii sp. nov. underscores the notion that Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats are faunally more distinct than previously thought.
Article
A new species of the colubrid genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger 1890 is described. Dendrelaphis kopsteini sp. nov. ranges from Thailand through Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore to Sumatra. A detailed statistical analysis of the differences between D. kopsteini sp. nov., D. formosus (Boie, 1827) and D. cyanochloris (Wall, 1921) is provided as the three species have been mixed up frequently in the literature. D. kopsteini sp. nov. differs from all other Dendrelaphis species by a brick red neck coloration. A neotype is designated and described for D. formosus and a lectotype is designated and described for D. cyanochloris.
Article
The Southeast Asian, Indonesian and Philippine forms of the polytypic Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789) are reviewed using multivariate analyses. Several distinct phenetic clusters are discerned. Geographically, these clusters are separated by important biogeographic boundaries, such as the Isthmus of Kra, Wallace's line and Weber's line. The Indochinese and Sundaic populations, although morphologically distinct, are referred to the name D. pictus as these populations are assumed to be interdependent lineages. Two clusters are considered to represent distinct species as these population complexes undoubtedly represent separate evolutionary lineages. The first separate cluster comprises the populations from the Philippines and Sulawesi. This population complex is referred to the name D. marenae. This species differs from known forms in coloration, in the size of the vertebral scales, the number of subcaudals and the tail length. The second separate cluster comprises the Moluccan populations which are referred to the name D. grismeri. This species is characterized by the number of ventrals, subcaudals and temporals as well as tail length.
Article
A new species of the colubrid genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger, 1890 is described. Dendrelaphis haasi sp. nov. ranges from the Malaysian Peninsula to Sumatra, Java and Borneo. Within this range it also inhabits the islands of Pulau Tioman, Nias, Billiton and the Mentawei Archipelago. D. haasi is similar to Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789) with which it occurs sympatrically. However, univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrate that D. haasi differs from D. pictus in several aspects of its coloration and morphology. D. haasi differs from D. pictus in possessing a faint, instead of bright, ventrolateral line, a narrow, instead of broad, postocular stripe, broader vertebral scales, a lower number of temporal scales, a higher number of subcaudals, a smaller eye, a longer tail and a parietal scale that extends further down the side of the head. The discovery of D. haasi as well as the recent description of D. kopsteini Vogel and Van Rooijen, 2007, both fairly common species, demonstrate that the systematics of Dendrelaphis are still poorly explored and thus need further investigation. An updated key to the Dendrelaphis-species of the Sunda Region is provided.
Article
We investigated the taxonomic status of the Indian forms of the Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789) group on the basis of multivariate analyses of morphological data taken from 176 museum specimens and two living specimens. A geographically isolated form from the Western Ghats, southwest India, is described as a new species. The subspecies Dendrelaphis pictus andamanensis (Anderson, 1871), an endemic from the Andaman Islands, is given specific status. Finally, the population of D. pictus from Indochina and northeast India, although superficially homogeneous, is shown to be comprised of two morphologically distinct forms. These forms are distributed parapatrically with a transition near the northern and northwestern borders of Indochina. The two forms are considered to represent distinct evolutionary lineages. The name Dendrelaphis proarchos (Wall, 1909) is revalidated to represent the northwestern form. The southeastern form is referred to as D. pictus (Gmelin, 1789). Whether intergradation between D. pictus and D. proarchos occurs at the contact zone is not clear.
Article
Aim  The aim of this review is to contribute to our understanding of the origination of the Sundaic and Indochinese biotas in Southeast Asia. Numerous unsolved problems surround the origination of the differences between these biotas and the determinants of the breadth and current position of the transition between them.Location  Literature reviews show that phytogeographical and zoogeographical transitions between the Sundaic and Indochinese subregions lie on the Thai–Malay peninsula just north of the Isthmus of Kra. A second, more widely recognized botanical transition lies 500 km further south at the Kangar–Pattani line near the Thai–Malay border.Results  The phytogeographical transition involves 575 genera of plants, and a change from wet seasonal evergreen dipterocarp rain forest to moist mixed deciduous forest. The zoogeographical transition is best characterized for forest birds, and more than half the species present in this region have species boundaries north of the Isthmus of Kra, at 11–13° N latitude. Although the phytogeographical transition is climate-related today, and the avifaunal transition is viewed as being associated with the vegetation change, there is no obvious present day geological, physiographical or environmental feature to account for the origination of the provincial biotas. Similarly, known Neogene palaeoenvironmental changes on the tectonically stable peninsula, including those associated with periods of lower sea levels and the emergence of Sundaland, fail to account for either the origination of the provincial differences or the current position of the transition.Main conclusions  Contrary to earlier palaeogeographical reconstructions, it is suggested that Neogene marine transgressions flooded the peninsula in two areas and created circumstances leading to the biogeographical patterns of the present day. The Vail global eustatic curve, supported by the oxygen isotope record, indicates that sea levels were c. 100 m above the present-day level during the early/middle Miocene (24–13 Ma) and again during the early Pliocene (5.5–4.5 Ma). Present topography suggests such high sea stands would have created 30–100-km wide seaways north and south of the Nakhon si Thammarat Range in the central peninsula (southern Thailand). Geological, palaeontological and phylogenetic evidence for such hypothetical seaways is scant (there have been no focussed searches) but does not preclude their occurrence. The role of such Neogene highstands in explaining present day biogeographical patterns in Southeast Asia and elsewhere requires assessment.
Article
We investigated the taxonomic status of the Indian forms of the Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789) group on the basis of multivariate analyses of morphological data taken from 176 museum specimens and two living specimens. A geographically isolated form from the Western Ghats, southwest India, is described as a new species. The subspecies Dendrelaphis pictus andamanensis (Anderson, 1871), an endemic from the Andaman Islands, is given specific status. Finally, the population of D. pictus from Indochina and northeast India, although superficially homogeneous, is shown to be comprised of two morphologically distinct forms. These forms are distributed parapatrically with a transition near the northern and northwestern borders of Indochina. The two forms are considered to represent distinct evolutionary lineages. The name Dendrelaphis proarchos (Wall, 1909) is revalidated to represent the northwestern form. The southeastern form is referred to as D. pictus (Gmelin, 1789). Whether intergradation between D. pictus and D. proarchos occurs at the contact zone is not clear.
1888) An account of the Reptilia obtained in Burma, north of Tenasserim
  • G A Boulenger
Boulenger, G.A. (1888) An account of the Reptilia obtained in Burma, north of Tenasserim, by M. L. Fea, of the Genova Civic Museum. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 6, 593-604.
1894) Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History)
  • G A Boulenger
Boulenger, G.A. (1894) Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II, Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridae Aglyphae. Taylor and Francis, London, 382pp.
Notes herpétologiques sur l'Indochine Francaise. XI. Sur quelques serpents recoltés en 1934. Bulletin génèral de l'Instruction Publique
  • R Bourret
Bourret, R. (1935) Notes herpétologiques sur l'Indochine Francaise. XI. Sur quelques serpents recoltés en 1934. Bulletin génèral de l'Instruction Publique, 9, 1-8.
Schlangen aus Sumatra
  • L Cohn
Cohn, L. (1905) Schlangen aus Sumatra. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 29, 540 -548 [1906].
Histoire Naturelle, génerale et particulière des Reptiles
  • F M Daudin
Daudin, F.M. (1803) Histoire Naturelle, génerale et particulière des Reptiles. Paris: F Dupart. V. 6, 430-431.
1789) Carola a Linné Systema Naturae
  • J F Gmelin
Gmelin, J.F. (1789) Carola a Linné Systema Naturae. Leipzig: G. E. Beer. 1(3), 1033-1516.
Contributions to a review of Philippine snakes, XII. The Philippine snakes of the genus Dendrelaphis (Serpentes: Colubridae)
  • A E Leviton
Leviton, A.E. (1968) Contributions to a review of Philippine snakes, XII. The Philippine snakes of the genus Dendrelaphis (Serpentes: Colubridae). Philippine Journal of Sciences, 97, 371-396.
Die Schlangengattung Dendrophis
  • W Meise
  • W Hennig
Meise, W. & Hennig, W. (1932) Die Schlangengattung Dendrophis. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 99, 273-297.
Die Schlangengattung Dendrelaphis Boulenger in systematischer und zoogeographischer Beziehung
  • R Mertens
Mertens, R. (1934) Die Schlangengattung Dendrelaphis Boulenger in systematischer und zoogeographischer Beziehung. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin (N. F.), 3, 187-204.
Preliminary herpetological investigations on Phetchaburi Province
  • O S G Pauwels
  • P David
  • C Chimsunchart
  • K Thirakhupt
Pauwels O.S.G., David, P., Chimsunchart, C., & Thirakhupt, K. (2000) Preliminary herpetological investigations on Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand. In: Abstracts. Fourth Asiatic Herpetological Conference, Chengdu, China, July 16-20, 2000: 135.
  • O S G Pauwels
  • P David
  • W Nutphand
  • C Chimsunchart
Pauwels,O.S.G., David, P., Nutphand, W. & Chimsunchart, C. (2001) First record of Xenochrophis punctulatus (GÜNTHER 1858) (Serpentes: Colubridae: Natricinae) from Thailand. Hamadryad, 26, 247-252
  • O S G Pauwels
  • K Kunya
  • P David
  • M Sumontha
Pauwels, O.S.G., Kunya, K., David, P. & Sumontha, M. (2009a) First record of the Yunnan Keelback Sinonatrix yunnanensis Rao & Yang, 1998 (Serpentes: Natricidae) from Thailand. Salamandra, 45, 165-169
The fauna of British India
  • M A Smith
Smith, M.A. (1943) The fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. 3 Serpentes. Taylor and Francis, London, 568pp.
First record of Blakeway's mountain snake
  • F Tillack
  • U Scheidt
  • T Ihle
Tillack, F., Scheidt, U. & Ihle, T. (2006) First record of Blakeway's mountain snake, Plagiopholis blakewayi Boulenger, 1893 from Thailand, with remarks on the distribution of Plagiopholis nuchalis Boulenger, 1893 (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae. Pseudoxenodontinae). Veröffentlichungen des Naturkundemuseums Erfurt, 25, 181-186.
Two new snakes from Assam
  • F Wall
Wall, F. (1908) Two new snakes from Assam. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 18, 272-274.
Notes on snakes from the neighbourhood of Darjeeling
  • F Wall
Wall, F. (1909) Notes on snakes from the neighbourhood of Darjeeling. Journal of the Bombay natural History Society, 19, 337-357.
  • G O U Wogan
  • J V Vindum
  • J A Wilkinson
  • M S Koo
  • J B Slowinsky
  • H Win
  • T Thin
  • S W Kyi
  • S L Oo
  • K S Lwin
  • A K Shein
Wogan, G.O.U., Vindum, J.V., Wilkinson, J.A., Koo, M.S., Slowinsky, J.B., Win, H., Thin, T., Kyi, S.W., Oo, S.L., Lwin, K.S. & Shein, A.K. (2008) New country records and range extensions for Myanmar amphibians and reptiles. Hamadryad, 33, 83-96.
MYAN-MAR: Tanintharyi Division, Dawei District, Yaephya Township
  • S E Tandjong
  • Borneo
Dendrelaphis striatus: BORNEO: exact locality unkown, NMW 23679.1, RMNH 40144. Tandjong, S.E. Borneo, BMNH 96.2.17.8. SUMATRA: Deli, ZMA 10482 (1), ZMA 10482 (2). Singkarah, ZMA 16604. Djamobi, ZMA 1668. MYAN-MAR: Tanintharyi Division, Dawei District, Yaephya Township, CAS 244044. Mergui, BMNH 1925.9.17.17. JAVA (dubious locality): ZMB 69792. MALACCA: ZMB 5654b. THAILAND: NW Peninsular, Kapa, NHMB 13177. Dendrelaphis cyanochloris: NORTH-EAST INDIA: Assam, BMNH 1940.3.4.26, S 038. Darjeeling, BMNH 1940.3.4.27, BMNH 1909.3.9.10; LAOS : N of Luang Prabang, PSGV 1011; MYANMAR: Kachin State, Putao District, CAS 221428, CAS 224517, CAS 224603, CAS 221449, CAS 221495. Chin State, Mindat District, CAS 235307. Sagaing Division, Hkanti District, CAS 239235. no exact locality, BMNH 1925.4.2.34; THAILAND: Tak province, PSGV 761 (1), 761 (2).