ArticlePDF Available

Scrum agile product development method -literature review, analysis and classification


Abstract and Figures

The aim of this paper was to present a review, an analysis, and a classification and coding of the literature on the Scrum method. Publications of interest were found through a search on CAPES periodicals database. Those publications were classified according to their origin, year of publication, type of study, approach, authors' membership, and reporting period. An investigation was conducted in order to find the benefits of using the Scrum method. Results showed that the literature on the subject is still scarce, but it is expanding and presents a lack of longitudinal and quantitative studies. It was concluded that there is a great demand for the generation of scientific knowledge on the subject.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Vol. 9 nº 1 June 2011 39
Product: Management & Development
Scrum agile product development method - literature review,
analysis and classification
Bernardo Vasconcelos de Carvalhoa, Carlos Henrique Pereira Mellob
aUniversity Center of Itajubá
bFederal University at Itajubá
Abstract: The aim of this paper was to present a review, an analysis, and a classification and coding of the literature
on the Scrum method. Publications of interest were found through a search on CAPES periodicals database.
Those publications were classified according to their origin, year of publication, type of study, approach, authors’
membership, and reporting period. An investigation was conducted in order to find the benefits of using the Scrum
method. Results showed that the literature on the subject is still scarce, but it is expanding and presents a lack of
longitudinal and quantitative studies. It was concluded that there is a great demand for the generation of scientific
knowledge on the subject.
Keywords: scrum method, agile product development, literature review, literature classification.
1. Introduction
In today’s software development environment
requirements have been subject to constant changes during
the product development cycle so that they can respond to
shifts in demand (RISING; JANOFF, 2000). Therefore,
software development becomes a challenge, mainly to small
businesses due to their scarce resources.
In the mid 90’s, agile development tecniques for
software products became available. This discipline was
strongly influenced by the Japanese industry best practices,
mainly the lean manufacturing principles implemented by
Honda and Toyota as well as the Knowledge Management
strategies suggested by Takeuchi and Nonaka (2004) and
Senge (1990).
In this context, Scrum, a lean product development
approach is highlighted. This process was developed by
Jeff Sutherland in 1993. It was based on a Takeuchi and
Nonaka (1986) article which discusses the advantages of
small teams in product development.
Agile software development methods have gained
popularity lately. However, there are a few empirical studies
about it. A recent systematic literature review (DYBÅ;
DINGSØYR, 2008) identified 1996 articles on agile
methods in general from which 36, or 1.8%, were empirical
studies that could be acceptable in regards to methodology,
credibility and relevance.
Besides Scrum, other agile methods are worth
mentioning, such as: Agile Modeling, AUP (Agile Unified
Process), Agile Data Method, DSDM (Dynamic Systems
Development Method), EssUP (Essential Unified Process),
XP (Extreme programming), FDD (Feature Driven
Development), Getting Real e OpenUP (Open Unified
Process). All of them have their own application niche and
specificities, but they are all interactive and incremental,
i.e., they follow agile principles (LARMAN; BASILI,
2003). Some of them may be used simultaneously, as seen
in the partnership between XP and Scrum (VRIENS, 2003).
This work paper will focus on Scrum for its popularity, its
capacity to adapt to small teams and its client orientation.
This way, the aim of this paper is to present a review
of the literature on the subject together with an analysis, a
classification and a codification of the articles found. Then,
it will be possible to check the characteristics of the studies
carried out and identify possible trends and academic needs
on the subject.
2. Scrum principles
Product development is a complex activity, especially for
smaller companies which have great resource limitations.
According to Mundim et al. (2002), product development
has something to do with basically all other roles in a
company. The reason for that is that in order to develop
a product certain kinds of information and abilities are
required from all members of all functional areas, which
makes it, basically, a multitask activity. Moreover, it’s an
ad hoc feature, in which each project of development may
show specific characteristics and a unique background.
Throughout the years, several methodologies of product
development have been presented. Among them, there are
Scrum agile product development method - literature review, analysis and classification Carvalho & Mello40
the so called agile (AMBLER, 2002) or light (FOWLER,
2000) methods. They are adaptable and flexible development
methodologies and are indicated to scenarios where demand
shifting is constant and results must be delivered to the client
in short periods of time. The proposal of these methodologies
is to split development into short cycles or iterations a few
weeks long so that at the end of each cycle the in-house
or outside client may get a version that adds value to the
business (DANTAS, 2003). This way, developers may not
only follow demand shifts at the beginning of each cycle
but also have continuous client feedback and, therefore, cut
down project risks.
While traditional development methodologies focus on
project document generation and on the strict fulfillment
of processes, the agile proposal is to focus on development
itself and on participants’ relationships (MUNDIM et al.,
2002). The initial planning phase is reduced for the
developers to concentrate on each iteration instead of having
to draw guidelines for the project as a whole.
Following this agile proposal line, the Scrum method has
the objective, according to Schwaber and Beedle (2002),
to define a process for the project which is focused on
people. The Scrum idea comes from a comparison between
developers and Rugby players. Scrum is the name of the
quick meeting players have when they are about the start
a move. The first time the expression was used was in a
study by Takeuchi and Nonaka (1986). In that study the
researchers noted that small projects led by small multitask
teams had the best results.
In Rugby each team acts as a whole, as an integrated unit
in which each member develops a specific role and everyone
helps reach a common objective. That is also true for teams
who adopt the Scrum process.
Scrum was created by Jeff Sutherland, Ken Schwaber
and Mike Beedle, and is based on six characteristics
(SCHWABER, 1995):
• Resultexibility;
• Deadlineexibility;
• Smallteams;
• Frequentreviews;
• Cooperation;
• Objectorientation.
This method doesn’t require or provide any specific
technique for the development phase. It only establishes a
group of rules and management practices that must adopted
for the success of the project.
The Scrum management practices are:
• Productbacklog;
• Dailyscrum;
• Sprint;
• Sprintplanningmeeting;
• Sprintbacklog;
• Sprintreviewmeeting.
Scrum’s initial point is Product Backlog. This practice
is considered the one responsible for demand gathering,
according to Schwaber and Beedle (2002). In this initial
point, through meetings with all staff involved along with
investors and project partners the items, the business needs
and all the technical demands to be developed are pointed
out. Thus, Product Backlog is a list of activities which will
be developed during the project.
The Daily Scrum is a quick daily meeting that gathers
all team members to define which will be the daily tasks
and to know the results of the previous day’s tasks. This
meeting is also called Stand Up Meeting, since it is common
to have everyone standing up during the meeting. Three
questions must be answered by every member about their
responsibilities (RISING; JANOFF, 2000):
• Whatwasdoneyesterday?
• Whatwillbedonetoday?
• Isthereanyobstacletotheaccomplishmentofyour
Sprint is considered the main Scrum practice. Here all
work tasks defined in the Product Backlog are implemented
by the Scrum team. This may last from one to four weeks.
According to Abrahamsson (2002), in the case of software
development, Sprint included the traditional phases of
software development: demand, analyses, project and
Sprint Planning Meeting is the meeting in which the
team plans its Sprint. Sprint Backlog is a subgroup of
Product Backlog. In other words, it is a list of activities that
must be carried out during the Sprint. On the other hand,
the Sprint Review Meeting is the meeting that happens after
each Sprint. In this meeting, the team discusses what went
wrong or right and lessons learned.
Figure 1 shows a general idea of the dynamics of how
the Scrum process works (MAR; SCHWABER, 2001). In
the beginning, client and developers define the Backlog, or
a list of demands for the product. The due dates are also
defined taking the clients requests into account; then, the
costs of the project are estimated; an initial risks analysis is
prepared; the work tools and the team members are chosen.
One of the developers is designated Scrum Master, whose
job is similar to that of the project manager (though there
are major differences between a Scrum Master and a Project
The person who is designated as the Scrum Master must
make sure the Scrum process happens and that there are no
barriers for the team members to do their jobs. Removing
barriers appointed by the Daily Scrum is his duty, so that
the developers may concentrate only on technical issues.
Another important role in the method is that of the
Product Owner. This member of the team represents the
internal or the external client. He must define the demands
and rank each one by importance and priority.
Vol. 9 nº 1 June 2011 41
Product: Management & Development
Traditionally, the development cycles (Sprints) last
around thirty days (SCHWABER, 1995). According
to Figure 1, in the beginning of each Sprint, the teams
make a list of the tasks that must be accomplished in that
Sprint (Sprint Backlog) and the tasks are handed out. The
developers discuss the patterns which will be adopted and
the tasks of analysis, coding and testing are initiated. At
the end of each Sprint, a new version of the product (in
the case of a software product, an executable) is presented
to the client for feedback. The identified flaws are added
to the Project Backlog. Throughout the project, Scrum
management mechanisms such as control follow-up are
applied. The number of functions not delivered, the need of
changes to correct deficiencies or for technological updates,
the technical problems found and the risks and the strategies
to avoid them are examples of control actions observed
during the development.
3. Research method
The research method used for this paper was a thorough
review of the literature on the Scrum method. The purpose
of the review was to identify among worldwide published
research papers everything that has been published with
Scrum as its main or secondary subject. Therefore, this
paper work method may be characterized as quantitative-
theoretical and conceptual.
It is important to highlight that in order to identify, locate
and access publications of interest all database available at
CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de
Nível Superior) which could result in a relevant article in
the Scrum field were accessed. They are AAAS, ACM, ACS,
AIP, Annual Reviews, Begen House, Bentham Science,
BioOne, Balackwell, Cambridge University Pres, Cold
Sprint Harbor Laboratory, Duke University Press, EBSCO,
Emerald, Gale, Guilford Press, HighWire Press, IEEE,
Informs, IOP, JSTOR, Karger, Maney Publishing, Nature,
OECD, OVID, Oxford University Press, Red CLACSO,
ProQuest, Sage, SciELO, Science Direct, Slack Inc.,
Springer, Thieme, Wilson e World Scientific. According
to Carnevalli and Miguel (2007), a work of such nature
(literature review) must take into account all database
available at CAPES due to its wide scope and ease of access
to most researchers in Brazil.
The research was carried out between the 15th and the
17th of October 2008. The key word used for the research
was “Scrum”. At first, the search was by work title. Next,
the search was filtered by the abstract field. The publication
date was not used as filter. That way, articles published at
any time were included.
Initially, 48 papers were identified. However, eight of
them were discarded – seven of them were about Rugby and
related to sports and the eighth was from the medical field
and dealt with a substance named “Scrum OestradioI-17-b”.
Consequently, the universe of investigation for this research
paper was of forty articles.
For the data analyses the authors opted to taken into
consideration articles published in journals, congresses and
international symposiums. Dissertations and theses were not
included since the CAPES periodicals database presents a
limited number of those, which would not correspond to
the large number of such papers annually being completed
in the country. Worldwide, it would have been even more
complicated to include dissertations and theses due to the
large number of universities that would have to be looked
into. Therefore, that is a limitation of this work, i.e.,
only work published in indexed journals, congresses and
international symposiums have been investigated.
An adaptation of the Carnevalli and Miguel (2007)
method was used for the sorting of the articles, which were,
then, catalogued and sorted out into two main groups entitled
Conceptual Research and Empirical Research.
The works classified as Conceptual Research were later
sub-classified under Theoretical/Conceptual, Literature
Review, Simulation and Theoretical Modeling. On the
other hand, those classified under Empirical Research were
sub-divided into Survey, Case Study, Action Research and
Experimental Research.
The other classification criteria adopted was the year of
publication, the origin of the data and the time period of
analyses and were denominated as Current, Longitudinal
and Retrospective. The author affiliation was classified as
University, Research Center and Company.
Another goal was to find out which benefits of Scrum
are mentioned in the literature. A group of nine benefits
was identified and these benefits were mapped along those
articles. In the following section of this paper we present
the main findings of this research study.
4. Results
Although the Scrum method is popular on the Internet
and at companies, it is not a simple task to find scholar
material on the subject. However, this study shows that this
Figure 1. General idea of the scrum process dynamics.
Source: Cohn (2008).
Scrum agile product development method - literature review, analysis and classification Carvalho & Mello42
scenario is about to change. The increase in publications
on Scrum has been remarkable along the years (Figure 2).
For instance, if this study had been carried out in 2006 only
11 articles would have been found in our database.
This growth may also be seen in Figure 3, which shows
that 73% of the literature on Scrum was published in the
last two years (2007 and 2008). Besides that, taking into
account that the research was carried out in October 2008,
we believe these numbers have grown even more since
then. A hypothesis for this increase along the years is the
gradual implementation of the method by companies, which,
consequently, is leading scholars toward the subject.
The oldest publication, despite its current approach,
is the one of Rising and Janoff (2000). This is a historic
publishing which introduced Scrum to scholars. Only three
years after that new articles about Scrum were published.
Another aspect to be pointed out is the large concentration
of publications about Scrum available at the IEEE and ACM
database. Those two databases together account for 94% of
the publications found. Figure 4 shows that as well as the
participation of AIP and Science Direct.
Figure 5 shows the result of the classification by type
of study. As we can see the most common types are Case
Study and Theoretical/Conceptual methods. Perhaps the low
number of those classified as Literature Review is due to
the lack of material on the subject. The few research studies
which were classified as Survey and Action Research may
disclose how immature the subject is.
Next, as it can be seen in Figure 6, the method of work
investigation shows that most studies were qualitative. There
were only three quantitative articles which included Salo
and Abrahamsson (2008) e Sulaiman et al. (2006).
As expected, due to how young the subject is, no article
was found which could be classified as retrospective
analyses. As we can see in Figure 7 almost all the articles
are current, with the exception of the work done by Mann
and Maurer (2005), which performs a longitudinal analyses
(a two-year case study) to measure the impact of Scrum on
client satisfaction.
Figure 8 brings information that deserves our attention.
It shows the authors affiliation. Differently from what we
see with other subjects, most Scrum researchers are in
companies, mainly software related and not in universities
Figure 2. Number of publications by year of publication.
Figure 3. Publications distribution by year of publication. Figure 4. Publication distribution by database.
Vol. 9 nº 1 June 2011 43
Product: Management & Development
and one of its basic elements is in fact the high cooperation
among team members. What surprised us was the second
most mentioned benefit: improvement in the quality of the
product. Initially, Scrum was not proposed with focus on
quality. However, its features ended up having a meaningful
impact on quality improvement.
Another point of study was the percentage of articles
presented in congresses in comparison to articles found in
journals, according to the previously mentioned database.
The result of this classification can be observed in Figure 10.
The concentration of articles in congresses is clear.
Figure 5. Publication distribution by method of study.
Figure 6. Publication distribution by approach.
and research centers. That may be explained by the fact
that Scrum had its origins in the software industry and was
implemented by specialists in the field. Only more recently
Scrum called the attention of academic researchers who
have started to study it more scientifically.
Finally, the most mentioned benefits of using Scrum
were mapped. Those benefits may be seen on Table 1 and
Figure 9. An analysis of those benefits shows that the most
mentioned one is the improvement in communication and
the increase in collaboration among those involved. This
was not a surprise since Scrum is oriented towards people
Figure 7. Publication distribution by analyses period.
Figure 8. Publication distribution by authors’ affiliation.
Scrum agile product development method - literature review, analysis and classification Carvalho & Mello44
This concentration on congresses called the researchers
attention and lead them to check whether a specific event
would have more articles presented than others. As it can be
seen on Figure 11, three congresses are in evidence. The one
with the higher number of articles is The Agile Conference,
which has published eleven articles on Scrum, and which
represents 59% of all the articles in such events. The other
notable events are ICSE (International Conference on
Software Engineering) and Hawaii International Conference
on System Sciences, which have published three and two
articles, respectively.
Another point worth mentioning is the fact that the
journals where most of the articles were published are
relevant and of high quality. For instance, IET Software,
System Sciences and The Journal of Product Innovation
Management are some of them and their impact factors are
respectively 1.157, 1.185 e 1.585.
All these results are presented in more detail in
Appendix A, where there is a classification of each of
the 40 articles. In the same Appendix there is also the
corresponding journal for each article together with its
database, year of publication (Table 2), type of study,
approach method, researcher affiliation, period of analysis
and the Scrum benefits (Table 3).
Table 1. Scrum benefits and its corresponding codes.
Code Benefit Number of times cited
A Increase in client satisfaction (decrease in number of complaints) 9
B Improvement in communication and increase in cooperation among team members 13
C Increase in project return on investment 6
D Increase in development team motivation 5
E Improvement in product quality 11
F Decrease in manufacturing costs 3
G Increase in team productivity 10
H Decrease in time to conclude projects 3
I Decrease in project risk (lower failure possibility) 1
Figure 9. Number of benefits mentioned.
Figure 10. Number of benefits citation.
Figure 11. Events with most articles on Scrum presented.
Vol. 9 nº 1 June 2011 45
Product: Management & Development
5. Conclusions and suggestions for future study
According to the data collected, it is possible to conclude
that the literature on Scrum is scarce, but growing. If the
tendencies are confirmed, in a few years there will be more
publications on this topic. It is also possible to observe that
there is great concentration of publication in a few journals
and databases. The growth in the number of publications
in the last couple of years may raise interest on publication
about this topic in other databases.
It is also clear that the literature lacks longitudinal and
quantitative studies on this subject. Therefore, other works
covering those aspects have large chances of being accepted
by the scientific community.
The fact that quality improvement was such a mentioned
benefit takes us to raise the hypothesis that Scrum has strong
impact on product quality. However, more accurate studies
are necessary to test that hypothesis, which would demand
hard research work.
This study also concludes that Scrum is still mainly
a managerial tool with a weak scholar perspective. That
suggests that there is a scientific gap to be filled by
researchers. On that account, research papers that show
thorough action research focused on the implementation
of Scrum in high-tech small businesses, whether they
are software based or not, may be appealing future study
Finally, it is possible to say that the present study met
its objectives, since it presented the state of the art on the
application of Scrum in scholar research studies. This study
has also shown possible areas or opportunities to foster the
number of studies about the subject.
6. References
AMBLER, S. Agile Modeling: Effective Practices for eXtreme
Programming and the Unified Process. New York: Wiley
Computer Publishing, 2002. 402 p.
ABRAHAMSSON, P.; SALO, O. Agile Software Development
Methods - Review and Analysis. VTT Publications, 2002.
112 p.
BARTON, B.; CAMPBELL, E. Implementing a Professional
Services Organization Using Type C Scrum. In: HAWAII
SCIENCES, 40., 2007, Waikoloa. Proceedings… IEEE
Computer Society Press, 2007. 275 p.
BATES, C.; YATES, S. Scrum down a software engineer
and a sociologist explore the implementation of an
Proceedings… ACM, 2008. p. 13-16.
BERCZUK, S. Back to basics: the Role of Agile Principles
in Success with an Distributed Scrum Team. In: AGILE
CONFERENCE, 2007, Washington. Proceedings
Washington: Agile Alliance, 2007. p. 382-388.
BERCZUK, S. et al. What’s so eXtreme about doing things
Proceedings… ACM, 2003. p. 26-30.
BRUEGGE, B. SCHILLER, J. Word Spotting in Scrum
19., 2008, Turin. Proceedings… IEEE Computer Society,
2008. p. 125-129.
CARNEVALLI, J.; MIGUEL, P. C. Revisão, análise e
classificação da literatura sobre o QFD - tipos de pesquisa,
dificuldades de uso e benefícios do método. Gestão e
Produção, v. 14, n. 3, p. 557-579, 2007. http://dx.doi.
COHN, M. Mountain Goat Software. 2008. Available from:
<http://www.mountaingoatsoftware. com/scrum>. Access
in: dez. 2008.
SCRUM: Practices within a Global Company. In: IEEE
Proceedings… Global Software Engineering, 2008.
DANTAS, V. F. Uma Metodologia para o Desenvolvimento
de Aplicações Web num Cenário Global. 2003. 112 f.
Dissertação (Mestrado em Informática)-Universidade
Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, 2003.
DOERNHOEFER, M. Surfing the net for software
engineering notes. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering
Notes, v. 29, n. 5, p. 20-29, 2004. http://dx.doi.
DYBÅ, T.; DINGSØYR, T. Empirical Studies of Agile
Software Development: a Systematic Review. Information
and Software Technology, v. 50, p. 833-839, 2008.
EDWARDS, M. Overhauling a Failed Project Using Out of
the Box Scrum. In: AGILE CONFERENCE, 2008, Toronto.
Proceedings… Toronto: Agile Alliance, 2008. p. 413-416.
FOWLER, M. Put Your Process on a Diet, Software
Development. 2000. Available from: <http://www.>. Access in: dez.
FRASER, S. et al. A fishbowl with piranhas coalescence,
convergence or divergence. In: OOPSLA - DYNAMIC
Scrum agile product development method - literature review, analysis and classification Carvalho & Mello46
Proceedings… Hasso-Plattner-Institut, 2006. p. 937-939.
JUDY, K.; KRUMINS-BEENS, I. Great Scrums Need Great
Product Owners - Unbounded Collaboration and Collective
Waikoloa. Proceedings… IEEE Computer Society Press,
2008. p. 62-462.
KEENAN, F. Agile process tailoring and problem analysis
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, 26., 2004, Edinburgh.
Proceedings… IEEE Computer Society, 2004. p. 271-273.
KNIBERG, H.; FARHANG, R. Bootstrapping Scrum and XP
under Crisis. In: AGILE CONFERENCE, 2008, Toronto.
Proceedings… Toronto: Agile Alliance, 2008. p. 436-444.
LARMAN, C.; BASILI, V. R. Interative and Incremental
Development: A Brief History. Computer, v. 36, n. 6,
p. 47-56, 2003.
LEWIS, J.; NEHER, K. Over the Waterfall in a Barrel - MSIT
Adventures in Scrum. In: AGILE CONFERENCE, 2007,
Washington. Proceedings… Washington: Agile Alliance,
2007. p. 389-394.
LUKANUSKI, M. et al. Agile or awkward surviving and
flourishing in an agile scrum project. In: CONFERENCE ON
Porto Alegre. Proceedings… ACM, 2008. p. 2253-2256.
LYON, R.; EVANS, M. Scaling up Pushing Scrum out of its
Comfort Zone. In: AGILE CONFERENCE, 2008, Toronto.
Proceedings… Toronto: Agile Alliance, 2008. p. 395-400.
MAHNIC, V.; ZABKAR, N. Measurement repository
for Scrum-based software development process. In:
Proceedings… World Scientific and Engineering Academy
and Society, 2008. p. 23-28.
MANN, C.; MAURER, F. A Case Study on the Impact of
Scrum on Overtime and Customer Satisfaction. In: AGILE
Proceedings… IEEE Cumputer Society, 2005. p. 70-79.
MAR, K.; SCHWABER, K. Scrum With XP. 2001. Available
from: <>.
Access in: dez. 2008.
MARÇAL, A. et al. Mapping CMMI Project Management
Process Areas to SCRUM Practices. In: IEEE SOFTWARE
College. Proceedings… IEEE Computer Society, 2007.
p. 13-22.
Multiproject Environment an Ethnographically-Inspired
Case Study on the Adoption Challenges. In: AGILE
CONFERENCE, 2008, Toronto. Proceedings… Toronto:
Agile Alliance, 2008. p. 15-26.
MAURER, F.; MELNIK, G. Agile methods moving towards the
mainstream of the software industry. In: INTERNATIONAL
2006, Shanghai. Proceedings… New York: ACM, 2006.
p. 1057-1058.
MAURER, F.; MELNIK, G. Agile Methods: Crossing the
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, 29., 2007, Minneapolis.
Proceedings… IEEE Computer Society, 2007. p. 176-177.
MOORE, R. et al. Scrum at a Fortune 500 Manufacturing
Company. In: AGILE CONFERENCE, 2007, Washington.
Proceedings… Washington: Agile Alliance, 2007.
p. 175-180. 2007.
MUNDIM, A. P. F. et al. Aplicando o cenário de desenvolvimento
de produtos em um caso prático de capacitação profissional.
Gestão & Produção, v. 9, n. 1, p. 1-16, 2002.
RISING, L.; JANOFF, N. S. The Scrum Software Development
Process for Small Teams. IEEE Software, v. 17, v. 4,
p. 26-32, 2000.
SCHWABER, K. SCRUM Development Process. 1995.
Available from: <
schwapub.pdf>. Access in: dez. 2008.
SCHWABER, K.; BEEDLE, M. Agile Software Development
with SCRUM. Prentice Hall, 2002. 158 p.
Distributed Agile Development: Using Scrum in a Large
Bangalore. Proceedings… Global Software Engineering,
2008. p. 87-95.
RAYHAN, S.; HAQUE, N. Incremental Adoption of Scrum
for Successful Delivery of an IT Project in a Remote Setup.
In: AGILE CONFERENCE, 2008, Toronto. Proceedings
Toronto: Agile Alliance, 2008. p. 351-355.
RISING, L.; JANOFF, N. The Scrum software development
process for small teams. IEEE Software, v. 17, n. 4,
p. 26-32, 2000.
SALO, O.; ABRAHAMSSON, P. Agile methods in European
embedded software development organizations. IET
Software, v. 2, n. 1, p. 58-64, 2008. http://dx.doi.
SANDERS, D. Using Scrum to manage student projects.
Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, v. 23, n. 1,
p. 70-80, 2007.
SCOTLAND, K.; BOUTIN, A. Integrating Scrum with
the Process Framework at Yahoo!. EUROPE AGILE
CONFERENCE, 2008, Girona. Proceedings… GI Science,
2008. p. 191-195.
Vol. 9 nº 1 June 2011 47
Product: Management & Development
SENGE, P. The Fifth Discipline: the Art and Practice of the
Learning Organization. New York: Currency, 1990. 409.
SMITH, P. Agile Project Management Creating Innovative
Products. The Journal of Product Innovation
Management, v. 20, n. 4, p. 369-376, 2005. http://dx.doi.
SMITS, H.; PSHIGODA, G. Implementing Scrum in a
Distributed Software Development Organization. In:
AGILE CONFERENCE, 2007, Washington. Proceedings
Washington: Agile Alliance, 2007. p. 371-375.
EVM - Earned Value Management in Scrum Projects. In:
AGILE CONFERENCE, 2006, Minnesota. Proceedings
Minnesota: IEEE Computer Society, 2006. p. 23-28.
SUTHERLAND, J. Future of Scrum Parallel Pipelining of
Sprints in Complex Projects. In: AGILE CONFERENCE,
2005, Denver. Proceedings… Denver: Agile Alliance,
2005. p. 90-99.
and CMMI Level 5. The Magic Potion for Code Warriors. In:
AGILE CONFERENCE, 2007, Washington. Proceedings
Washington: Agile Alliance, 2007. p. 272-278.
and CMMI Level 5. The Magic Potion for Code Warriors.
SYSTEM SCIENCES, 41., 2008, Waikoloa. Proceedings
IEEE Computer Society Press, 2008.p. 466-466.
SUTHERLAND, J. et al. Fully Distributed Scrum. The Secret
Sauce for Hyperproductive Offshored Development Teams.
In: AGILE CONFERENCE, 2008, Toronto. Proceedings
Toronto: Agile Alliance, 2008. p. 339-344.
SUTHERLAND, J. et al. Distributed Scrum: Agile Project
Management with Outsourced Development Teams. In:
ON SYSTEM SCIENCES, 40., 2007, Waikoloa.
Proceedings… IEEE Computer Society Press, 2007.
p. 274-284.
TAKEUCHI, H.; NONAKA, I. The New New Product
Development Game. Harvard Business Review,
p. 137-183, 1986.
TAKEUCHI H.; NONAKA I. Hitotsubashi on Knowledge
Management. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. 250 p.
UY, E.; IOANNOU, N. Growing and Sustaining an Offshore
Scrum Engagement. In: AGILE CONFERENCE, 2008,
Toronto. Proceedings… Toronto: Agile Alliance, 2008.
p. 345-350.
UY, E.; ROSENDAHL, R. Migrating from SharePoint to a
Better Scrum Tool. In: AGILE CONFERENCE, 2008,
Toronto. Proceedings… Toronto: Agile Alliance, 2008.
p. 506-512.
VRIENS, C. Certifying for CMM Level 2 and ISO 9001 with XP
2003, Salt Lake City. Proceedings… IEEE Cumputer
Society, 2003. p. 120-124.
Scrum agile product development method - literature review, analysis and classification Carvalho & Mello48
Appendix A
Table 2. Journals, year of publication and database of coded articles.
Code Authors Journal Year Database
1 Mann, C. and Maurer, F. Agile Conference, p. 70-79. 2005 IEEE
Fraser, S.; Rising, L.; Ambler, S.; Cockburn, A.;
Eckstein, J.; Hussman, D.; Miller, R.; Striebeck, M. and
Thomas, D.
Dynamic Languages Symposium, p. 937-939. 2006 ACM
3 Salo, O. and Abrahamsson, P. IET Software - Volume 2, Issue 1, p. 58-64. 2008 AIP
4 Maurer, F. and Melnik, G. 28th International Conference on Software Engineering. 2006 ACM
5 Maurer, F. and Melnik, G. 29th International Conference on Software Engineering. 2007 ACM
6Lukanuski, M.; Milano, M.; Bruin, J.;
Rochford, M.; Bosman, R. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 2008 ACM
7 Keenan, F. 26th International Conference on Software. 2004 ACM
8 Smith, P. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, p. 369-376. 2005 ACM
9 Sulaiman, T.; Barton, B. and Blackburn, T. Agile Conference. 2006 IEEE
10 Berczuk, S. Agile Conference, p. 382-388. 2007 IEEE
11 Kniberg, H. and Farhang, R. Agile Conference, p. 436-444. 2008 IEEE
12 Vriens, C. Agile Development Conference, p. 120-124. 2003 IEEE
13 Paasivaara, M.; Durasiewicz, S. and Lassenius, C. Global Software Engineering, p. 87-95. 2008 IEEE
14 Sutherland, J.; Viktorov, A.; Blount, J. and Puntikov, N. System Sciences, p. 274a. 2007 IEEE
15 Dybå, T. and Dingsøyr, T SINTEF ICT, S.P. Andersensv. 2008 Science Direct
16 Sutherland, J.; Schoonheim, G.; Rustenburg, E. and
Rijk, M. Agile Conference, p. 339-344. 2008 IEEE
17 Sutherland, J. Agile Conference, p. 90-99. 2005 IEEE
18 Judy, K. and Krumins-Beens, I. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences,
p. 462-462. 2008 IEEE
19 Uy, E. and Ioannou, N. Agile Conference, p. 345-350. 2008 IEEE
20 Barton, B. and Campbell, E. System Sciences, p. 275a. 2007 IEEE
21 Smits, H. and Pshigoda, G. Agile Conference, p. 371-375. 2007 IEEE
22 Rayhan, S. and Haque, N. Agile Conference, p. 351-355. 2008 IEEE
23 Scotland, K. and Boutin, A. Agile Conference, p. 191-195. 2008 IEEE
24 Marçal, A.; Freitas, B.; Soares, F. and Belchior, A. Software Engineering Workshop, p. 13-22. 2007 IEEE
25 Mahnic, V. and Zabkar, N. International Conference on Computer Engineering and
Applications. 2008 ACM
26 Uy, E. and Rosendahl, R. Agile Conference, p. 506-512. 2008 IEEE
27 Lewis, J. and Neher, K. Agile Conference, p. 389-394. 2007 IEEE
28 Edwards, M. Agile Conference, p. 413-416. 2008 IEEE
29 Lyon, R. and Evans, M. Agile Conference, p. 395-400. 2008 IEEE
30 Sutherland, J.; Jakobsen, C. Johnson, K. Agile Conference, p. 272-278. 2007 IEEE
31 Sutherland, J.; Jakobsen, C. and Johnson, K. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences,
p. 466-466. 2008 IEEE
32 Moore, R.; Reff, K.; Graham, J. and Hackerson, B. Agile Conference, p. 175-180. 2007 IEEE
33 Bates, C. and Yates, S. International workshop on Cooperative and human aspects
of software engineering. 2008 ACM
34 Marchenko, A. and Abrahamsson, P. Agile Conference, p. 15-26. 2008 IEEE
35 Doernhoefer, M. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes - Volume 29,
Issue 5. 2004 ACM
36 Rising, L. and Janoff, N. Software, IEEE - Volume 17, Issue 4, p. 26-32. 2000 IEEE
37 Cristal, M.; Wildt, D. and Prikladnicki, R. Global Software Engineering, p. 222-226. 2008 IEEE
38 Sanders, D. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, Volume 23,
Issue 1. 2007 ACM
39 Berczuk, S.; Harrison, N.; Henney, K.; Kerievsky, J.;
Rising, L.; Schwaber, K. and Woolf, B.
International Conference on Object-Oriented Programming,
Systems, Languages, and Applications, p. 26-30. 2003 ACM
40 Bruegge, B. and Schiller, J. Database and Expert Systems Application, p. 125-129. 2008 IEEE
Vol. 9 nº 1 June 2011 49
Product: Management & Development
Table 3. Type of study, approach methods, researcher affiliation, period of coded article analysis and the Scrum benefits
Code Type of study Approach Author
Period of
Scrum benefits (see Table 1)
1 Case study Qualitative U Longitudinal x - - - - - - - -
2 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
3 Survey Quantitative R Current x - - - - - - - -
4 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current - - - - - - - - -
5 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current x x - - - - - - -
6 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
7 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current - - - - - - - - -
8 Literature review Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
9 Experimental Quantitative C Current - - x - - - - - -
10 Case study Qualitative C Current - x - - - - - - -
11 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - x - - - - -
12 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
13 Case study Qualitative U Current - x - x x - - - -
14 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - x - - -
15 Literature review Qualitative R Current - - - - - - - - -
16 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - x - x x -
17 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current x x x x x x x - -
18 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current - x - - - - - - -
19 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
20 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current x x x x x - x - -
21 Case study Qualitative C Current - x - - x - - - -
22 Case study Qualitative C Current - x - - - - - - -
23 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
24 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current - x x - x - x - -
25 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
26 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
27 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
28 Action research Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - x
29 Case study Qualitative C Current - - - - x - - - -
30 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current x - x - x - x - -
31 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current x - x - x - x - -
32 Action research Qualitative C Current - x - x - - x - -
33 Teórico-conceitual Qualitative U Current x x - - - - - - -
34 Case study Qualitative R Current - - - - - - - - -
35 Literature review Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
36 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current x x - - x - - - -
37 Case study Qualitative U Current - - - - x - x - -
38 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current - x - - - - x x -
39 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative C Current - - - - - - - - -
40 Theorectical-conceptual Qualitative U Current - - - - - x x x -
U = University; R = Research center; C = Company.
... The name of this approach comes from rugby, where the quick meeting of players before they start a move is called a "scrum". The name was first used by Japanese scientists in 1986, but it was later developed into a fullfledged approach [7], [13]. It is a prescriptive method, which means it requires certain roles, time frames, events, and behaviors from team members engaging in Scrumbased software development. ...
... Firstly, the team is expected to be on the small side, from five to eleven people [4], [7], [9], [11], [12]. There are three roles that Scrum expects to be filled: the Product Owner, the Scrum Master and the Team [2], [4], [7], [9], [11]- [13]. The Product Owner's main responsibilities are communicating with the customer of the planned project, collecting and prioritizing their requirements, and creating the Product Backlog. ...
... They are seen as the main stakeholder of the project [4]. The Scrum Master is de facto a team leader (better said servant leader); making sure Scrum is being observed by the team and that there are no outside impediments that might impact the team's performance [2]- [4], [12], [13]. The Team needs to be self-organizing and cross-functional, meaning they are capable of dividing work between themselves and they can cover a broad number of tasks when accomplishing their main goal: developing the product [2], [4], [7], [11], [12]. ...
Conference Paper
Traditional software development methods could no longer cope with the fast-growing software development market, as well as the increasing complexity of the software being developed. Using outdated practices was no longer viable as it could lead to reduced competitiveness and losing possible revenue. Therefore, many companies have turned to implementing agile software development methods to keep up with the fast-paced market. Agile allows them to develop quickly, consistently, and in a flexible manner. However, different approaches are better suited for different projects, and, sometimes, an approach combining appropriate aspects of several other approaches is the best option. This paper describes five popular agile software development approaches of which four can be considered "pure", namely Scrum, Lean, Kanban, and Kaizen, and a hybrid approach called Scrumban. The paper then aims to assess other possible combinations of the approaches, both found in the literature and those not yet considered.
... While many of the principles of traditional product development continues, a need has surfaced for a more flexible approach. Set-based Concurrent Engineering (Sobek et al., 1999) and agile product development (De Carvalho et al., 2011) are two examples of approaches that increase the flexibility relative to the traditional product development process. To maintain competitiveness the additional flexibility of these modern approaches has appealed to the aviation industry where it is paramount to stay on top of emerging requirements. ...
... The agile approach, widely utilized in the software industry, promotes the implementation of small deliverables developed over short periods of time (Stare, 2014). These short periods are referred to as sprints, and are one of the key concepts in the agile approach (De Carvalho et al., 2011). The tasks within a sprint are defined at the end of the previous sprint. ...
Full-text available
The aviation industry is in a state of transformation. The climate crisis has amplified the need to innovate, and consequently manufacturers in the aviation industry need to investigate new and more sustainable design concepts. This is challenging, because there is no obvious replacement for kerosene-fueled aero-engines, though there are multiple technologies in development that may potentially take its place. Examples of such technologies include electric or hybrid-electric propulsion, or combustion engines fueled by hydrogen or synthetic sustainable aviation fuels. This increases the challenge for manufacturers, who must deal with high technological uncertainty. At the same time, manufacturers need to assert that the cost of realization is feasible for new aero-engine component designs, while also fulfilling the requirements for safety and performance. There is therefore a need for methods and tools that will assist designers in making fast and efficient design evaluations, to enable the exploration of large design spaces at reduced costs and lead-times. To make design space exploration more efficient, a similarity-assisted design space exploration method is proposed. This method provides increased trustworthiness in design space exploration results, while also highlighting opportunities for reuse of knowledge and other assets from legacy designs. Additionally, a software tool for automatically generating aero-engine structural components has been developed. This software enriches all generated geometries with information used to facilitate automated manufacturability analysis, as well as evaluation of structural performance. By utilizing the automated geometry generation tool in conjunction with the proposed design space exploration method, designers can quickly and efficiently evaluate the manufacturability and structural performance of novel concepts.
... A KM system overview comprises seven layers, which starts at the interface, then to access, until repositories the knowledge [5]. This framework contains three main components: knowledge sharing methods, organizational level and key enablers [6]. ...
... Knowledge lost while one of the team members left the company. The core challenges of KM in the Scrum model are how to deal with knowledge and transfer or share to implicit knowledge to explicit knowledge, other than to transfer explicit knowledge from individuals to groups within the organization [5]. Once created, the new knowledge must immediately be stored in a repository. ...
Full-text available
Software development methodologies and knowledge management (KM) are a dynamic part of core challenge of the organization in order to deliver on time with less effort and efficient software product. Scrum model is widely known as one of the best common software development methodologies and this paper has conducted a survey on how to transfer the knowledge between team members. Moreover, the Scrum model relies on daily stand-up meeting or daily scrum meeting for capture and share knowledge. Thus, this paper investigates Scrum model and knowledge management process on how to improve the proficiency of knowledge sharing among the software practitioners with less time and effort. It also proposes a conceptual framework where it stores and retrieves the tacit knowledge via Scrum model for software product management. This proposed conceptual framework is used to store and retrieve the tacit knowledge via Scrum process for software product management to save a time consuming and effort.
Full-text available
O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar as boas práticas de Processos CMM/CMMI e suas possibilidades de integração com os métodos de desenvolvimento e gerenciamento ágeis Scrum e Extreme Programming (XP). Foram realizadas pesquisas teóricas, em livros e artigos científicos de periódicos nacionais e internacionais, assim como sites especializados no assunto. Foram também utilizadas como fonte de pesquisa, a análise de discussões e análise de profissionais de tecnologia da informação (TI) em blogs, fóruns e matérias de revistas. Para complementar a análise do tema, foi realizada uma pesquisa, por meio de um questionário, no período de 09 a 22 de janeiro/2017, respondida por 39 profissionais da área de Tecnologia da Informação (TI). O resultado desta pesquisa mostrou que 87,2% dos profissionais consultados acreditam que é possível aplicar simultaneamente Metodologias Ágeis e CMMI em projetos de desenvolvimento de software.
Full-text available
As organizações realizam uma infinidade de projetos para perseguir seus objetivos específicos. Projetos internacionais são muito atraentes para empresas que buscam expandir seus horizontes de negócios. São projetos de diferentes tipos e formatos, como, por exemplo, construção de um metrô, um aeroporto; uma campanha; um novo software etc. Fatores locais, referente aos países onde os projetos serão desenvolvidos, poderão gerar riscos e influenciar tanto a execução quanto a conclusão com êxito de tais projetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar quais são os riscos em um projeto internacional que poderão influenciar no seu sucesso. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliométrica nas bases de dados Proquest, Ebsco e Scielo regional com a utilização das palavras–chaves “International and Project Management” para as bases Proquest, Ebsco. Para a base Scielo regional, foram usadas também as palavras: Gerência de Projetos Internacionais; Gerenciamento de Projetos Internacionais; e Gestão de Projetos Internacionais. Foi verificado também no site PMI-Brasil a ocorrência de estudos sobre o tema aqui abordado. Foram encontrados 160 artigos e selecionados doze. A classificação mais ampla descrita de fatores de risco em projetos internacionais foi: cultural, política, virtual e regional. Os riscos em gestão de projetos internacionais apresentam uma enorme variedade, mas têm-se a possibilidade de mitigar alguns riscos, com o uso de metodologias.
Full-text available
Agile - denoting "the quality of being agile; readiness for motion; nimbleness, activity, dexterity in motion" - software development methods are attempting to offer an answer to the eager business community asking for lighter weight along with faster and nimbler software development processes. This is especially the case with the rapidly growing and volatile Internet software industry as well as for the emerging mobile application environment. The new agile methods have evoked a substantial amount of literature and debates. However, academic research on the subject is still scarce, as most of existing publications are written by practitioners or consultants. The aim of this publication is to begin filling this gap by systematically reviewing the existing literature on agile software development methodologies. This publication has three purposes. First, it proposes a definition and a classification of agile software development approaches. Second, it analyses ten software development methods that can be characterized as being "agile" against the defined criteria. Third, it compares these methods and highlights their similarities and differences. Based on this analysis, future research needs are identified and discussed.
Full-text available
A measurement repository design for Scrum-based software development process is presented. A meta-model of Scrum is shown first that serves as a basis for the development of the repository data model. Then the mapping between CMMI practices and Scrum is presented for the Measurement and Analysis (MA) Process Area, including the specification of base and derived measures. This is followed by the description of the repository design for collecting and storing project data and measurement results.
Full-text available
Software is created by people for people working in a range of environments and under various conditions. Understanding the cooperative and human aspects of software development is crucial in order to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improve the creation and maintenance of software. Both researchers and practitioners have recognized the need to investigate these aspects, but the results of such investigations are dispersed in different conferences and communities. The 6th workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering held at the International Conference on Software Engineering continued the tradition from earlier workshops and provide a lively forum to discuss current developments and high quality research in the field, providing both a meeting place for the community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present and discuss their work in progress and to get an overview of the field. Further dissemination of research results will lead to improvement of software development and deployment across the globe.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Global companies that experimented extensive waterfall phased plans are trying to improve their existing processes to expedite team engagement. SCRUM has become an acceptable path to follow for those companies because it comprises project management as part of its practices. SCRUM has been used with the objective of simplifying project control through simple processes, easy to update documentation and higher team iteration over exhaustive documentation. Instead of investing team effort on producing static documentation, SCRUM proposes to focus on team continuous improvement aiming to add value to business processes. The purpose of this industry report is to describe two projects that experimented SCRUM practices within a globally distributed company. This company has development centers across North America, South America and Asia. This report covers challenges faced by the project teams, strengths and practical recommendations of using SCRUM in a globally distributed environment.
Full-text available
Agile software development represents a major departure from traditional, plan-based approaches to software engineering. A systematic review of empirical studies of agile software development up to and including 2005 was conducted. The search strategy identified 1996 studies, of which 36 were identified as empirical studies. The studies were grouped into four themes: introduction and adoption, human and social factors, perceptions on agile methods, and comparative studies. The review investigates what is currently known about the benefits and limitations of, and the strength of evidence for, agile methods. Implications for research and practice are presented. The main implication for research is a need for more and better empirical studies of agile software development within a common research agenda. For the industrial readership, the review provides a map of findings, according to topic, that can be compared for relevance to their own settings and situations.
Conference Paper
This paper provides an overview and position statement on the work undertaken as part of a project to explore the implementation of Scrum in the context of an interactive digital media software development company. The project is being undertaken in the Communication and Computing Research Centre at Sheffield Hallam University.
Conference Paper
In this experiential workshop, we will explore the agile product development space (managing, planning, prioritizing, learning and scheduling) through simulating the different approaches, reflecting on our experiences, and summarizing what this means for our daily work.