Immune Responses to Resistance Exercise

Article (PDF Available)inExercise immunology review 18:8-41 · August 2012with367 Reads
Source: PubMed
Resistance exercise induces changes in leukocyte redistribution, phenotypical surface expression and leukocyte functionality. Several factors have been shown to alter the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of response including manipulation of acute program variables, the aging process, and nutritional supplementation. Rest period length and load can modify the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of leukocytosis post exercise. Aging diminishes both the duration and magnitude of the post exercise leukocytosis and reduces leukocyte functionality. The few studies that assessed the effects of nutritional supplements (e.g., carbohydrate, whey protein, caffeine) peri-resistance exercise showed minimal effects on leukocyte responses. Sex differences exist in the timing and magnitude of leukocyte infiltration into skeletal muscle. The immune response to resistance exercise is only a small part of the recovery paradigm. A better understanding of how acute program variables and other factors such as aging, sex and nutritional supplementation affect the immune response to resistance exercise is important in the context of improving recovery, performance and health.


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Available from: Daniel Freidenreich
    • "To reiterate, untrained individuals showed an early increase then a decrease in lymphocyte count, whereas weightlifting trained individuals showed no early increase followed by a delayed increase. Of note, the magnitude in lymphocyte responses were smaller than previously reported data related to high-dose exercise protocols (Freidenreich & Volek, 2012; Walsh et al., 2011), suggesting that a dose-response relationship does exist for exercise-associated lymphocytosis. However, the lymphocyte responses observed in the present study provide strong evidence that exercise intensity and duration alone do not dictate the response to exercise, as both experimental groups undertook a common exercise protocol yet responded uniquely. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: The present study examined the effect of low-dose thumb exertion on lymphocyte subpopulation trafficking. The potential role of blood lactate in mediating lymphocyte redistribution was also investigated. Methods: 27 male participants (18 weightlifting-trained; 9 untrained) were separated into 3 groups of 9 (Weightlifting and Untrained Experimental: WLEXP, UTEXP; Weightlifting Placebo: WLPLA). WLEXP and UTEXP performed 4x60 second isometric thumb intervals separated by 60 second rest intervals in a single-blinded placebo-controlled study. Participants were assessed over a 60 minute post-intervention recovery period for pain, blood lactate and lymphocyte subpopulation counts. Results: WLPLA did not change for any measured variable (p>0.05). The two experimental groups increased significantly (p<0.01) in thumb pain post-intervention (WLEXP:4.92/10; UTEXP:2.92/10) however only WLEXP remained elevated across all time-points. Blood lactate increased for both experimental groups post-intervention (p<0.01) whilst peak concentrations (UTEXP: 2.2mmol/L; WLEXP: 2.4mmol/L) and temporal profiles were not different between groups (p>0.05). No differences in cell count were seen for CD56+/CD16+ lymphocytes across time for any group (p>0.05). UTEXP showed an early significant increase (20 min post-intervention) in CD4+CD3+ (20.78%, p<0.01), CD8+CD3+ (15.25%, p<0.01) and CD19+ (18.11%, p=0.013) cell count before returning to levels not different from baseline by the final time-point (p>0.05). Conversely, WLEXP group showed no early increase followed by a delayed increase in cell count evident at the final time-point; CD4+CD3+ (19.06%, p<0.01), CD8+CD3+ (11.46%, p=0.033) and CD19+ (28.87%, p<0.01). Blood lactate was not correlated with lymphocyte counts. Conclusions: Physical aptitude and not cellular energy demand influences the lymphocyte response to resistance-exercise.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because an individual's investment into the immune system may modify its dispersal rate, immune function may evolve rapidly in an invader. We collected cane toads (Rhinella marina) from sites spanning their 75-year invasion history in Australia, bred them, and raised their progeny in standard conditions. Evolved shifts in immune function should manifest as differences in immune responses among the progeny of parents collected in different locations. Parental location did not affect the offspring's cell-mediated immune response or stress response, but blood from the offspring of invasion-front toads had more neutrophils, and was more effective at phagocytosis and killing bacteria. These latter measures of immune function are negatively correlated with rate of dispersal in free-ranging toads. Our results suggest that the invasion of tropical Australia by cane toads has resulted in rapid genetically based compensatory shifts in the aspects of immune responses that are most compromised by the rigours of long-distance dispersal.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
    • "Some studies have proposed that resistance training does not influence cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) [29,30], however, due to an augmentation in catecholamines during resistance training, especially epinephrine, a redistribution of adhesion molecules in the endothelium could occur, since neutrophils and lymphocytes have receptors to catecholamines, and catecholamines elicits expression of specific adhesion molecules and changes in its cytoskeletal Citation: Montrezol FT, Antunes HKM, Almeida VD, Gomes RJ, Medeiros A (2014) Resistance Training Promotes Reduction in Blood Pressure and Increase Plasma Adiponectin of Hypertensive Elderly Patients. J Hypertens 3: 185. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Hypertension is the most common disease in industrialized countries, and it is responsible for the major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases. Aging increases the prevalence of hypertension and the loss of muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of resistance training on blood pressure and inflammatory markers in hypertensive elderly. Methods: One hundred thirty-five hypertensive elderly were distributed into two groups: training (TG, n=86), and control (CG, n=49). TG underwent 16 weeks of resistance training with three sets of 12 repetitions in eight exercises (50% of one maximal repetition) and the CG remained sedentary. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure was recorded. Results: Resistance training increased muscle strength (21.10 ± 0.71 vs. 25.76 ± 0.80 kg [p<0.01] chest press; 9.93 ± 0.29 vs. 14.41 ± 0.45 kg [p<0.01] knee extension), as well as reduced systolic blood pressure (126.79 ± 1.29 vs. 124.32 ± 1.37 mmHg [p<0.05] daytime; 125.11 ± 1.28 vs. 122.50 ± 1.38 mmHg [p<0.05] 24-h period) in TG. In addition, resistance training increased the circulating levels of adiponectin (4.61 ± 0.24 vs. 5.32 ± 0.25 pg/mL [p<0.01]) and reduced the circulating levels of ICAM-1 (334.38 ± 10.89 vs. 293.05 ± 9.78 pg/mL [p<0.01]). Conclusion: Our results suggest that resistance training is an important tool to reduce blood pressure and improve muscle strength in hypertensive elderly. Besides that, resistance training increase circulating levels of adiponectin, and reduce the levels of plasma ICAM-1 in hypertensive elderly.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Ecology Letters
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