Immune Responses to Resistance Exercise

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA.
Exercise immunology review (Impact Factor: 4.18). 08/2012; 18:8-41.
Source: PubMed


Resistance exercise induces changes in leukocyte redistribution, phenotypical surface expression and leukocyte functionality. Several factors have been shown to alter the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of response including manipulation of acute program variables, the aging process, and nutritional supplementation. Rest period length and load can modify the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of leukocytosis post exercise. Aging diminishes both the duration and magnitude of the post exercise leukocytosis and reduces leukocyte functionality. The few studies that assessed the effects of nutritional supplements (e.g., carbohydrate, whey protein, caffeine) peri-resistance exercise showed minimal effects on leukocyte responses. Sex differences exist in the timing and magnitude of leukocyte infiltration into skeletal muscle. The immune response to resistance exercise is only a small part of the recovery paradigm. A better understanding of how acute program variables and other factors such as aging, sex and nutritional supplementation affect the immune response to resistance exercise is important in the context of improving recovery, performance and health.

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Available from: Daniel Freidenreich
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    • "To reiterate, untrained individuals showed an early increase then a decrease in lymphocyte count, whereas weightlifting trained individuals showed no early increase followed by a delayed increase. Of note, the magnitude in lymphocyte responses were smaller than previously reported data related to high-dose exercise protocols (Freidenreich & Volek, 2012; Walsh et al., 2011), suggesting that a dose-response relationship does exist for exercise-associated lymphocytosis. However, the lymphocyte responses observed in the present study provide strong evidence that exercise intensity and duration alone do not dictate the response to exercise, as both experimental groups undertook a common exercise protocol yet responded uniquely. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The present study examined the effect of low-dose thumb exertion on lymphocyte subpopulation trafficking. The potential role of blood lactate in mediating lymphocyte redistribution was also investigated. Methods: 27 male participants (18 weightlifting-trained; 9 untrained) were separated into 3 groups of 9 (Weightlifting and Untrained Experimental: WLEXP, UTEXP; Weightlifting Placebo: WLPLA). WLEXP and UTEXP performed 4x60 second isometric thumb intervals separated by 60 second rest intervals in a single-blinded placebo-controlled study. Participants were assessed over a 60 minute post-intervention recovery period for pain, blood lactate and lymphocyte subpopulation counts. Results: WLPLA did not change for any measured variable (p>0.05). The two experimental groups increased significantly (p<0.01) in thumb pain post-intervention (WLEXP:4.92/10; UTEXP:2.92/10) however only WLEXP remained elevated across all time-points. Blood lactate increased for both experimental groups post-intervention (p<0.01) whilst peak concentrations (UTEXP: 2.2mmol/L; WLEXP: 2.4mmol/L) and temporal profiles were not different between groups (p>0.05). No differences in cell count were seen for CD56+/CD16+ lymphocytes across time for any group (p>0.05). UTEXP showed an early significant increase (20 min post-intervention) in CD4+CD3+ (20.78%, p<0.01), CD8+CD3+ (15.25%, p<0.01) and CD19+ (18.11%, p=0.013) cell count before returning to levels not different from baseline by the final time-point (p>0.05). Conversely, WLEXP group showed no early increase followed by a delayed increase in cell count evident at the final time-point; CD4+CD3+ (19.06%, p<0.01), CD8+CD3+ (11.46%, p=0.033) and CD19+ (28.87%, p<0.01). Blood lactate was not correlated with lymphocyte counts. Conclusions: Physical aptitude and not cellular energy demand influences the lymphocyte response to resistance-exercise.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "We cannot ignore the fact that a decrease in lymphocytes below pre-exercise values might have been also observed in HYP, but due to our recovery window and the different durations of the exercise protocols, we were unable to observe it. Shear stress and hormonal signals have been suggested to induce the release of WBC from marginated pool (Freidenreich and Volek 2012). Elevations in cortisol are thought to lead to reductions in circulating lymphocyte counts during post-exercise recovery (Shinkai et al. 1996). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute immune response (circulating levels of leukocytes, cytokines and adipocytokines) to maximal resistance (MAX, 15 × 1RM) and hypertrophic resistance (HYP, 5 × 10RM) exercise bouts. Twelve healthy men (age = 28.2 ± 3.5 years, weight = 78.6 ± 10.4 kg, height 178.8 ± 5.0 cm, fat percentage = 16.5 ± 3.5 %) participated in the study. Blood was sampled before, immediately after and 15 and 30 min after exercise. Leukocytes (WBC) significantly increased immediately after HYP (p < 0.01), whereas in MAX, increases in WBC became significant after 30 min (p < 0.05). Lymphocytes increased only after HYP (p < 0.001), while MAX induced lymphopenia during recovery (p < 0.01). Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) decreased (p < 0.05) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) increased after HYP, which were not observed after MAX. Adipsin and resistin decreased after both exercise bouts (p < 0.05), which suggest that heavy resistance exercise is at least transiently beneficial for adipocytokine profile. Immediate mechanical stress seemed similar as no differences in myoglobin response were observed. The higher magnitude of metabolic demand reflected in higher lactate response in HYP could be the reason for the significantly high responses in WBC, IL-1ra and decrease in MCP-1.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Arbeitsphysiologie
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    • "In general populations exercising is associated with an increase in circulating WBCs (Freidenreich and Volek 2012). Although WBCs typically return to baseline hours after an acute bout of exercise in healthy populations, it is unclear what the effect of regular exercise may be in individuals being treated for cancer whose levels are compromised as a result of adjuvant therapies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy for lung cancer can have a detrimental effect on white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts. Physical exercise may have a role in improving WBCs and RBCs, although few studies have examined cancer patients receiving adjuvant therapies. The purpose of this pilot trial was to examine the effects of an exercise intervention utilizing resistance bands on WBCs and RBCs in lung cancer patients receiving curative intent chemotherapy. A sample of lung cancer patients scheduled for curative intent chemotherapy was randomly assigned to the exercise intervention (EX) condition or usual care (UC) condition. The EX condition participated in a three times weekly exercise program using resistance bands for the duration of chemotherapy. A total of 14 lung cancer patients completed the trial. EX condition participants completed 79% of planned exercise sessions. The EX condition was able to maintain WBCs over the course of the intervention compared to declines in the UC condition (p = .008; d = 1.68). There were no significant differences in change scores in RBCs. Exercise with resistance bands may help attenuate declines in WBCs in lung cancer patients receiving curative intent chemotherapy. Larger trials are warranted to validate these findings. Ultimately these findings could be informative for the development of supportive care strategies for lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Clinical Trials Registration #: NCT01130714.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · SpringerPlus
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