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Citation Index and Impact factor

Authors:
  • Government Medical College Mahasamund CG
511Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology | July-August 2012 | Vol 78 | Issue 4
Citation Index and Impact factor
Anjana Nigam, Pramod K. Nigam
1
Resident's
page
Departments of Surgery, and
1
Dermatology and STD, Pt. J.N.M.
Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
Address for correspondence:
Dr. Anjana Nigam,
D-30-A, Shailendra Nagar, Raipur – 492 001, Chhattisgarh, India.
E-mail: dr.anjananigam@gmail.com
How to cite this article: Nigam A, Nigam PK. Citation Index and Impact factor. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2012;78:511-6.
Received: November, 2011. Accepted: April, 2012. Source of Support: Nil. Conict of Interest: None declared.
“Citations are an acknowledgement of intellectual
debt.”
- Henry Small
INTRODUCTION
A citation is the text reference and acknowledgement
of a documented information. A scientifically written
article comprises a reference section at the end where
all the references mentioned in the document are cited
serially, and each reference is a citation. A citation
count is the frequency of an article cited by other
articles. A citation index is a kind of bibliographic
database, an index of citations between publications,
allowing the user to easily establish which later
documents cite which earlier documents.
[1]
Citation
indexing consists of the charting of the text details of
each such reference. Citations are used as a measure
of importance of the information source and enables
users to gather data on the “impact” of journals as well
as assessing and analyzing particular areas of research
activity and publication.
[2]
Developments
In 1960, Eugene Garfield’s Institute for Scientific
Information (ISI, formerly Eugene Garfield Associates
Inc.) introduced the first citation index for papers
published in academic journals, the Science Citation
Index (SCI).
[1]
Later, it was further expanded to
produce the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)
and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI).
In 1965, de Solla Price described the inherent linking
characteristic of the SCI as “Networks of Scientific
Papers”.
[3]
The SSCI became one of the first databases
to be mounted on the Dialog system in 1972.
[4]
In
1973, Small published his classic work on Co-Citation
analysis, which became a self-organizing classification
system and eventually an “Atlas of Science” later called
“Research Reviews.”
[5]
The graphical nature of the
worldwide citation network was described by Ralph
Garner in 1965.
[6]
Autonomous citation indexing,
introduced in 1998,
[7]
enabled automatic algorithmic
extraction and grouping of citations for any digital
academic and scientific document. This led to the
creation of new systems for public and automated
citation indexing such as, CiteSeer (now CiteSeer
X
),
Cora (Rexa) and Google Scholar.
Major Citation Indexing services
There are two major publishers of general-purpose
academic citation indexes:
a. Institute for Scientic Information (ISI): Citation
indexing has long been dominated by the
ISI, which is now part of Thomson Reuters.
[8]
It publishes the citation indexes in print
and compact disc forms, which are generally
accessed through the web under the name
‘Web of Science’ (WOS). WOS provides access
to 7 databases: Science Citation Index (SCI),
Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Arts
& Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI), Index
Chemicus, Current Chemical Reactions,
Conference Proceedings Citation Index: Science
and Conference Proceedings Citation Index:
Social Science and Humanities.
b. Elsevier Which publishes Scopus, is available
online only. Scopus is one of the largest abstract
and citation database of peer-reviewed literature
and web sources with smart tools to track,
Access this article online
Quick Response Code:
Website:
www.ijdvl.com
DOI:
10.4103/0378-6323.98093
PMID:
*****
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Nigam and Nigam Citation Index and Impact factor
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analyze and visualize research.
There are also a number of other readily available
citation databases. Some of the notable ones among
these are:
• CiteSeer is both a citation engine and
a digital library. CiteSeer is based on
the SmealSearch engine
[9]
and provides citation,
citation graph analysis, related document retrieval
and other searching of scientific literature.
[10]
Research Papers in Economics (RePec) provides
databases in economics and other discipline-
specific indexes.
[11]
• Google Scholar (GS) provides citation and search
of scholarly literature across many disciplines and
sources. Although limited to the recent articles, it
is a freely-accessible web search engine. Google
Scholar is generally praised for its speed.
[12]
• EBSCOhost is one of the world’s foremost, most-
used, premium, reference database service.
• Compendex (Engineering Index, COMPuterized
ENgineering inDEX) is the computerized version
of the Engineering Index and is one of the most
comprehensive engineering literature databases.
Bibliometrics
Bibliometrics are methods or applications used to
study or measure an influence of a writer or impact of a
scientific paper. Citation analysis and content analysis
are most commonly used bibliometric methods. Other
bibliometrics applications include: Creating thesauri;
measuring frequencies; exploring author affiliations;
and measuring usage by readers.
Citation analysis
Citations can be counted as measures of usage and
impact of the cited work.
[13]
Data from citation indexes
can be analyzed to determine the popularity and impact
of specific articles, authors and research publications.
This is called citation analysis. Some of the measures
that have emerged from citation analysis are:
a. Citation Count
A Citation Count is the number of times an article
is cited by other articles.
[14]
Sometimes, it is
considered to indicate the quality and influence of
the article.
[14]
The citation count may be analyzed
for:
• The frequency of citation of an individual
article
• Total citations / average citation count of an
author per article
• The average citation count for the articles in
the journal
Journal impact factor
Citation counts are correlated with other measures
of scholarly / scientific performance and impact
and can in some cases be enhanced by making a
work open access by self-archiving the complete
article on the web, publishing it in an open access
journal, or publishing it as an open access article in
one of the Hybrid open access journals.
[15]
b. H-index
The H-index, sometimes called the Hirsch
index or Hirsch number, was first developed by
Hirsh
[16]
as a measure to quantify the impact and
quality of the published work of a scientist or
scholar. A scientist has index h if h of his Np papers
have at least h citations each, and the other
(Np−h)papershavenomorethanhcitationseach.
In other words, a scholar with an index of h has
published h papers, each of which has been cited
in other papers at least h times.
[16]
For example, if
the h-index is 15, you have 15 papers cited 15 times
or more. If your h-index is 20, you have 20 papers
cited 20 times or more.
Citation reports in Web of Science and
citation tracker in Scopus calculate the
h-index of a search result. Harzing’s Publish or
Perish program
[17]
calculates the h-index based
on Google Scholar entries. Various proposals to
modify the h-index in order to emphasize different
features have been made.
[18]
Bornmann et al.,
[19]
recently proposed 3 additional metrics, h2lower,
h2center, and h2upper to give a more accurate
representation of the distribution shape. Scientists
with high h2upper percentages are perfectionists,
whereas scientists with high h2lower percentages
are mass producers.
c. i10-index
i10-index is the number of publications with at least
10 citations. In July 2011, Google Scholar started a
tool, which allows scholars to keep track of their
own citations and also produces an h-index and
an i10-index.
d. Download counts
While the number of times a scientific article is cited
by other articles is currently the gold standard for
ranking its impact, online publishing offers another
measure: The number of unique downloads.
[20]
A recent analysis finds that downloads are a
good predictor of citations, and they are available
significantly faster.
[20]
Journal of Vision (JOV) recently began publishing
download counts for every published article. The
journal also ranks the top 20 articles by download.
This downloaded PDF Article is supported by LUMENIS the makers of World’s renowned LightSheer and Ultrapulse Laser
Nigam and Nigam Citation Index and Impact factor
513Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology | July-August 2012 | Vol 78 | Issue 4
Download counts mirror citations, but are available
about 2 years earlier and thus download counts
predict future impact of scientific papers.
[21]
e. KeyWords Plus
®
In 1990, ISI was able to introduce this citation-
based method of derivative subject indexing,
called KeyWords Plus
®
.
[22]
In addition to title
words, author-supplied keywords and abstract
words supplies words and phrases to enhance
retrievability.
Journal Impact Factor
An important and predictive measure of research
impact in research is the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) of
the journal in which the article appears.
[23]
The JIF is
the average number of citations per article per year.
[23]
It is an indication of the importance and uptake of
that research, denoting the relative importance of
a journal within its field, like journals with higher
impact factors are deemed to be more important than
those with lower ones. Impact factors are generally
calculated yearly.
[23]
In a given year or period, the impact factor of a journal
is the average number of citations received per paper
published in that journal during the 2 preceding
years.
[24]
For example, an impact factor 2011 for a journal
is calculated as follows:
• N
1
= Number of times articles published in 2009-
2010 were cited in indexed journals during 2011
• N
2
= Number of articles, reviews, proceedings
or notes (not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor)
published in 2009-2010
• Impact factor 2011 (IF-2011) = N
1
/ N
2
(Note: As the IF is calculated for the 2 preceding years,
the IF 2010 will be actually published in 2011 because it
could not be calculated until all of the 2010 publications
have been processed by the indexing agency. Similarly,
IF 2011 will be published in 2012). The Journal Impact
Factor 2011 for few journals is shown in Table 1.
Related Indices: Some related values, connected with
Journal Impact Factor are:
1. Immediacy index
Immediacy index measures the average number of
times that an article, published in a specific year
within a specific journal, is cited over the course of
the same year.
[25]
2. Cited half-life
Cited half-life measures the number of years, going
back from the current year that account for half
the total citations received by the cited journal in
the current year.
[25]
For example, if a journal’s cited
half-life in 2005 is 5, that means the citations from
2001-2005 are half of all the citations from that
journal and the other half of the citations precede
2001.
3. Aggregate impact factor for a subject category
It is calculated taking into account the number of
citations to all journals in the subject category and
the number of articles from all the journals in the
category.
[25]
Table 1: Journal Impact Factor 2011
Rank Medicine Journals Overall Surgery Journals Overall Dermatology Journals
Journal Impact
Factor
Journal Impact
Factor
Journal Impact
Factor
1 NewEnglJMed 53.484 AnnSurg 7.474 JInvestDermatol 6.27
2 Lancet 33.633 Endoscopy 6.096 Pigm Cell Melanomar Res 4.75
3 JAmMedAssoc 30.011 AmJTransplant 6.048 BrJDermatol 4.351
4 AnnInternMed 16.729 JNeurolNeurosurPs 4.791 JAmAcadDermatol 4.274
5 PLOS Med 15.617 ArchSurg-Chicago 4.5 ArchDermatol 4.231
6 BrMedJ 13.471 BrJSurg 4.444 ExpDermatol 4.159
7 AnnuRevMed 12.457 JAmCollSurgeons 4.241 JDermatolSci 3.712
8 ArchInternMed 10.639 AnnSurgOncol 4.182 ContactDermatitis 3.672
9 CanMedAssocJ 9.015 AmJSurgPathol 4.106 WoundRepairRegen 3.443
10 CochraneDbSystRev 6.186 JVascSurg 3.851 JEurAcadDermatol 3.309
11 JInternMed 5.935 Transplantation 3.676 ActaDerm-Venereol 3.78
12 BMC Med 5.75 JThoracCardiovSur 3.608 Dermatology 3.714
13 MayoClinProc 5.712 AnnThoracSurg 3.558 SkinPharmacolPhys 3.711
14 AmJMed 5.115 WoundRepairRegen 3.443 ClinDermatol 3.424
15 AnnFamMed 4.457 SurgEndosc 3.436 EurJDermatol 3.421
Source:http://impactfactor.weebly.com/
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Nigam and Nigam Citation Index and Impact factor
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4. Median impact factor
It is the median value of all journal impact factors
in the subject category.
[26]
5. Year Impact Factor
It is similar in nature to the Journal Impact Factor;
however, the citations are counted to the previous
5 years and again divided by the source items
published in the previous 5 years. A base of 5 years
may be more appropriate for journals in certain
fields because the body of citations may not be
large enough to make reasonable comparisons,
publication schedules may be consistently late,
or it may take longer than 2 years to disseminate
and respond to published works.
[27]
For example, 5
yr Impact Factor: 32457 citations in 2011 to items
published in 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 /
11648 items published in 2006-2010 = 2.392.
C3PO (Citation Performance Per Paper Online)
ISI reports the mean number of citations for an ISI
journal, namely total citations up to a given day
divided by the number of papers published in an ISI
journal up to the same day as the “average” number of
citations. The C3PO of an ISI journal on any given day
is defined as ‘C3PO (Citation Performance Per Paper
Online) = Total citations to a journal / Total papers
published in a journal.’
[28]
Z-inuence
It measures the number of papers in a journal that have
never been cited. The lack of citations of a published
paper, especially over an extended period, must surely
detract from the quality of a journal by exposing:
(i) what might be considered as incorrect decisions
by the editorial board of a journal; and (ii) the lost
opportunities of papers that might have been cited
had they not been rejected in favor of papers that
are ignored by the profession. Z influence = zero
influence, based on zero citations in ISI journals.
Z influence can be measured by the PI-BETA (Papers
Ignored (PI) - By Even The Authors (BETA) ratio, and
is calculated for an ISI journal on any given day as:
PI-BETA = Number of Z - influence papers in an ISI
journal / Total papers published in an ISI journal. Thus,
PI-BETA for 20 January 2012 is based on Z influence
and total papers up to and including 20 January 2012.
[29]
The daily updates change the h-index, C3PO and PI-
BETA scores.
Impact Factor Ination (IFI)
The ratio of 2-year impact factor (2YIF) to 2-year
impact factor without self citations (2YIF*) is intended
to capture how journal self citations inflate an impact
factor of a journal. An Impact Factor Inflation (IFI)
is defined as “IFI = 2YIF / 2YIF*”. The minimum
value for IFI is 1, with any value above the minimum
capturing the effect of journal self citations on the
2-year impact factor.
[29]
Self-citation Threshold Approval Rating (STAR)
ISI has implicitly recognized the inflation in journal
self citations by calculating an impact factor that
excludes self citations, and provides data on journal
self citations, both historically and for the preceding 2
years, in calculating 2YIF. The Self-citation Threshold
Approval Rating (STAR) is the difference between
citations in other journals and journal self citations.
If S = journal self citations, STAR is defined as “STAR=
(100 - S) - S] = (100 - 2S)”. If S = 0, 25, 50 or 100, for
example, STAR = 100, 50, 0 and -100, respectively. As
STAR can be calculated using journal self citations, both
historically and for the preceding 2 years, historical
STAR is H-STAR and a 2-year STAR is 2Y-STAR.
[30]
Cited Article Inuence (CAI)
Article Influence is intended to measure the average
influence of an article across the sciences and social
sciences. As an article with zero citations cannot have
influence, a more suitable measure of the influence of
cited articles is Cited Article Influence (CAI), which
is defined as “CAI = (1 - PI-BETA)(Article Influence)”.
If PI-BETA = 0, then CAI is equivalent to Article
Influence; if PI-BETA = 1, then CAI = 0. As Article
Influence is calculated annually, whereas PI-BETA is
updated daily, CAI may be updated daily.
[30]
Recursive impact factor
In 1976, a recursive impact factor that gives citations
from journals with high impact greater weight than
citations from low-impact journals was proposed.
[31]
It
resembles the PageRank algorithm of the Google search
engine.
Eigen factor
The Eigen factor is another PageRank-type measure of
journal influence with rankings freely available online.
The Eigen factor™ score of a journal is an estimate of
the percentage of time that library users spend with
that journal.
[32]
This downloaded PDF Article is supported by LUMENIS the makers of World’s renowned LightSheer and Ultrapulse Laser
Nigam and Nigam Citation Index and Impact factor
515Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology | July-August 2012 | Vol 78 | Issue 4
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) indicator
The SJR is an open access, free journal citation-
metric, based on citation information from Scopus.
SJR indicator is a measure of scientific influence of
scholarly journals that accounts for both the number
of citations received by a journal and the importance
or prestige of the journals where such citations come
from.
[33]
The SJR indicator provides an alternative to
the Impact Factor (IF)
Journal Citation Reports
Journal Citation Reports (JCR), integrated with the
Web of Knowledge, is an annual publication by the
healthcare & science division of Thomson Reuters.
[34]
It provides information about academic journals in
the sciences and social sciences subject categories,
including impact factors, the journal immediacy index
and the journal citing half life. The JCR citation data
on journals provides quantitative tools for ranking,
evaluating, categorizing and comparing journals.
[8]
Indian Citation Index
Indian Citation Index (ICI) database was developed
with specific motives to promote knowledge contents,
published in Indian journals and bridge the gap
between the content sources and content users via
World Wide Web.
[35]
ICI database covers about 1000
Indian scholarly journals, encompassing all disciplines
of knowledge including the sciences, social sciences,
arts, and humanities. ICI like other indexes enables
user to move back in time to previously published
papers, but uniquely one can also look forward in time
to determine who has subsequently cited an earlier
piece of research. This feature makes this database a
specialized information product and highly useful for
researchers, policy makers, decision takers, editors,
librarians etc.
[35]
The ICI database also produces other
useful by-products like Indian Science Citation Index
(ISCI), Indian Social Science and Humanities Citation
Index (ISSHCI), Indian Journals Citation Reports
(IJCR), Indian Science and Technology Abstracts
(ISTA) and Directory of Indian Journals (DOIJ).
[35]
Citation indexing: Uses and Limitations
Citation indexes provide authoritative, timely and
prospective as well as retrospective in-depth access to
the literature.
[8]
Citation indexes also provide various
indicators to evaluate the author impact in a subject.
Through citation analysis, citation index provides
journal ranking by giving information about what
articles, themes, and topics were being published,
cited, or ignored and also offers unique insight into
a particular journal and provides data on historical
trends, immediacy index, cited half-life of journals
etc.
[36]
Citation analysis helps to know the Journal
Impact Factor (JIF), Author Self- Citation (ASC) and
Journal Self-Citation (JSC). Citation index also helps
to determine the latest areas of research through
bibliometric indicators.
With citations used as the criterion for importance,
utmost care should be taken as the authors may cite
their own work, thus increasing its apparent academic
importance. Secondly, significant articles may appear
in obscure places (non-core journals) and be missed
by the indexers.
[37]
CONCLUSION
Multiple sources are available on the web like Web
of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and others to
evaluate research impact and quality of a research
work accurately as well as to find out citation
counts, h-index and so on. The h-index has been
proposed as the best measure of a scientist’s research
productivity.
[38]
Citation analysis has shown that some
90% of papers that have been published in academic
journals are never cited, and as many as 50% of papers
are never read by anyone other than their authors,
referees and journal editors.
[39]
The citation databases,
tools and citation methods mentioned here are just a
few of many new and powerful indicators of research
output. Citation index needs to be upgraded from
time-to time by creating and designing it for specific
subject using latest technology and manual efforts.
[40]
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This downloaded PDF Article is supported by LUMENIS the makers of World’s renowned LightSheer and Ultrapulse Laser
Nigam and Nigam Citation Index and Impact factor
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology | July-August 2012 | Vol 78 | Issue 4516
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... Bias towards journals with more experienced and well published authors as editors [64] i10-index Number of publications with at least 10 citations Not found Not found [26] (ex: encouraging self-citation or inflationary practices). These criticisms do not directly target issues with JIF itself; however, they highlight limitations of the factor's usage. ...
... Factors, such as age, citation half-life, cited half-life, comments, bookmarking statistics, immediacy index, provide valuable information in complement to JIF, but do not appear to be comparable functional measures of impact on their own [21,23,24,25]. Citation counts, citations 2011 JCR/WoS, and citations 2011 Scopus, provide information on impact through raw citation counts [21,25,26]. However, these are total citation measures and do not provide article-level information, like JIF [21,25,26]. ...
... Citation counts, citations 2011 JCR/WoS, and citations 2011 Scopus, provide information on impact through raw citation counts [21,25,26]. However, these are total citation measures and do not provide article-level information, like JIF [21,25,26]. Factors that are more similar to the 2-year JIF, include CiteScore [27,28] and the 5-year JIF [23,29,30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Journal Impact Factor (JIF) has several intrinsic flaws, which highlight its inability to adequately measure citation distributions or indicate journal quality. Despite these flaws, JIF is still widely used within the academic community, resulting in the propagation of potentially misleading information. A critical review of the usefulness of JIF is needed including an overview of the literature to identify viable alternative metrics. The objectives of this study are: (1) to assess the usefulness of JIF by compiling and comparing its advantages and disadvantages; (2) to record the differential uses of JIF within research environments; and (3) to summarize and compare viable alternative measures to JIF. Methods: Three separate literature search strategies using MEDLINE and Web of Science were completed to address the three study objectives. Each search was completed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Results were compiled in tabular format and analyzed based on reporting frequency. Results: For objective (1), 84 studies were included in qualitative analysis. It was found that the recorded advantages of JIF were outweighed by disadvantages (18 disadvantages vs. 9 advantages). For objective (2), 653 records were included in a qualitative analysis. JIF was found to be most commonly used in journal ranking (n = 653, 100%) and calculation of scientific research productivity (n = 367, 56.2%). For objective (3), 65 works were included in qualitative analysis. These articles revealed 45 alternatives, which includes 18 alternatives that improve on highly reported disadvantages of JIF. Conclusion: JIF has many disadvantages and is applied beyond its original intent, leading to inaccurate information. Several metrics have been identified to improve on certain disadvantages of JIF. Integrated Impact Indicator (I3) shows great promise as an alternative to JIF. However, further scientometric analysis is needed to assess its properties.
... Bias towards journals with more experienced and well published authors as editors [64] i10-index Number of publications with at least 10 citations Not found Not found [26] (ex: encouraging self-citation or inflationary practices). These criticisms do not directly target issues with JIF itself; however, they highlight limitations of the factor's usage. ...
... Factors, such as age, citation half-life, cited half-life, comments, bookmarking statistics, immediacy index, provide valuable information in complement to JIF, but do not appear to be comparable functional measures of impact on their own [21,23,24,25]. Citation counts, citations 2011 JCR/WoS, and citations 2011 Scopus, provide information on impact through raw citation counts [21,25,26]. However, these are total citation measures and do not provide article-level information, like JIF [21,25,26]. ...
... Citation counts, citations 2011 JCR/WoS, and citations 2011 Scopus, provide information on impact through raw citation counts [21,25,26]. However, these are total citation measures and do not provide article-level information, like JIF [21,25,26]. Factors that are more similar to the 2-year JIF, include CiteScore [27,28] and the 5-year JIF [23,29,30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Journal Impact Factor (JIF) has several intrinsic flaws, which highlight its inability to adequately measure citation distributions or indicate journal quality. Despite these flaws, JIF is still widely used within the academic community, resulting in the propagation of potentially misleading information. A critical review of the usefulness of JIF is needed including an overview of the literature to identify viable alternative metrics. The objectives of this study are: (1) to assess the usefulness of JIF by compiling and comparing its advantages and disadvantages; (2) to record the differential uses of JIF within research environments; and (3) to summarize and compare viable alternative measures to JIF. Methods: Three separate literature search strategies using MEDLINE and Web of Science were completed to address the three study objectives. Each search was completed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Results were compiled in tabular format and analyzed based on reporting frequency. Results: For objective (1), 84 studies were included in qualitative analysis. It was found that the recorded advantages of JIF were outweighed by disadvantages (18 disadvantages vs. 9 advantages). For objective (2), 653 records were included in a qualitative analysis. JIF was found to be most commonly used in journal ranking (n = 653, 100%) and calculation of scientific research productivity (n = 367, 56.2%). For objective (3), 65 works were included in qualitative analysis. These articles revealed 45 alternatives, which includes 18 alternatives that improve on highly reported disadvantages of JIF. Conclusion: JIF has many disadvantages and is applied beyond its original intent, leading to inaccurate information. Several metrics have been identified to improve on certain disadvantages of JIF. Integrated Impact Indicator (I3) shows great promise as an alternative to JIF. However, further scientometric analysis is needed to assess its properties.
... Though citation checking was time-consuming, it was an indepth evaluative method to determine usefulness of collection of libraries supporting education as well as research activity [14][15] . Citation checking of scholarly documents and comparison of those citations against the subscribed materials offered an unnoticeable method of evaluation of the collection and usage of subscribed resources [16][17] . ...
Article
Full-text available
div class="page" title="Page 1"> The advancement of science and technology has impacted functioning of the libraries of higher educational institutions, and the mode of providing resources for various academic activities. For many years, libraries attached to educational institutions have been labouring with the question of how to determine the value of journals in their specific library collection. The Health Sciences Library of Manipal Academy of Higher Education at Manipal, subscribed a vast number of online journals for their users. A relation between the usage and citations of subscribed online journals might provide a basis for the collection management in the libraries of academic and research institutions. The current study resolved to identify whether relationship exists between usage of subscribed online journals and their citations in the academic publications of the health science professionals from 2010 to 2015. The study found a statistically significant relationship between subscribed online journal usage and their citations in the publications through the inferential test of Spearman’s rank-order correlation. For collection development of online journals, libraries can utilise the usage or citation data of journals as a decision making tool. </div
... Citation is the bibliographic acknowledgment of a previously published article [3]. The number of times an article has been quoted is its citation index [4]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Bibliometrics is a statistical number obtained after a biomedical publication. It is a score that is given to a medical paper which reflects the impact of the research in science. It can also be used for medical books, websites, conference proceedings and policy documents. In simple terms, it is a measure of the impact of research [1]. It is traditionally used by librarians and currently researchers use it for:
... • H-index, i10-index [14]: H-index and i10-index are indicators of the number of highquality papers, which are important to quantify the actual productivity and apparent scientific impact of a scholar. Scholars with higher h-index are considered to have greater impact. ...
Article
Full-text available
Google Scholar has been a widely used platform for academic performance evaluation and citation analysis. The issue about the mis-configuration of author profiles may seriously damage the reliability of the data, and thus affect the accuracy of analysis. Therefore, it is important to detect the mis-configured author profiles. Dealing with this issue is challenging because the scale of the dataset is large and manual annotation is time-consuming and relatively subjective. In this paper, we first collect a dataset of Google Scholar’s author profiles in the field of computer science and compare the mis-configured author profiles with the reliable ones. Then, we propose an integrated model that utilizes machine learning and node embedding to automatically detect mis-configured author profiles. Additionally, we conduct two application case studies based on the data of Google Scholar, i.e., outstanding scholar searching and university ranking, to demonstrate how the improved dataset after filtering out the mis-configured author profiles will change the results. The two case studies validate the importance and meaningfulness of the detection of mis-configured author profiles.
... Bibliometric analysis are methods or applications used to meas- ure the influence of authors or scientific papers, of which, cita- tion analysis is the most commonly used methods 3 . Now several citation databases have become available, with the three largest being Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Over the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of open access (OA) journals in almost all disciplines. This increase in OA journals was accompanied an increase in funding to support such movements. Medical fields are among the highest funded fields, which further promoted its journals to move toward OA publishing. Here, we aim to compare OA and non-OA journals in terms of citation metrics and other indices. Methods: We collected data on the included journals from Scopus Source List on 1 st November 2018. We filtered the list for medical journals only. For each journal, we extracted data regarding citation metrics, scholarly output, and wither the journal is OA or non-OA. Results: On the 2017 Scopus list of journals, there was 5835 medical journals. Upon analyzing the difference between medical OA and non-OA journals, we found that OA journals had a significantly higher CiteScore (p< 0.001), percent cited (p< 0.001), and source normalized impact per paper (SNIP) (p< 0.001), whereas non-OA journals had higher scholarly output (p< 0.001). Among the five largest journal publishers, Springer Nature published the highest frequency of OA articles (31.5%), while Wiley-Blackwell had the lowest frequency among its medical journals (4.4%). Conclusion: Among medical journals, although non-OA journals still have higher output in terms of articles per year, OA journals have higher citation metrics.
... The other citation databases include Elsevier (Scopus), CiteSeer, Google Scholar, Ebscohost and Compendex. Citation indexes help understand the author impact in a subject and also journal ranking by giving information about what articles and topics are being published, cited, or ignored [20]. ...
Chapter
Referencing forms a critical part of the research and reflects the thoroughness of literature search.
Chapter
There are many elements to an individual’s life. Each individual engages in a variety of different activities which all require different types or forms of supports. Through family, friends, and colleagues, supports are available for many of the activities in which we engage. But, for students conducting research, specific types of support are necessary that can only be provided by supervisors and peers. This chapter reviews the supports necessary to learn how to effectively undertake research and how these supports could satisfactorily be provided through an e-learning portal or an e-learning platform. An e-learning module could be used to facilitate collaboration amongst student learners and researchers who share similar research interests. Students should be encouraged to develop a community of practice with fellow researchers as this relationship could provide beneficial peer support for as long as their research interests evolve and endure.
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An individual’s h-index corresponds to the number h of his/her papers that each has at least h citations. When the citation count of an article exceeds h, however, as is the case for the hundreds or even thousands of citations that accompany the most highly cited papers, no additional credit is given (these citations falling outside the so-called “Durfee square”). We propose a new bibliometric index, the “tapered h-index” (h T), that positively enumerates all citations, yet scoring them on an equitable basis with h. The career progression of h T and h are compared for six eminent scientists in contrasting fields. Calculated h T for year 2006 ranged between 44.32 and 72.03, with a corresponding range in h of 26 to 44. We argue that the h T-index is superior to h, both theoretically (it scores all citations), and because it shows smooth increases from year to year as compared with the irregular jumps seen in h. Conversely, the original h-index has the benefit of being conceptually easy to visualise. Qualitatively, the two indices show remarkable similarity (they are closely correlated), such that either can be applied with confidence.
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Oppenheim make a compelling case for optimising the UK's pre-eminence in Research Assessment.
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A new form of document coupling called co-citation is defined as the frequency with which two documents are cited together. The co-citation frequency of two scientific papers can be determined by comparing lists of citing documents in the Science Citation Index and counting identical entries. Networks of co-cited papers can be generated for specific scientific specialties, and an example is drawn from the literature of particle physics. Co-citation patterns are found to differ significantly from bibliographic coupling patterns, but to agree generally with patterns of direct citation. Clusters of co-cited papers provide a new way to study the specialty structure of science. They may provide a new approach to indexing and to the creation of SDI profiles.
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A self-consistent methodology is developed for determining citation based influence measures for scientific journals, subfields and fields. Starting with the cross citing matrix between journals or between aggregates of journals, an eigenvalue problem is formulated leading to a size independent influence weight for each journal or aggregate. Two other measures, the influence per publication and the total influence are then defined. Hierarchical influence diagrams and numerical data are presented to display journal interrelationships for journals within the subfields of physics. A wide range in influence is found between the most influential and least influential or peripheral journals.
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The h index is a widely used indicator to quantify an individual's scientific research output. But it has been criticized for its insufficient accuracy—the ability to discriminate reliably between meaningful amounts of research output. As a single measure it cannot capture the complete information on the citation distribution over a scientist's publication list. An extensive data set with bibliometric data on scientists working in the field of molecular biology is taken as an example to introduce two approaches providing additional infor- mation to the h index: (1) h 2 lower, h 2 center, and h 2 upper are proposed, which allow quantification of three areas within a scientist's citation distribution: the low impact area (h 2 lower), the area captured by the h index (h 2 center), and the area of publications with the highest visibility (h2 upper). (2) Given the existence of different areas in the citation distribution, the segmented regression model (sRM) is proposed as a method to statistically estimate the number of papers in a scientist's publication list with the highest visibility. However, such sRM values should be compared across individuals with great care.
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This article describes a 30-year citation analysis of the Archives of Environmental Health (AEH), from the earliest available data in 1975, to 2004, when it became the Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health (AEOH). Longitudinal trends were examined regarding the number of items published, the number of citations received, the immediacy index, and the journal's impact factor. A list of the 5 most highly cited articles was also established, including citation frequency and citation lag times. Overall, this study demonstrates that citation analysis can provide an interesting look at the development of a journal over time. The examination of what articles, themes, and topics were being published, cited, or ignored also offers a unique insight into the direction of not only a particular journal, but also the discipline within which it exists.
Article
The paper is concerned with analysing what makes a great journal great in the sciences, based on quantifiable Research Assessment Measures (RAM). Alternative RAM are discussed, with an emphasis on the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science database (hereafter ISI). Various ISI RAM that are calculated annually or updated daily are defined and analysed, including the classic 2-year impact factor (2YIF), 5-year impact factor (5YIF), Immediacy (or zero-year impact factor (0YIF)), Eigenfactor, Article Influence, C3PO (Citation Performance Per Paper Online), h-index, Zinfluence, PI-BETA (Papers Ignored - By Even The Authors), Impact Factor Inflation (IFI), and three new RAM, namely Historical Self-citation Threshold Approval Rating (H-STAR), 2 Year Self-citation Threshold Approval Rating (2Y-STAR), and Cited Article Influence (CAI). The RAM data are analysed for the 6 most highly cited journals in 20 highly-varied and well-known ISI categories in the sciences, where the journals are chosen on the basis of 2YIF. The application to these 20 ISI categories could be used as a template for other ISI categories in the sciences and social sciences, and as a benchmark for newer journals in a range of ISI disciplines. In addition to evaluating the 6 most highly cited journals in each of 20 ISI categories, the paper also highlights the similarities and differences in alternative RAM, finds that several RAM capture similar performance characteristics for the most highly cited scientific journals, determines that PI-BETA is not highly correlated with the other RAM, and hence conveys additional information regarding research performance. In order to provide a meta analysis summary of the RAM, which are predominantly ratios, harmonic mean rankings are presented of the 13 RAM for the 6 most highly cited journals in each of the 20 ISI categories. It is shown that emphasizing THE impact factor, specifically the 2-year impact factor, of a journal to the exclusion of other informative RAM can lead to a distorted evaluation of journal performance and influence on different disciplines, especially in view of inflated journal self citations.