Increasing chlamydia diagnoses but little change in hospitalisations for ectopic pregnancy and infertility among women in New South Wales from 2001 to 2008

ArticleinSexual Health 9(4):355-9 · September 2012with4 Reads
DOI: 10.1071/SH11143 · Source: PubMed
As genital chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) notifications have increased in Australia, time trends in hospitalisations for ectopic pregnancy and female infertility between 2001 and 2008 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and their relationship to trends in chlamydia notifications in women were assessed. Annual rates of chlamydia notification, and hospitalisations for female infertility or ectopic pregnancy in women aged 15-44 years in NSW were calculated using routinely collected data. Chlamydia notifications and hospital separations occurring within each year belonging to the same woman were linked using probabilistic linkage of identifiers so that multiple notifications and admissions for one woman in each calendar year were only counted once. From 2001 to 2008, the annual rate of chlamydia diagnoses in women increased from 157 to 477 per 100000 population (P(trend)<0.001). Over the same period, the annual hospitalisation rate for women with an ectopic pregnancy decreased from 14.3 to 12.6 per 1000 births (P(trend)<0.001). This decrease was mostly in women aged 25-44 years, with no appreciable fall in women aged 15-24 years (P(trend)=0.8). Meanwhile, the hospitalisation rate for women with infertility of female origin did not follow a consistent trend: between 2001 and 2008, it fluctuated between a low of 479 and a high of 554 per 10000 women who were seeking pregnancy. These trends in ectopic pregnancy and female infertility suggest that the large increase in chlamydia notifications may not reflect hospitalisations for these two proposed chlamydia-related sequelae.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the last three decades, ectopic pregnancy rates have increased considerably in different parts of the world including Australia. Recent reports, however, suggest that the incidence is decreasing or at least stabilising. An analysis of the New South Wales Inpatient Statistics Data collected during the period between 1990 and 1998 has shown a decline in the rate of ectopic pregnancy after 1993. Overall the rate decreased from 17.4 per 1,000 births in 1990-1991 to 16.2 per 1,000 births in 1997-1998. The decline was greater for women aged 35-44 years than for younger women. The findings are consistent with recent studies in other countries, which indicate slowing or the end of the previous upward trend in the incidence of ectopic pregnancy
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the cumulative incidence of severe complications associated with genital chlamydia infection in the general female population. The Uppsala Women's Cohort Study was a retrospective population based cohort study in Sweden, linking laboratory, hospital, and population registers. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hospital diagnosed pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, and used multivariable regression models to estimate hazard ratios according to screening status. We analysed complete data from 43 715 women in Uppsala aged 15-24 years between January 1985 and December 1989. Follow up until the end of 1999 included 709 000 woman years and 3025 events. The cumulative incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease by age 35 years was 3.9% (95% CI 3.7% to 4.0%) overall: 5.6% (4.7% to 6.7%) in women who ever tested positive for chlamydia, 4.0% (3.7% to 4.4%) in those with negative tests, and 2.9% (2.7% to 3.2%) in those who were never screened. The corresponding figures were: for ectopic pregnancy, 2.3% (2.2% to 2.5%) overall, 2.7% (2.1% to 3.5%), 2.0% (1.8% to 2.3%), and 1.9% (1.7% to 2.1%); and for infertility, 4.1% (3.9% to 4.3%) overall, 6.7% (5.7% to 7.9%), 4.7% (4.4% to 5.1%), and 3.1% (2.8% to 3.3%). Low educational attainment was strongly associated with the development of all outcomes. The incidence of severe chlamydia associated complications estimated from ours, and other population based studies, was lower than expected. Studies that incorporate data about pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed in primary care and behavioural risk factors would further improve our understanding of the natural history of chlamydia. Our results provide reassurance for patients, but mean that the benefits of chlamydia screening programmes might have been overestimated.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the change in birth rates, both overall and in age, parity, socioeconomic and geographical subgroups of the population, after the introduction of the Baby Bonus payment in Australia on 1 July 2004. Population-based study using New South Wales birth records and Australian Bureau of Statistics population estimates for the period 1 January 1997 - 31 December 2006. All 853 606 women aged 15-44 years with a pregnancy resulting in a birth at > or = 20 weeks' gestation or a baby > or = 400 g birthweight. Change in birth rate in 2005 and 2006 compared with the trend in birth rates before the introduction of the Baby Bonus. The crude annual birth rate showed a downward trend from 1997 to 2004; after 2004 this trend reversed with a sharp increase in 2005 and a further increase in 2006. All age-specific birth rates increased after 2004, with the greatest increase in birth rate, relative to the trend before the Baby Bonus, being seen in teenagers. Rates of first births were not significantly affected by the bonus; however, rates of third or subsequent births increased across all age, socioeconomic and geographical subgroups. In the first 2 years after the introduction of the Baby Bonus, birth rates increased, especially among women having a third or subsequent birth. This could represent an increase in family size and/or a change in the timing of births.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009
Show more