Vol. 9 nº 1 June 2011 39
Product: Management & Development
Scrum agile product development method - literature review,
analysis and classiﬁcation
Bernardo Vasconcelos de Carvalhoa, Carlos Henrique Pereira Mellob
aUniversity Center of Itajubá
bFederal University at Itajubá
e-mails: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: The aim of this paper was to present a review, an analysis, and a classiﬁcation and coding of the literature
on the Scrum method. Publications of interest were found through a search on CAPES periodicals database.
Those publications were classiﬁed according to their origin, year of publication, type of study, approach, authors’
membership, and reporting period. An investigation was conducted in order to ﬁnd the beneﬁts of using the Scrum
method. Results showed that the literature on the subject is still scarce, but it is expanding and presents a lack of
longitudinal and quantitative studies. It was concluded that there is a great demand for the generation of scientiﬁc
knowledge on the subject.
Keywords: scrum method, agile product development, literature review, literature classiﬁcation.
In today’s software development environment
requirements have been subject to constant changes during
the product development cycle so that they can respond to
shifts in demand (RISING; JANOFF, 2000). Therefore,
software development becomes a challenge, mainly to small
businesses due to their scarce resources.
In the mid 90’s, agile development tecniques for
software products became available. This discipline was
strongly inﬂuenced by the Japanese industry best practices,
mainly the lean manufacturing principles implemented by
Honda and Toyota as well as the Knowledge Management
strategies suggested by Takeuchi and Nonaka (2004) and
In this context, Scrum, a lean product development
approach is highlighted. This process was developed by
Jeff Sutherland in 1993. It was based on a Takeuchi and
Nonaka (1986) article which discusses the advantages of
small teams in product development.
Agile software development methods have gained
popularity lately. However, there are a few empirical studies
about it. A recent systematic literature review (DYBÅ;
DINGSØYR, 2008) identified 1996 articles on agile
methods in general from which 36, or 1.8%, were empirical
studies that could be acceptable in regards to methodology,
credibility and relevance.
Besides Scrum, other agile methods are worth
mentioning, such as: Agile Modeling, AUP (Agile Uniﬁed
Process), Agile Data Method, DSDM (Dynamic Systems
Development Method), EssUP (Essential Uniﬁed Process),
XP (Extreme programming), FDD (Feature Driven
Development), Getting Real e OpenUP (Open Uniﬁed
Process). All of them have their own application niche and
speciﬁcities, but they are all interactive and incremental,
i.e., they follow agile principles (LARMAN; BASILI,
2003). Some of them may be used simultaneously, as seen
in the partnership between XP and Scrum (VRIENS, 2003).
This work paper will focus on Scrum for its popularity, its
capacity to adapt to small teams and its client orientation.
This way, the aim of this paper is to present a review
of the literature on the subject together with an analysis, a
classiﬁcation and a codiﬁcation of the articles found. Then,
it will be possible to check the characteristics of the studies
carried out and identify possible trends and academic needs
on the subject.
2. Scrum principles
Product development is a complex activity, especially for
smaller companies which have great resource limitations.
According to Mundim et al. (2002), product development
has something to do with basically all other roles in a
company. The reason for that is that in order to develop
a product certain kinds of information and abilities are
required from all members of all functional areas, which
makes it, basically, a multitask activity. Moreover, it’s an
ad hoc feature, in which each project of development may
show speciﬁc characteristics and a unique background.
Throughout the years, several methodologies of product
development have been presented. Among them, there are
Scrum agile product development method - literature review, analysis and classiﬁcation Carvalho & Mello40
the so called agile (AMBLER, 2002) or light (FOWLER,
2000) methods. They are adaptable and ﬂexible development
methodologies and are indicated to scenarios where demand
shifting is constant and results must be delivered to the client
in short periods of time. The proposal of these methodologies
is to split development into short cycles or iterations a few
weeks long so that at the end of each cycle the in-house
or outside client may get a version that adds value to the
business (DANTAS, 2003). This way, developers may not
only follow demand shifts at the beginning of each cycle
but also have continuous client feedback and, therefore, cut
down project risks.
While traditional development methodologies focus on
project document generation and on the strict fulﬁllment
of processes, the agile proposal is to focus on development
itself and on participants’ relationships (MUNDIM et al.,
2002). The initial planning phase is reduced for the
developers to concentrate on each iteration instead of having
to draw guidelines for the project as a whole.
Following this agile proposal line, the Scrum method has
the objective, according to Schwaber and Beedle (2002),
to deﬁne a process for the project which is focused on
people. The Scrum idea comes from a comparison between
developers and Rugby players. Scrum is the name of the
quick meeting players have when they are about the start
a move. The ﬁrst time the expression was used was in a
study by Takeuchi and Nonaka (1986). In that study the
researchers noted that small projects led by small multitask
teams had the best results.
In Rugby each team acts as a whole, as an integrated unit
in which each member develops a speciﬁc role and everyone
helps reach a common objective. That is also true for teams
who adopt the Scrum process.
Scrum was created by Jeff Sutherland, Ken Schwaber
and Mike Beedle, and is based on six characteristics
This method doesn’t require or provide any speciﬁc
technique for the development phase. It only establishes a
group of rules and management practices that must adopted
for the success of the project.
The Scrum management practices are:
Scrum’s initial point is Product Backlog. This practice
is considered the one responsible for demand gathering,
according to Schwaber and Beedle (2002). In this initial
point, through meetings with all staff involved along with
investors and project partners the items, the business needs
and all the technical demands to be developed are pointed
out. Thus, Product Backlog is a list of activities which will
be developed during the project.
The Daily Scrum is a quick daily meeting that gathers
all team members to deﬁne which will be the daily tasks
and to know the results of the previous day’s tasks. This
meeting is also called Stand Up Meeting, since it is common
to have everyone standing up during the meeting. Three
questions must be answered by every member about their
responsibilities (RISING; JANOFF, 2000):
Sprint is considered the main Scrum practice. Here all
work tasks deﬁned in the Product Backlog are implemented
by the Scrum team. This may last from one to four weeks.
According to Abrahamsson (2002), in the case of software
development, Sprint included the traditional phases of
software development: demand, analyses, project and
Sprint Planning Meeting is the meeting in which the
team plans its Sprint. Sprint Backlog is a subgroup of
Product Backlog. In other words, it is a list of activities that
must be carried out during the Sprint. On the other hand,
the Sprint Review Meeting is the meeting that happens after
each Sprint. In this meeting, the team discusses what went
wrong or right and lessons learned.
Figure 1 shows a general idea of the dynamics of how
the Scrum process works (MAR; SCHWABER, 2001). In
the beginning, client and developers deﬁne the Backlog, or
a list of demands for the product. The due dates are also
deﬁned taking the clients requests into account; then, the
costs of the project are estimated; an initial risks analysis is
prepared; the work tools and the team members are chosen.
One of the developers is designated Scrum Master, whose
job is similar to that of the project manager (though there
are major differences between a Scrum Master and a Project
The person who is designated as the Scrum Master must
make sure the Scrum process happens and that there are no
barriers for the team members to do their jobs. Removing
barriers appointed by the Daily Scrum is his duty, so that
the developers may concentrate only on technical issues.
Another important role in the method is that of the
Product Owner. This member of the team represents the
internal or the external client. He must deﬁne the demands
and rank each one by importance and priority.
Vol. 9 nº 1 June 2011 41
Product: Management & Development
Traditionally, the development cycles (Sprints) last
around thirty days (SCHWABER, 1995). According
to Figure 1, in the beginning of each Sprint, the teams
make a list of the tasks that must be accomplished in that
Sprint (Sprint Backlog) and the tasks are handed out. The
developers discuss the patterns which will be adopted and
the tasks of analysis, coding and testing are initiated. At
the end of each Sprint, a new version of the product (in
the case of a software product, an executable) is presented
to the client for feedback. The identiﬁed ﬂaws are added
to the Project Backlog. Throughout the project, Scrum
management mechanisms such as control follow-up are
applied. The number of functions not delivered, the need of
changes to correct deﬁciencies or for technological updates,
the technical problems found and the risks and the strategies
to avoid them are examples of control actions observed
during the development.
3. Research method
The research method used for this paper was a thorough
review of the literature on the Scrum method. The purpose
of the review was to identify among worldwide published
research papers everything that has been published with
Scrum as its main or secondary subject. Therefore, this
paper work method may be characterized as quantitative-
theoretical and conceptual.
It is important to highlight that in order to identify, locate
and access publications of interest all database available at
CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de
Nível Superior) which could result in a relevant article in
the Scrum ﬁeld were accessed. They are AAAS, ACM, ACS,
AIP, Annual Reviews, Begen House, Bentham Science,
BioOne, Balackwell, Cambridge University Pres, Cold
Sprint Harbor Laboratory, Duke University Press, EBSCO,
Emerald, Gale, Guilford Press, HighWire Press, IEEE,
Informs, IOP, JSTOR, Karger, Maney Publishing, Nature,
OECD, OVID, Oxford University Press, Red CLACSO,
ProQuest, Sage, SciELO, Science Direct, Slack Inc.,
Springer, Thieme, Wilson e World Scientiﬁc. According
to Carnevalli and Miguel (2007), a work of such nature
(literature review) must take into account all database
available at CAPES due to its wide scope and ease of access
to most researchers in Brazil.
The research was carried out between the 15th and the
17th of October 2008. The key word used for the research
was “Scrum”. At ﬁrst, the search was by work title. Next,
the search was ﬁltered by the abstract ﬁeld. The publication
date was not used as ﬁlter. That way, articles published at
any time were included.
Initially, 48 papers were identiﬁed. However, eight of
them were discarded – seven of them were about Rugby and
related to sports and the eighth was from the medical ﬁeld
and dealt with a substance named “Scrum OestradioI-17-b”.
Consequently, the universe of investigation for this research
paper was of forty articles.
For the data analyses the authors opted to taken into
consideration articles published in journals, congresses and
international symposiums. Dissertations and theses were not
included since the CAPES periodicals database presents a
limited number of those, which would not correspond to
the large number of such papers annually being completed
in the country. Worldwide, it would have been even more
complicated to include dissertations and theses due to the
large number of universities that would have to be looked
into. Therefore, that is a limitation of this work, i.e.,
only work published in indexed journals, congresses and
international symposiums have been investigated.
An adaptation of the Carnevalli and Miguel (2007)
method was used for the sorting of the articles, which were,
then, catalogued and sorted out into two main groups entitled
Conceptual Research and Empirical Research.
The works classiﬁed as Conceptual Research were later
sub-classiﬁed under Theoretical/Conceptual, Literature
Review, Simulation and Theoretical Modeling. On the
other hand, those classiﬁed under Empirical Research were
sub-divided into Survey, Case Study, Action Research and
The other classiﬁcation criteria adopted was the year of
publication, the origin of the data and the time period of
analyses and were denominated as Current, Longitudinal
and Retrospective. The author afﬁliation was classiﬁed as
University, Research Center and Company.
Another goal was to ﬁnd out which beneﬁts of Scrum
are mentioned in the literature. A group of nine beneﬁts
was identiﬁed and these beneﬁts were mapped along those
articles. In the following section of this paper we present
the main ﬁndings of this research study.
Although the Scrum method is popular on the Internet
and at companies, it is not a simple task to ﬁnd scholar
material on the subject. However, this study shows that this
Figure 1. General idea of the scrum process dynamics.
Source: Cohn (2008).
Scrum agile product development method - literature review, analysis and classiﬁcation Carvalho & Mello42
scenario is about to change. The increase in publications
on Scrum has been remarkable along the years (Figure 2).
For instance, if this study had been carried out in 2006 only
11 articles would have been found in our database.
This growth may also be seen in Figure 3, which shows
that 73% of the literature on Scrum was published in the
last two years (2007 and 2008). Besides that, taking into
account that the research was carried out in October 2008,
we believe these numbers have grown even more since
then. A hypothesis for this increase along the years is the
gradual implementation of the method by companies, which,
consequently, is leading scholars toward the subject.
The oldest publication, despite its current approach,
is the one of Rising and Janoff (2000). This is a historic
publishing which introduced Scrum to scholars. Only three
years after that new articles about Scrum were published.
Another aspect to be pointed out is the large concentration
of publications about Scrum available at the IEEE and ACM
database. Those two databases together account for 94% of
the publications found. Figure 4 shows that as well as the
participation of AIP and Science Direct.
Figure 5 shows the result of the classiﬁcation by type
of study. As we can see the most common types are Case
Study and Theoretical/Conceptual methods. Perhaps the low
number of those classiﬁed as Literature Review is due to
the lack of material on the subject. The few research studies
which were classiﬁed as Survey and Action Research may
disclose how immature the subject is.
Next, as it can be seen in Figure 6, the method of work
investigation shows that most studies were qualitative. There
were only three quantitative articles which included Salo
and Abrahamsson (2008) e Sulaiman et al. (2006).
As expected, due to how young the subject is, no article
was found which could be classified as retrospective
analyses. As we can see in Figure 7 almost all the articles
are current, with the exception of the work done by Mann
and Maurer (2005), which performs a longitudinal analyses
(a two-year case study) to measure the impact of Scrum on
Figure 8 brings information that deserves our attention.
It shows the authors afﬁliation. Differently from what we
see with other subjects, most Scrum researchers are in
companies, mainly software related and not in universities
Figure 2. Number of publications by year of publication.
Figure 3. Publications distribution by year of publication. Figure 4. Publication distribution by database.
Vol. 9 nº 1 June 2011 43
Product: Management & Development
and one of its basic elements is in fact the high cooperation
among team members. What surprised us was the second
most mentioned beneﬁt: improvement in the quality of the
product. Initially, Scrum was not proposed with focus on
quality. However, its features ended up having a meaningful
impact on quality improvement.
Another point of study was the percentage of articles
presented in congresses in comparison to articles found in
journals, according to the previously mentioned database.
The result of this classiﬁcation can be observed in Figure 10.
The concentration of articles in congresses is clear.
Figure 5. Publication distribution by method of study.
Figure 6. Publication distribution by approach.
and research centers. That may be explained by the fact
that Scrum had its origins in the software industry and was
implemented by specialists in the ﬁeld. Only more recently
Scrum called the attention of academic researchers who
have started to study it more scientiﬁcally.
Finally, the most mentioned beneﬁts of using Scrum
were mapped. Those beneﬁts may be seen on Table 1 and
Figure 9. An analysis of those beneﬁts shows that the most
mentioned one is the improvement in communication and
the increase in collaboration among those involved. This
was not a surprise since Scrum is oriented towards people
Figure 7. Publication distribution by analyses period.
Figure 8. Publication distribution by authors’ afﬁliation.
Scrum agile product development method - literature review, analysis and classiﬁcation Carvalho & Mello44
This concentration on congresses called the researchers
attention and lead them to check whether a speciﬁc event
would have more articles presented than others. As it can be
seen on Figure 11, three congresses are in evidence. The one
with the higher number of articles is The Agile Conference,
which has published eleven articles on Scrum, and which
represents 59% of all the articles in such events. The other
notable events are ICSE (International Conference on
Software Engineering) and Hawaii International Conference
on System Sciences, which have published three and two
Another point worth mentioning is the fact that the
journals where most of the articles were published are
relevant and of high quality. For instance, IET Software,
System Sciences and The Journal of Product Innovation
Management are some of them and their impact factors are
respectively 1.157, 1.185 e 1.585.
All these results are presented in more detail in
Appendix A, where there is a classiﬁcation of each of
the 40 articles. In the same Appendix there is also the
corresponding journal for each article together with its
database, year of publication (Table 2), type of study,
approach method, researcher afﬁliation, period of analysis
and the Scrum beneﬁts (Table 3).
Table 1. Scrum beneﬁts and its corresponding codes.
Code Beneﬁt Number of times cited
A Increase in client satisfaction (decrease in number of complaints) 9
B Improvement in communication and increase in cooperation among team members 13
C Increase in project return on investment 6
D Increase in development team motivation 5
E Improvement in product quality 11
F Decrease in manufacturing costs 3
G Increase in team productivity 10
H Decrease in time to conclude projects 3
I Decrease in project risk (lower failure possibility) 1
Figure 9. Number of beneﬁts mentioned.
Figure 10. Number of beneﬁts citation.
Figure 11. Events with most articles on Scrum presented.
Vol. 9 nº 1 June 2011 45
Product: Management & Development
5. Conclusions and suggestions for future study
According to the data collected, it is possible to conclude
that the literature on Scrum is scarce, but growing. If the
tendencies are conﬁrmed, in a few years there will be more
publications on this topic. It is also possible to observe that
there is great concentration of publication in a few journals
and databases. The growth in the number of publications
in the last couple of years may raise interest on publication
about this topic in other databases.
It is also clear that the literature lacks longitudinal and
quantitative studies on this subject. Therefore, other works
covering those aspects have large chances of being accepted
by the scientiﬁc community.
The fact that quality improvement was such a mentioned
beneﬁt takes us to raise the hypothesis that Scrum has strong
impact on product quality. However, more accurate studies
are necessary to test that hypothesis, which would demand
hard research work.
This study also concludes that Scrum is still mainly
a managerial tool with a weak scholar perspective. That
suggests that there is a scientific gap to be filled by
researchers. On that account, research papers that show
thorough action research focused on the implementation
of Scrum in high-tech small businesses, whether they
are software based or not, may be appealing future study
Finally, it is possible to say that the present study met
its objectives, since it presented the state of the art on the
application of Scrum in scholar research studies. This study
has also shown possible areas or opportunities to foster the
number of studies about the subject.
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Management, v. 20, n. 4, p. 369-376, 2005. http://dx.doi.
SMITS, H.; PSHIGODA, G. Implementing Scrum in a
Distributed Software Development Organization. In:
AGILE CONFERENCE, 2007, Washington. Proceedings…
Washington: Agile Alliance, 2007. p. 371-375.
SULAIMAN, T.; BARTON, B.; BLACKBURN, T. Agile
EVM - Earned Value Management in Scrum Projects. In:
AGILE CONFERENCE, 2006, Minnesota. Proceedings…
Minnesota: IEEE Computer Society, 2006. p. 23-28.
SUTHERLAND, J. Future of Scrum Parallel Pipelining of
Sprints in Complex Projects. In: AGILE CONFERENCE,
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2005. p. 90-99.
SUTHERLAND, J.; JAKOBSEN, C.; JOHNSON, K. Scrum
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Washington: Agile Alliance, 2007. p. 272-278.
SUTHERLAND, J.; JAKOBSEN, C.; JOHNSON, K. Scrum
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SUTHERLAND, J. et al. Fully Distributed Scrum. The Secret
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ANNUAL HAWAII INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
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Scrum agile product development method - literature review, analysis and classiﬁcation Carvalho & Mello48
Table 2. Journals, year of publication and database of coded articles.
Code Authors Journal Year Database
1 Mann, C. and Maurer, F. Agile Conference, p. 70-79. 2005 IEEE
Fraser, S.; Rising, L.; Ambler, S.; Cockburn, A.;
Eckstein, J.; Hussman, D.; Miller, R.; Striebeck, M. and
Dynamic Languages Symposium, p. 937-939. 2006 ACM
3 Salo, O. and Abrahamsson, P. IET Software - Volume 2, Issue 1, p. 58-64. 2008 AIP
4 Maurer, F. and Melnik, G. 28th International Conference on Software Engineering. 2006 ACM
5 Maurer, F. and Melnik, G. 29th International Conference on Software Engineering. 2007 ACM
6Lukanuski, M.; Milano, M.; Bruin, J.;
Rochford, M.; Bosman, R. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 2008 ACM
7 Keenan, F. 26th International Conference on Software. 2004 ACM
8 Smith, P. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, p. 369-376. 2005 ACM
9 Sulaiman, T.; Barton, B. and Blackburn, T. Agile Conference. 2006 IEEE
10 Berczuk, S. Agile Conference, p. 382-388. 2007 IEEE
11 Kniberg, H. and Farhang, R. Agile Conference, p. 436-444. 2008 IEEE
12 Vriens, C. Agile Development Conference, p. 120-124. 2003 IEEE
13 Paasivaara, M.; Durasiewicz, S. and Lassenius, C. Global Software Engineering, p. 87-95. 2008 IEEE
14 Sutherland, J.; Viktorov, A.; Blount, J. and Puntikov, N. System Sciences, p. 274a. 2007 IEEE
15 Dybå, T. and Dingsøyr, T SINTEF ICT, S.P. Andersensv. 2008 Science Direct
16 Sutherland, J.; Schoonheim, G.; Rustenburg, E. and
Rijk, M. Agile Conference, p. 339-344. 2008 IEEE
17 Sutherland, J. Agile Conference, p. 90-99. 2005 IEEE
18 Judy, K. and Krumins-Beens, I. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences,
p. 462-462. 2008 IEEE
19 Uy, E. and Ioannou, N. Agile Conference, p. 345-350. 2008 IEEE
20 Barton, B. and Campbell, E. System Sciences, p. 275a. 2007 IEEE
21 Smits, H. and Pshigoda, G. Agile Conference, p. 371-375. 2007 IEEE
22 Rayhan, S. and Haque, N. Agile Conference, p. 351-355. 2008 IEEE
23 Scotland, K. and Boutin, A. Agile Conference, p. 191-195. 2008 IEEE
24 Marçal, A.; Freitas, B.; Soares, F. and Belchior, A. Software Engineering Workshop, p. 13-22. 2007 IEEE
25 Mahnic, V. and Zabkar, N. International Conference on Computer Engineering and
Applications. 2008 ACM
26 Uy, E. and Rosendahl, R. Agile Conference, p. 506-512. 2008 IEEE
27 Lewis, J. and Neher, K. Agile Conference, p. 389-394. 2007 IEEE
28 Edwards, M. Agile Conference, p. 413-416. 2008 IEEE
29 Lyon, R. and Evans, M. Agile Conference, p. 395-400. 2008 IEEE
30 Sutherland, J.; Jakobsen, C. Johnson, K. Agile Conference, p. 272-278. 2007 IEEE
31 Sutherland, J.; Jakobsen, C. and Johnson, K. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences,
p. 466-466. 2008 IEEE
32 Moore, R.; Reff, K.; Graham, J. and Hackerson, B. Agile Conference, p. 175-180. 2007 IEEE
33 Bates, C. and Yates, S. International workshop on Cooperative and human aspects
of software engineering. 2008 ACM
34 Marchenko, A. and Abrahamsson, P. Agile Conference, p. 15-26. 2008 IEEE
35 Doernhoefer, M. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes - Volume 29,
Issue 5. 2004 ACM
36 Rising, L. and Janoff, N. Software, IEEE - Volume 17, Issue 4, p. 26-32. 2000 IEEE
37 Cristal, M.; Wildt, D. and Prikladnicki, R. Global Software Engineering, p. 222-226. 2008 IEEE
38 Sanders, D. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, Volume 23,
Issue 1. 2007 ACM
39 Berczuk, S.; Harrison, N.; Henney, K.; Kerievsky, J.;
Rising, L.; Schwaber, K. and Woolf, B.
International Conference on Object-Oriented Programming,
Systems, Languages, and Applications, p. 26-30. 2003 ACM
40 Bruegge, B. and Schiller, J. Database and Expert Systems Application, p. 125-129. 2008 IEEE
Vol. 9 nº 1 June 2011 49
Product: Management & Development
Table 3. Type of study, approach methods, researcher afﬁliation, period of coded article analysis and the Scrum beneﬁts
Code Type of study Approach Author
Scrum beneﬁts (see Table 1)
A B C D E F G H I
1 Case study Qualitative U Longitudinal x - - - - - - - -
2 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
3 Survey Quantitative R Current x - - - - - - - -
4 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current - - - - - - - - -
5 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current x x - - - - - - -
6 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
7 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current - - - - - - - - -
8 Literature review Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
9 Experimental Quantitative C Current - - x - - - - - -
10 Case study Qualitative C Current - x - - - - - - -
11 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - x - - - - -
12 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
13 Case study Qualitative U Current - x - x x - - - -
14 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - x - - -
15 Literature review Qualitative R Current - - - - - - - - -
16 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - x - x x -
17 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current x x x x x x x - -
18 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current - x - - - - - - -
19 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
20 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current x x x x x - x - -
21 Case study Qualitative C Current - x - - x - - - -
22 Case study Qualitative C Current - x - - - - - - -
23 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
24 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current - x x - x - x - -
25 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
26 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
27 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
28 Action research Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - x
29 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - x - - - -
30 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current x - x - x - x - -
31 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current x - x - x - x - -
32 Action research Qualitative C Current - x - x - - x - -
33 Teórico-conceitual Qualitative U Current x x - - - - - - -
34 Case study Qualitative R Current - - - - - - - - -
35 Literature review Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
36 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current x x - - x - - - -
37 Case study Qualitative U Current - - - - x - x - -
38 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current - x - - - - x x -
39 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
40 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current - - - - - x x x -
U = University; R = Research center; C = Company.