Prospective Trial of a Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device

Article (PDF Available)inNew England Journal of Medicine 367(6):532-41 · August 2012with100 Reads
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1014164 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Options for mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to heart transplantation in children with severe heart failure are limited. We conducted a prospective, single-group trial of a ventricular assist device designed specifically for children as a bridge to heart transplantation. Patients 16 years of age or younger were divided into two cohorts according to body-surface area (cohort 1, <0.7 m(2); cohort 2, 0.7 to <1.5 m(2)), with 24 patients in each group. Survival in the two cohorts receiving mechanical support (with data censored at the time of transplantation or weaning from the device owing to recovery) was compared with survival in two propensity-score-matched historical control groups (one for each cohort) undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). For participants in cohort 1, the median survival time had not been reached at 174 days, whereas in the matched ECMO group, the median survival was 13 days (P<0.001 by the log-rank test). For participants in cohort 2 and the matched ECMO group, the median survival was 144 days and 10 days, respectively (P<0.001 by the log-rank test). Serious adverse events in cohort 1 and cohort 2 included major bleeding (in 42% and 50% of patients, respectively), infection (in 63% and 50%), and stroke (in 29% and 29%). Our trial showed that survival rates were significantly higher with the ventricular assist device than with ECMO. Serious adverse events, including infection, stroke, and bleeding, occurred in a majority of study participants. (Funded by Berlin Heart and the Food and Drug Administration Office of Orphan Product Development; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00583661.).

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    • "No preparation of a pump pocket is required, making the assist procedure less invasive in nature. In addition, extracorporeal VADs can also be used in children or undersized patients [22, 23, 44] . However, recent technologies make implantable devices smaller and smaller, and lower limitation of implantable body size also getting smaller. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal VADs are less expensive, their prices reimbursable by the health insurance being about one-sixth of those of implantable VADs in Japan. However, a disadvantage is that, in Japan, their use is restricted to hospitals, necessitating prolonged hospitalization, reducing the patients' quality of life. According to the Japanese registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support, the survival rate does not differ significantly between patients with extracorporeal and implantable VADs. As in Europe and North America, extracorporeal VADs in Japan are commonly used as Bridge to Decision or Bridge to Recovery. Extracorporeal VADs are switched to implantable VADs as a Bridge-to-Bridge strategy after stabilization or when cardiac function recovery fails. They are also used as right ventricular assist devices (RVADs) in patients with right heart failure. A special characteristic of extracorporeal VADs in Japan is their frequent use as a Bridge to Candidacy. In Japan, indications for implantable VADs are restricted to patients registered for heart transplantation. Therefore, in patients who cannot be registered for transplantation because of transient renal dysfunction, etc., due to heart failure, extracorporeal VADs are used first, and then replaced by implantable VADs after transplant registry is done. Here, we describe the current status of extracorporeal VADs in Japan, focusing on the environmental backgrounds, along with a review of the relevant literature.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
    • "Little is known with regards to the long-term outcomes of pediatric MCS patients. In the first multi-institutional prospective trial of a pediatric VAD (Berlin Heart EXCOR) reported by Fraser et al. [13]., 92% had a favorable outcome (transplant, recovery or alive on device) at around 6 months for both cohorts (<0.7 m2 and 0.7 to 1.5 m2). This was significantly better than matched ECMO groups. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in the pediatric heart failure population has a limited history especially for infants, and neonates. It has been increasingly recognized that there is a rapidly expanding population of children diagnosed and living with heart failure. This expanding population has resulted in increasing numbers of children with medically resistant end-stage heart failure. The traditional therapy for these children has been heart transplantation. However, children with heart failure unlike adults do not have symptoms until they present with end-stage heart failure and therefore, cannot safely wait for transplantation. Many of these children were bridged to heart transplantation utilizing extracorporeal membranous oxygenation as a bridge to transplant which has yielded poor results. As such, industry, clinicians, and the government have refocused interest in developing increasing numbers of MCS options for children living with heart failure as a bridge to transplantation and as a chronic therapy. In this review, we discuss MCS options for short and long-term support that are currently available for infants and children with end-stage heart failure.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
    • "Heparin infusion was started 24 hours after the operation and titrated, with eventual transition to low-molecularweight heparin (enoxaparin) or warfarin, and anticoagulant management was as previously described [4]. Antiplatelet therapies were initiated and titrated using thromboelastography-based platelet mapping, as detailed previously [4]. Initial monitoring of anticoagulation involved daily prothrombin time, international normalized ratios, thromboelastography, fibrinogen levels, unfractionated/ low-molecular-weight heparin anti-Xa levels (depending on the heparinoid used), and platelet counts. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebrovascular events (CVEs) are common among children supported with the Berlin EXCOR (Berlin Heart GmbH, Berlin, Germany) ventricular assist device (VAD). Given the high incidence of CVEs associated with this device, we sought to describe our institutional experience in incrementally reducing CVEs in children supported with the Berlin EXCOR VAD. We collected pertinent data on 39 consecutive patients who underwent Berlin EXCOR VAD implantation at a single center. Frequency of CVEs was described in risk per implantation, per day, and in reference to the time of therapeutic anticoagulation. Risk factors were analyzed for association with CVEs. Of the initial 39 Berlin EXCOR VAD implantations, 16 CVEs occurred in 12 patients. The incidence of CVEs decreased with institutional experience per patient (R(2) = 0.6909, p = 0.007) and per patient-day (R(2) = 0.8051, p = 0.002). CVEs occurred more frequently before therapeutic anticoagulation targets were achieved (4.1%/day) compared with after therapeutic anticoagulation targets were achieved (0.9%/day; p = 0.044). Incidence of CVEs decreased with institutional experience. The risk of CVE is highest in the immediate postoperative period before therapeutic anticoagulation is achieved. Further studies are warranted in pediatric patients supported with the Berlin EXCOR VAD to confirm our findings in a larger cohort.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013
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