Murine Anti-GD2 Monoclonal Antibody 3F8 Combined With Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid in High-Risk Patients With Stage 4 Neuroblastoma in First Remission
Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 Journal of Clinical Oncology
(Impact Factor: 18.43).
08/2012; 30(26):3264-70. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2011.41.3807
Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has shown efficacy against neuroblastoma (NB). Prognostic variables that could influence clinical outcome were explored.
Patients and methods:
One hundred sixty-nine children diagnosed with stage 4 NB (1988 to 2008) were enrolled onto consecutive anti-GD2 murine MoAb 3F8 ± GM-CSF ± 13-cis-retinoic acid (CRA) protocols after achieving first remission (complete remission/very good partial remission). Patients enrolled in regimen A (n = 43 high-risk [HR] patients) received 3F8 alone; regimen B (n = 41 HR patients), 3F8 + intravenous GM-CSF + CRA, after stem-cell transplantation (SCT); and regimen C (n = 85), 3F8 + subcutaneous GM-CSF + CRA, 46 of 85 after SCT, whereas 28 of 85 required additional induction therapy and were deemed ultra high risk (UHR). Marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Survival probability was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic variables were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model.
At 5 years from the start of immunotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS) improved from 44% for HR patients receiving regimen A to 56% and 62% for those receiving regimens B and C, respectively. Overall survival (OS) was 49%, 61%, and 81%, respectively. PFS and OS of UHR patients were 36% and 75%, respectively. Relapse was mostly at isolated sites. Independent adverse prognostic factors included UHR (PFS) and post-cycle two MRD (PFS and OS), whereas the prognostic factors for improved outcome were missing killer immunoglobulin-like receptor ligand (PFS and OS), human antimouse antibody response (OS), and regimen C (OS).
Retrospective analysis of consecutive trials from a single center demonstrated that MoAb 3F8 + GM-CSF + CRA is effective against chemotherapy-resistant marrow MRD. Its positive impact on long-term survival can only be confirmed definitively by randomized studies.
Available from: Thalia A Farazi
- "Because miRNA expression patterns in human cancers are tissue-specific, serum miRNA profiles at diagnosis may have prognostic value for metastatic potential to CNS or other organs (Lu et al., 2005; Toiyama et al., 2013). This is an important clinical question, since CNS relapse is now increasingly common among neuroblastoma patients who survive their Stage 4 systemic disease (Cheung et al., 2012). With the exception of miR-21, all downregulated miRNA sequence families in our study (miR-22, miR-29a, miR-143, miR-199a-1–3p, and miR-199a-1–5p) have previously been shown to be associated with suppression or inhibition of metastases in various tumors. "
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ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) is an increasingly common site of isolated metastasis for patients with Stage 4 neuroblastoma. To explore the microRNA (miRNA) profile of this metastatic process, miRNA sequencing was performed to identify miRNA sequence families with differential expression between tumor pairs (pre-CNS primary and CNS metastasis) from 13 patients with Stage 4 neuroblastoma. Seven miRNA sequence families had distinct expression in CNS metastases when compared with their corresponding pre-CNS primaries. MiR-7 was upregulated (3.75-fold), and miR-21, miR-22, miR-29a, miR-143, miR-199a-1-3p, and miR-199a-1-5p were downregulated (3.5-6.1-fold), all confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. MiR-29a, previously shown to be downregulated in a broad spectrum of solid tumors including neuroblastoma, had the most significant decrease in all 13 CNS metastases (P = 0.001). Its known onco-targets CDC6, CDK6, and DNMT3A, as well as B7-H3, an inhibitory ligand for T cells, and natural killer cells, were found to have higher differential expression in these 13 CNS metastases when compared with their paired primaries. Additionally, miR-29a expression in primary tumors was significantly lower among patients who eventually relapsed in the CNS. Irrespective of the amplification status of MYCN, which is known to be associated with metastasis, pre-CNS primaries, and CNS metastases had significantly lower miR-29a expression than non-CNS primary tumors. Among MYCN amplified cell lines, those from CNS relapse also had lower miR-29a expression than non-CNS relapse. These findings raised the hypothesis that miR-29a could be a biomarker for neuroblastoma CNS metastasis, and its downregulation may play a pivotal role in CNS progression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "It binds specifically to the pentasaccharide epitope on GD2. Phase II clinical data have demonstrated that 3F8 when combined with the cytokine GM-CSF can significantly improve the survival of high-risk stage 4 children with metastatic neuroblastoma (14). Murine 3F8 was more recently humanized (hu3F8) based on complementarity determining region (CDR) grafting (13), and is currently in Phase I clinical trials (clinical trials.gov "
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ABSTRACT: Disialoganglioside GD2 is an important target on several pediatric and adult cancer types including neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, melanoma, small-cell lung cancer, brain tumors, sarcomas, and cancer stem cells. We have utilized structural and computational methods to refine the framework of humanized monoclonal antibody 3F8, the highest affinity anti-GD2 antibody in clinical development. Two constructs (V3 and V5) were designed to enhance stability and minimize potential immunogenicity. Construct V3 contained 12 point mutations and had higher thermal stability and comparable affinity and in vitro tumor cells killing as the parental hu3F8. Construct V5 had nine point mutations to minimize potential immunogenicity, but resulted in weaker thermal stability, weaker antigen binding, and reduced tumor killing potency. When construct V3 was combined with the single point mutation HC:G54I, the resulting V3-Ile construct had enhanced stability, antigen binding, and a nearly sixfold increase in tumor cell killing. The resulting product is a lead candidate for clinical development for the treatment of GD2-positive tumors.
Available from: Eduardo Osinaga
- "IL-2 and GM-CSF were shown to enhance ADCC in vitro by activating cytotoxic NK cells and neutrophils (160, 165, 166). When combined with the cytokine GM-CSF and 13-cis-retinoic acid, 3F8 induced >60% long-term survival among high-risk patients with metastatic disease, treated at first remission (167). MAb 3F8 was recently humanized (hu3F8) (168) and is currently in Phase I trials (157). "
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ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma (NB), accounting for 10% of childhood cancers, exhibits aberrant cell-surface glycosylation patterns. There is evidence that changes in glycolipids and protein glycosylation pathways are associated to NB biological behavior. Polysialic acid (PSA) interferes with cellular adhesion, and correlates with NB progression and poor prognosis, as well as the expression of sialyltransferase STX, the key enzyme responsible for PSA synthesis. Galectin-1 and gangliosides, overexpressed and actively shedded by tumor cells, can modulate normal cells present in the tumor microenvironment, favoring angiogenesis and immunological escape. Different glycosyltransferases are emerging as tumor markers and potential molecular targets. Immunotherapy targeting disialoganglioside GD2 rises as an important treatment option. One anti-GD2 antibody (ch14.18), combined with IL-2 and GM-CSF, significantly improves survival for high-risk NB patients. This review summarizes our current knowledge on NB glycobiology, highlighting the molecular basis by which carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate interactions impact on biological behavior and patient clinical outcome.
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