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Researchers function in a complex environment and carry multiple role responsibilities. This environment is prone to various distractions that can derail productivity and decrease efficiency. Effective time management allows researchers to maintain focus on their work, contributing to research productivity. Thus, improving time management skills is essential to developing and sustaining a successful program of research. This article presents time management strategies addressing behaviors surrounding time assessment, planning, and monitoring. Herein, the Western Journal of Nursing Research editorial board recommends strategies to enhance time management, including setting realistic goals, prioritizing, and optimizing planning. Involving a team, problem-solving barriers, and early management of potential distractions can facilitate maintaining focus on a research program. Continually evaluating the effectiveness of time management strategies allows researchers to identify areas of improvement and recognize progress.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Western Journal of Nursing Research
35(2) 155 –176
© The Author(s) 2013
Reprints and permission:
DOI: 10.1177/0193945912451163
Journal of Nursing Research XX(X)Chase et al.
© The Author(s) 2013
Reprints and permission:
1University of Missouri–Columbia, USA
2Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA
3University of Kansas, Kansas City, USA
4University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE, USA
5South Dakota State University, Brookings, USA
6University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
7University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, USA
8University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, USA
Corresponding Author:
Vicki S. Conn, S317 School of Nursing, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Time Management
Strategies for Research
Jo-Ana D. Chase1, Robert Topp2, Carol E.
Smith3, Marlene Z. Cohen4, Nancy Fahrenwald5,
Julie J. Zerwic6, Lazelle E. Benefield7, Cindy M.
Anderson8, and Vicki S. Conn1
Researchers function in a complex environment and carry multiple role re-
sponsibilities. This environment is prone to various distractions that can de-
rail productivity and decrease efficiency. Effective time management allows
researchers to maintain focus on their work, contributing to research pro-
ductivity. Thus, improving time management skills is essential to developing
and sustaining a successful program of research. This article presents time
management strategies addressing behaviors surrounding time assessment,
planning, and monitoring. Herein, the Western Journal of Nursing Research edi-
torial board recommends strategies to enhance time management, including
setting realistic goals, prioritizing, and optimizing planning. Involving a team,
problem-solving barriers, and early management of potential distractions
can facilitate maintaining focus on a research program. Continually evaluat-
ing the effectiveness of time management strategies allows researchers to
identify areas of improvement and recognize progress.
WJNR Editorial Board Special Article
156 Western Journal of Nursing Research 35(2)
Time Management, research productivity, efficiency
Many researchers face the challenges of competing demands, interruptions,
and internal and external distractions while working to build and maintain
a successful program of research. Time management, defined as deliberate
actions aimed at the effective use of time to achieve specific, goal-directed
activities, is a skill necessary to maintaining scholarly productivity (Claessens,
van Eerde, & Rutte, 2007). Furthermore, the benefits of effective time man-
agement may extend to improved job satisfaction and stress-related outcomes
(Claessens et al., 2007). Strategies for time management fall into three broad
categories: time assessment behaviors, planning behaviors, and monitoring
behaviors (Claessens et al., 2007). Using a variety of personalized strategies
in each category is essential to effectively manage time. Members of the
Western Journal of Nursing Research editorial board have shared essays of
time management strategies contributing to their research success. These
strategies are summarized in Table 1.
Robert Topp (Marquette University)
A researcher’s productivity within an academic environment is often mea-
sured in terms of “deliverables” produced within a unit of time. These
deliverables are outcomes of a researcher’s scholarly activity and are often
considered quantifiably and qualitatively. The nature of these deliverables
vary between institutions but commonly include publications, presentations,
proposals submissions, funded research, service as a reviewer or editor, and
mentorship of students and fellow faculty. A common misconception is that
productivity is directly proportional to the time spent completing a deliver-
able. There is some truth that increased time focused on the development of
a deliverable generally predicts the quantity and quality of the product. This
definition of productivity also includes the unit of time. In fact, occasionally,
the time spent developing a deliverable produces a curvilinear relationship in
which excessive pondering and time spent dilutes both the quality and quan-
tity of the deliverable. For example, two researchers produce the exact same
high-quality deliverable, say a manuscript for publication. If the first
researcher produces his or her manuscript in 3 months, he or she would be
considered more productive than the researcher who produced the manu-
script in 6 months. Thus, time is a critical component of research productivity
in an academic environment. In addition, effective time management directly
contributes to an individual’s productivity as a researcher.
Chase et al. 157
Table 1. Time Management Strategies
Strategy Implementing Time Management Strategy
Set realistic
Develop long-term scholarship goals
Develop intermediate and immediate activities to achieve long-
term goals
Link goals with a defined process
Identify goals/objectives that are measurable and attainable within
a structured time limit
Determine what is under your direct control as you will have the
most ability to complete these goals
Periodically review goals for
Achievement/lack of achievement
Factors that facilitate or act as barriers to achievement
Create daily “to do” lists and check off as tasks are done
Break complex tasks, such as manuscripts, into manageable
components with defined deadlines
Amass resources prior to beginning a task
Create detailed timeline of activities
When you end your work session, make an agenda of “to-do”
items for the next session while it’s fresh in your mind
When you finish a writing session, jot down notes of what to
write in the next paragraphs
Automate some processes (e.g., sign up to receive automated
notices of funding opportunities or research papers)
Identify and seek needed assistance early in the process
Use an electronic file management system for an organized
approach to work
Prioritize Acknowledge the primacy of your work
Arrange your objectives/goals in order of priority
Work on highest priority goal first and consistently until you
have achieved the goal or have temporarily exhausted available
Write down priorities—if request or opportunity is not in line
with priority, say “no”
Learn when and how to say “no” (see Table 2)
Schedule blocks of writing time
Schedule far in advance of deadlines
Choose days that tend to be less demanding than other days of
the week
Create a recurring schedule with scholarship blocks
Use an electronic calendar
158 Western Journal of Nursing Research 35(2)
Strategy Implementing Time Management Strategy
Make electronic calendar available to others so they may see
your availability (outside times blocked for scholarly productivity)
When meeting with others, schedule time-limited appointment
Consider scheduling a “research sabbatical” aimed at completing
selected research tasks
Maintain focus
on research
Select opportunities that advance research program (e.g., student
work, commitments)
Engage your clinical teaching and service in support of your science
Remove undue drifting to other “interesting topics”
Develop a way to work with multiple students on one project
that also contributes to program of research
Involve a team Delegate work to divide labor among team members
Seek early peer review for potential revisions
Actively enlist support to facilitate research productivity at the
school level
yourself for
Plan rewards for achieving “to-do’s”
Reward completion of parts of large projects instead of waiting
until the entire project is finished
Create a work environment that is free from external distractions
Schedule work in a “secure” or cloistered setting
Create a physical space where you keep your materials “set
up” and ready
Turn off visual and auditory interruptions (e.g., email/text alerts,
Determine potential internal distractions and create a separate list
so when these distractions develop, they can be briefly recorded
and dismissed from thought to focus on the work at hand
Avoid multitasking as this leads to unnecessary distractions and
does not increase productivity
Problem solve
and manage
of barriers
Honestly appraise barriers
Discuss possible solutions with mentors and peers
Trial barriers management strategies and assess for effectiveness
Balancing life Get adequate rest, sleep, and regular physical activity
Set aside time for relaxation and downtime
and time
Reassess of research productivity after instituting potential
solutions—continuous quality improvement
Reassess major goals at least quarterly
Consider using “productivity” or “project management” software
Table 1. (continued)
Chase et al. 159
Time Drain
A common trinity of phenomena can divert one’s ability to effectively man-
age his or her time and be an effective researcher. The word trinity is used
because these phenomena are defined separately but seem to manifest in
combination. These phenomena include procrastination, attending to inter-
ruptions, and a lack of discipline. Procrastination often begins by attending
to an interruption from work, which is accompanied by a lack of discipline
to maintain focus on the original activity. The interruption and lack of focus
allow one’s attention to be drawn to the distraction and result in further pro-
crastination, which begins the cycle anew. Procrastination is postponing or
needlessly delaying a high-priority unpleasant activity in favor of a more
pleasant but low-priority activity. Attending an interruption is defined as the
temporary cessation of a goal-directed activity, which distracts productivity
from the desired goal. Some examples or sources of interruptions for
researchers include email, phone calls, text or instant messages, and visits
from coworkers. The average knowledge worker, which includes research-
ers, has been observed to switch tasks every 3 min, and once sufficiently
distracted may require up to an average of 30 min to resume the original task.
Interruptions and the requisite recovery time have been reported to consume
28% of a worker’s day (Aloher, 2008). Finally, discipline is defined as the
ability to motivate oneself to attend to a task in spite of the presence of dis-
tractions. Qualities associated with discipline include hard work and persis-
tence. Therefore, a lack of discipline is the lack of motivation to discount
distractions through the use of hard work and persistence.
This combination of procrastination, attention to interruptions, and lack of
discipline not only results in activities that commonly do not contribute to the
original goal but also requires the individual to spend additional time reori-
enting to the original task. For example, a researcher with poor time manage-
ment skills is engaged in a search for a manuscript addressing topic X. During
a search, the researcher receives an email from a colleague which contains a
manuscript on topic Y which, although unrelated to the original topic X,
piques his or her interest and he or she decides to read the manuscript dealing
with Y instead of continuing to search for articles on the topic of X. After
reading the topic Y manuscript, this researcher must then reorient to search-
ing for manuscripts on topic X and account for the time spent reading the
topic Y manuscript. This example illustrates how attending the interruption
from a colleague combined with the researcher’s lack of discipline to con-
tinue his or her search for a manuscript on topic X contributed to the researcher’s
delay in task completion or procrastination. Both novice and experienced
160 Western Journal of Nursing Research 35(2)
researchers are constantly confronted with the trinity of procrastination,
attending to interruptions, and a lack of discipline that diverts their ability to
effectively manage their time and to be a productive researcher.
Peck (2003) was one of the first to recognize the negative effects that pro-
crastination, attention to interruptions, and a lack of discipline have on pro-
ductivity. To paraphrase this author “Life (conducting research) is difficult
and includes pleasant and unpleasant activities. We can either moan about
these unpleasant activities or work to complete them.” Another way of think-
ing about this is if one engages in less procrastination, less attention to inter-
ruptions, and increased discipline during the unpleasant activities, these
activities will be completed more quickly and allow more time to indulge in
pleasant activities. If one engages in procrastination, attention to interrup-
tions, and poor discipline during unpleasant activities, these types of activi-
ties will seem much longer to complete and in turn compound the perception
that the task is unpleasant. This pessimistic perspective of a research career
can be addressed through developing the skills of effective time manage-
ment, minimizing procrastination and interruptions, and enhancing discipline
particularly when engaging activities the researcher finds unpleasant.
Time Management Techniques
There are a variety of approaches to time management that minimize pro-
crastination, minimize interruptions, and enhance discipline particularly
when engaging research activities. Time management involves allocating
time to activities that will help achieve goals. Approaches to time manage-
ment include monitoring, setting goals, prioritizing, planning, delegating,
and analysis of time spent. Specific examples of these approaches are listed
During the time you have allocated to work on a task, keep a log to
identify how you actually use your time (be honest)
Identify common examples of your habits of procrastination, attend-
ing to interruptions, and a lack of discipline.
Setting Goals
Identify and record all the objectives you wish to achieve. Each of
these objectives needs to include a measurable component for the
outcome and a time limit within which the objective will be obtained.
Chase et al. 161
Once you have recorded these goals, determine which are under
your direct control and are realistically attainable within the time
limit you have determined. For example, the goal of having a coau-
thor revise a section of a manuscript in 2 weeks is not something a
researcher has direct control over.
Once all of the goals to be achieved within a unit of time have been
identified, arrange them in order of priority.
Work on the highest priority goal first and consistently until you
have achieved the goal or have temporarily exhausted the available
resources to achieve the goal.
Avoid “dual tasking” or working toward two or more goals simul-
Make daily “to do” lists each day and cross off items you have completed.
Break tasks into components you can handle within time available.
Effectively use all of your time. Always have something to read
with you. Other examples include reading on the bus or while wait-
ing for your teenage daughter or son.
Amass resources prior to beginning a task.
Minimize opportunities for interruptions. Work is an activity but is
often thought of as a place. Some of your best work may not be com-
pleted in your office. Pay attention as to where you are most creative
and where you can best focus. Your office may not be the most effi-
cient place to work (e.g., work in the library or an abandoned office,
turn off your cell phone, disable the Internet, place a sign on your
office door indicating you are unavailable for a specific time).
Plan rewards for achieving “to do” items on your list, including
planned unproductive activities (e.g., Facebook for 10 min, reply to
nonurgent emails for 10 min, walk around the building for 10 min)
Handle snail mail and email items only once.
Update your curriculum vita as you make achievements.
With each request for a different role at work, ask yourself “Will
my participation in this activity contribute to my prioritized goals?”
162 Western Journal of Nursing Research 35(2)
Cultivate the ability to say “no” to opportunities that don’t directly
contribute to your prioritized goals.
Identify tasks that only you can complete and tasks that could be
accomplished by support staff. Learn to delegate all or part of the
tasks that don’t require your exclusive input.
Analysis of Time Spent
1. If an objective is not being achieved within the expected time frame,
identify possible barriers and work to minimize the barriers in the future.
2. Periodically reevaluate your habits of procrastination, attending
to interruptions, and a lack of discipline. Have you been able to
change them?
A productive research career is predicated upon effective time manage-
ment. Effective use of a researcher’s time contributes directly to his or her
research productivity and allows more time to pursue pleasant activities.
Procrastination, attending to interruptions, and lack of discipline commonly
contribute to ineffective time management and result in low levels of
research productivity. The researcher can minimize the negative impact of
these drains of productivity through monitoring activities, setting goals, pri-
oritizing, planning, delegating, and analysis of time spent on a task.
Carol E. Smith (University of Kansas)
Research productivity is gauged by written activities such as grant submis-
sions, publication, and evidence-based policies. Productivity in writing
research grants, reports, and articles is influenced by an intricate series of
written work and the time required to perform these tasks.
Thus, research is based on taking the time to keep writing. Time must be
scheduled before calendars become full of meetings, committee, or nonre-
quired teaching obligations. And for effective writing, scheduling in blocks of
2 up to 8 hr of time is necessary. Typically it’s best to double the time first
thought necessary for a specific piece of writing and then schedule that “dou-
bled” time writing in your calendar. Also note on the calendar exactly what is
to be written in that time (i.e., article outline, aim page revision, etc.). Not
wavering from this writing schedule of blocked time and topics is important.
As research writing is valuable time well spent, you must take a stand and
say “No” to other competing nonessential activities, then using that time
efficiently (without interruption) is key. Interrupted tasks take 50% more
time to finish and have 50% more errors. Make it common knowledge to
Chase et al. 163
coworkers (put up “Do Not Disturb” signs) you are not available during writ-
ing times. But also be aware and control your own self-interruptions such as
flipping between books, articles, web browsing (i.e., looking for a reference).
It is much more time efficient to jot a reminder note to look for a citation than
to stop your writing to look for one. Other interruptions that stop the flow of
words include when phones or emails are answered.
One of the most useful tips that numerous faculty have said that they are
so please to have coached themselves on is “when to stop writing.’’
Specifically, when you near the end the time you set aside, you will know
what you are going to write about in the next paragraphs. So instead of writ-
ing those last few paragraphs, just jot down notes of what to write in them.
Then when you begin writing at your next blocked calendar session, you
won’t let yourself waste time by rereading or trying to determine the writing
flow. Thus, each blocked session can be started with immediate writing.
Making short notes can keep your progress going and provide the track to
pick up the next time. Some writers use outlines to keep the flow but most
find outlines change too frequently to be helpful. Rewriting outlines often
wastes time. Another productive time-saving approach is obtaining peer
reviews periodically as your writing becomes more unclear to you, others
revisions can save you many “blocked” hours of rewriting.
Other time-saving ideas are using project management software for sched-
uling of overall tasks such as data entry, preliminary analyses, institutional
review board (IRB) recertification, and writing time blocks. Go over this
scheduling monthly and delegate any tasks you can. Time can be gained from
using other software, which provides results for required reports that are sim-
ple and automated. Also employee “performance” software increased from
US$100 million in 2001 to US$2 billion in 2005. Have your research office
provide this kind of “productivity” software for your work.
Tenacity and “stick-to-it-tive-ness” attitudes are also key aspects of time
management. Also admitting that writing is hard work and full of frustrations
can alleviate those discouraging reactions that stop writing.
Because ideas and creativity are the backbone of writing, it is important to
use smart problem-solving habits. Problems that get in the way of writing,
including your own multitasking, need to be addressed. Last, writing produc-
tivity is also related to one’s ability to take rejection. Writing is often rejected
but with the need to be revised. So revise!
Marlene Cohen (University of Nebraska)
Existentialists have noted that what we share with each other is that we each
have a body in space and time. Time and time management are so universal
164 Western Journal of Nursing Research 35(2)
and central to our lives that many have written about it. Several aspects of
time management for the successful academic are important to think about.
We are most likely to find time to do what we value and for which we have
the skills.
Prioritize/Set Goals
There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently that which should not
be done at all.
—Peter F. Drucker
Helen Reddy’s song “I Am Woman” proclaims that “I can do anything.”
Note she says anything, not everything. (I expect this applies equally to
men.) Learning when to say “no” is important. Setting goals, ideally with
the support of colleagues and administrators, will help you focus and pri-
oritize activities that fill your time. Although we might value volunteering
to review grants for a professional organization, doing that volunteer work
the same month a grant is due may prevent you from achieving your grant
submission goal.
Plan Realistically
I recommend to you to take care of the minutes; for hours will take care
of themselves.
—Lord Chesterfield
Part of goal setting is to plan for small aspects of each task. It is useful to
break long tasks into sections. We sometimes put off big tasks because they
seem impossible, rather than dividing them into manageable tasks. An
example I often discuss with faculty is the need to start writing grants well
in advance of the deadline. We have developed a detailed timeline of activi-
ties and when they need to be completed so that the faculty will start in a
timely manner. Perhaps even more difficult is writing manuscripts that have
no deadlines. It is useful for me to schedule writing time as an appointment.
What pattern works for these appointments is individual, but it is important
to think about what works for you. Dividing tasks into portions that can be
managed, and scheduling time to do these tasks, will help you to complete
the manuscript.
Chase et al. 165
Stay Organized
Do not confuse motion and progress. A rocking horse keeps moving
but does not make any progress.
—Alfred A. Montapert
Finding the best strategies that work for you is important. Some write best
in short blocks of time—perhaps an hour—whereas others work best with
4- to 8-hr time blocks. Some write best in the morning, whereas others are
most effective later in the day. The only wrong approach is not to start or not
to devote the time needed to the task at hand.
Preparation is also important and varies among people. I heard a professional
writer talk about needing to sharpen several pencils and lining them up on her
desk before she started to write. She noted that this may seem reasonable—but
she composes on the computer! Again, whatever works is what you should do.
Team Work
No person will make a great business who wants to do it all himself or
get all the credit.
—Andrew Carnegie
Having a team is often useful. Team members help in several ways. They
discuss the work, and having different perspectives always improves the
outcome. They also share the work, making your “share” more manageable.
Finally, when the team sets deadlines, they are more “real” because someone
is depending on you for your part. Doing things you enjoy with people you
like also helps with motivation to get tasks accomplished. I have had the
experience of not wanting to work on a project because finishing it will mean
contact with someone I do not enjoy. The reverse holds true as well—wanting
to do something so the reward is discussion with the colleague.
Balance (Vacation/Rest/Exercise)
Take a rest. A field that has rested yields a beautiful crop.
—the Roman poet Ovid
166 Western Journal of Nursing Research 35(2)
Taking time to enjoy family, friends, and activities is essential to main-
taining a fresh and creative outlook. Perhaps procrastination will result from
failure to refresh yourself. Taking time away may require turning off your
phone, computer, and other such devices. Some traditions actually require
rest. Taking time to get both adequate sleep and exercise is important as you
prioritize taking care of yourself.
A final note to think about:
The only reason for time is so that everything doesn’t happen at once.
—Albert Einstein
Nancy Fahrenwald
(South Dakota State University)
Every year I write a professional staff evaluation that summarizes my
accomplishments in relationship to the goals I set the previous year. Setting
realistic goals and reviewing them quarterly are two overall strategies that
effectively help me to manage my time. If, after 3 months, I haven’t made
meaningful progress toward annual goals, I reflect on the barriers I encoun-
tered and plan for ways to overcome those barriers in the next 3 months.
I also reflect on the factors that facilitate progress toward professional goals
and brainstorm ways to capitalize on those things. This quarterly ritual helps
me to stay on top of all of the things I juggle in an academic career.
Time management strategies that yield favorable outcomes are highly var-
ied. Here are some more tips. Follow a fairly consistent schedule, but antici-
pate and embrace an occasional disruption to that consistency! Protect
scholarly time by using an electronic calendar that other people can access so
that they know when you are available and when you are not available.
Schedule blocks of writing time in your calendar and keep that commitment
to yourself. Make recurring appointments with yourself and note that you
cannot be interrupted except for emergencies. Try to schedule time-limited
appointments with colleagues and students instead of maintaining an open
door policy. Collaborative writing and research is a special challenge because
each team member differs in his or her approach to time management.
Developing and adhering to realistic timelines that are tied to outcomes are
vital to strong working relationships.
Barriers to time management are as varied as the facilitators. Lack of
healthy self-care is one of those hygiene factors that can disrupt effective
time management. Evaluate whether you are committed to regular sleep,
physical activity, relaxation, and meaningful life experiences. The balance
Chase et al. 167
scale between work and life will swing back and forth over the course of
a year, but attention to both sides of the scale is vital. Another barrier to
time management is an inability to say no. Opportunities abound, but
keep focused on the goals you have set forth when choosing to capitalize
on those opportunities. When I was in doctoral school, I asked my mentor
for time management wisdom. Her insight was that academic faculty
focus on their teaching first and research second. Although this was a fine
approach in her mind, she indicated that course materials didn’t have to
undergo complete revision every year. Her advice for overcoming this
barrier was to integrate the scholarship role with the teaching and service
roles whenever possible, and to schedule regular writing time into the
Julie J. Zerwic (University of Illinois at Chicago)
An effective strategy is to schedule research time into your calendar just like
you do any other activity. Choose days that you know tend to be less
demanding than other days of the week. Depending on what you want to
accomplish, you may want to schedule this day as a day away from the
office. Working from home or the local library may help you concentrate
with few interruptions. This also adds time you would have spent commuting
to productive work time.
Working with graduate (and even undergraduate students) on research
projects can be very time-consuming, especially if the student chooses a topic
that you have little experience with or if you have several students all work-
ing on different projects. A colleague and I developed one strategy that was
an effective solution. We developed a research proposal and a master IRB
template on an aspect of our research on cardiovascular disease and fatigue.
We invited interested master’s students to conduct this research at their insti-
tution. The IRB experience at their institution, data collection, and a paper
met their curriculum requirement for a research project. Several doctoral stu-
dents used this project for their research practicum. Doctoral students also
collected data, analyzed the data, and developed the subsequent presentations
and publications. All faculty and students involved were coauthors.
Subsequently, each of the doctoral students who participated built their dis-
sertations on some aspect of this practicum experience. The faculty were able
to model the experience of collaborative research, negotiation of responsibili-
ties, and authorship. This was a very effective time management strategy
because I could work with multiple students on one project that also contrib-
uted to my program of research.
168 Western Journal of Nursing Research 35(2)
Lazelle E. Benefield (University of Oklahoma)
Effective time management strategies to enhance research productivity
include intellectually acknowledging the time necessary and importance of
the work as well as implementing practical time management strategies.
Acknowledge the primacy of the work by actually scheduling
an appointment with yourself, with scheduled recurring appoint-
ments on your calendar. Name the topic of the appointment (e.g.,
“appt with researcher” or list the specific task planned). Block this
appointment time on your calendar so others don’t assume you are
free; hold firm to the commitment.
Maintain the priority focus of the scheduled time by being unavail-
able to email, phone, or for in-person interruptions. Schedule the
work in a secure or cloistered setting (e.g., in your office with
closed/locked door, or in the library or off-site). Create a physical
space where you keep writing materials set up and ready, and when
the work session is over, make an agenda of “to do” items for the
next session while it’s fresh in your mind. You will launch into the
next session more quickly.
Set a timeline detailing each step in your plan of work, for instance,
“develop the concept paper” or “draft support letters.” Using a set
agenda to frame the time enables you to begin promptly without
undue time spent reorganizing. Insert directly into your electronic
calendar any copies of materials needed for the “appointment,” this
might include a sample methods section to frame your writing, PDF
copies of articles helpful to your plan for the time. As you come
upon new articles or reports, slot these into future appointments.
And it is essential to use a citation management system, Endnote©
is but one example to manage references and store articles.
Consider scheduling a 1-week research sabbatical, during the sum-
mer or in early January, aimed at completing selected tasks: final-
izing the manuscript, drafting of one or more sections of the next
Work toward building a team so that team members cover for each
other during busy times. You create opportunities for division of
labor as well as champion the project.
Engage your clinical teaching and service in support of your science.
Role model ways to interweave your teaching, service, and research
activities to promote this culture of scholarship in today’s College
Chase et al. 169
of Nursing. Using this approach, frame your professional and com-
munity service to support your areas of research. Aim to focus your
area of science in your teaching activities to provide “deep versus
superficial” education (à la the Carnegie model of learning), while
supporting the advancement of science (yours!).
Focus, focus, focus on your area of scientific inquiry. Be productive
in managing your emphasis area by removing seductive drifting to
other “interesting topics.” Latch on to others with expertise, serving
in a coinvestigator role to learn the ropes of managing a team. Seek
a senior researcher to coach you in bringing a team together and
effective strategies to elicit each member’s relative strengths in the
area of inquiry. This will enhance your productivity because you are
building a team that distributes labor, synergy, and support.
Value your time. Be benevolent to yourself and others. Early in
my research career, I printed my four or five important and prior-
ity areas on a single page. These priorities were concrete items or
activities, for example, develop research team to include nurse and
physical therapist with community focus, develop community link-
ages for recruitment of caregiver subjects by November 1st, sub-
mit the Alzheimer’s Association grant by December 1st, and one
manuscript on the NIH caregiving study submitted by April 3rd.
I reproduced the page with the priorities in large print and placed
the page in a location only I could see, right next to my computer.
When a request came in by email, or a colleague stopped by to ask
if I could “just do this one small thing . . . xxxx,” I glanced to my
page of priorities and then framed my response. If the request for
my time, talent, or wisdom did not directly relate to moving one of
my priority items to completion, I either deferred for time to think or
immediately responded with “what a wonderful opportunity and any
other time I would love to do this, but right now this won’t work.
May I suggest you consider . . . (I would share another person or
another strategy that may not be where they were originally headed
but would address their intended goal). If I deferred a decision, my
email or phone response would be similar to what I just described.
If the request had strong and direct potential to move a priority item
forward, I would agree and/or reframe, for instance, “Thank you for
the invitation to present XX topic at the statewide aging conference.
How about we engage XXX (junior faculty, doctoral student) in
this—I know s/he would benefit professionally from the experience
and would be good,” or “I would be happy to present to your NP
170 Western Journal of Nursing Research 35(2)
students (or the statewide conference), however the topic you sug-
gest is not something I am prepared to discuss. I could do this with
a modification; I would be happy to provide a session on XXXXX.”
The topic now directly related to my stated priorities, and my time
is strategically used.
Be strict with your time, and others. Remember that service respon-
sibilities are not a substitute for the tangible results you aim for in
your program of research. Therefore, as a participant in activities,
meetings, and communications within the academic and university
unit, you must honor others and yourself by arriving on time, pro-
viding directed input, and departing at the stated end of the meeting,
Allow yourself the opportunity to depart the meeting at the sched-
uled end time, with the statement “I have another meeting, so sorry
to depart.”
Cindy M. Anderson
(University of North Dakota)
The pattern of research productivity can be likened to an unending circle.
The need for success in grant funding is dependent on having publications
that demonstrate evidence of investigator ability. To develop a track record
of publication, data are required. To collect data, grant funding must be in
place, and so on. Such a pattern requires the ability to manage the process of
searching out funding opportunities while implementing a research study and
writing manuscripts from a completed study. For most nurse scientists, these
activities are accomplished in the face of other work demands. Particularly
for those establishing research independence, the reality of the expectations
and the associated pressures of assuring that research expectations are met
can be overwhelming. It is therefore essential that strategies for time man-
agement and prioritization of responsibilities are established, effectively
promoting research productivity.
Competing demands on time require an approach that links outcomes with
a defined process. Careful planning is central to enhancing productivity.
Identifying the ideal journal for manuscript submission is an intentional pro-
cess, requiring a match between type and focus of the manuscript and desired
readership. Although most productive researchers are familiar with the pri-
mary journals in their fields, the opportunity to respond to special calls pres-
ents unique opportunities for publication. Similarly, nurse researchers are
knowledgeable regarding funding agencies suited to their areas of investiga-
tion. Targeted requests for proposals or special calls may be uniquely geared
to a particular aspect of investigation. The time necessary for the detective
Chase et al. 171
work required in the process of finding just the right venue for a manuscript
or proposal submission represents an additional challenge to research pro-
ductivity. Steps to automate the process can both save time and reveal oppor-
tunities that might otherwise be overlooked. For example, signing up to
receive automated notifications from funding agencies regarding upcoming
opportunities delivers essential information to your inbox with a minimal
investment of time. Similarly, establishing an automated notification of
recent research publications in areas of interest can identify new journals for
manuscript submission.
Once opportunities are identified, they must be implemented. A plan for
making progress toward the end result is critical, as procrastination and com-
peting interests can undo good intentions. This is particularly important for
scholarly products that are associated with firm deadlines. A variety of strate-
gies to assure steady progress toward completion of the final product can be
successful. The challenge lies in which approach is most suited for each indi-
vidual. Blocking small periods of time daily works for some, whereas block-
ing large time periods with less frequency works for others. Unfortunately,
the development of the most productive writing style is often trial and error,
or simply capitalizing on available time. Completion of the scholarly product
in advance of the deadline is most desirable, as this timeline allows for an
opportunity for peer review, essential to enhancing submission success. Even
if there is no firm deadline, establishment of self-imposed deadlines increases
accountability. Involving others in the process of establishing timelines is
effective, as external expectations are established beyond one’s own.
The individuals most prolific in their research productivity have common
characteristics that are conducive to achieving their goals and objectives. The
ability to focus and set a course toward achievement of a desired outcome
significantly enhances success. Writing as a member of a research team is the
correlate to “the sum is greater than its parts,” all members being accountable
to each other and contributing to a better product. Of course, one of the great-
est motivators is the deadline, which is often related to increased activity
consistent with the ticking clock. The closer the deadline gets, the higher its
priority becomes. Ultimately, flexibility and ease with which one can move
from idea to action will determine research productivity for both beginning
and experienced researchers.
Vicki S. Conn (University of Missouri)
Research productivity requires considerable time to work with research
teams, plan studies, draft competitive grant applications, conduct projects,
complete publishable manuscripts, and the like. Several time management
172 Western Journal of Nursing Research 35(2)
strategies have been used successfully by scores of academics. Prioritizing
activities is essential. The focus should be on long-term scholarship goals
and the intermediate and immediate activities to achieve those goals. Staying
busy is not adequate; the busyness must be goal-directed behavior. Many
successful scholars develop both 1 year and multiyear goals. They also
develop shorter range behavioral goals such as completing the methods sec-
tion of a specific manuscript this week.
Research success is not an accident. Planning is important. One should
never wait for free time to develop scholarship. Time to work on scholarship
should be scheduled on the calendar. Scholarship time should be your best
thinking and writing time, if you are a morning writer you could avoid other
morning appointments. Many people require more than 1 hr for productive
writing, so the schedule may need to have longer blocks of time allocated to
writing (those 1 hr blocks might be useful for doing specific tasks such as
developing tables, findings additional citations, etc.). The personal calendar
should have these blocks of time scheduled far in advance, to ensure the time
remains available.
Organized scholars are more productive than disorganized researchers.
Breaking large projects into manageable chunks can be very helpful. For
example, a manuscript activities list might include items such as draft intro-
duction, write methods, develop results, develop table 1, create Figure 2,
draft discussion, write abstract, get drafts to coauthors, decide journal for
initial submission and secure direction for authors, format manuscript and
citations for journal, and so forth. These lists can identify needed assistance
early in the process. It is often much easier to secure assistance from others
when the deadline can be generous. Some writers find it helpful to start some-
place beside the first paragraph of the manuscript. For example, it may be
easiest to write the methods section first. The “to do” list can become a “ta
da” list as items completed remain on the list with their completion indicated
in some manner (e.g., strikethrough). Each writing session can end with notes
in the activities list about what specific work should be tackled during the
next work session to avoid time spent deciding the work anew. The electronic
file management system should reflect the organized approach to work.
Junior investigators might benefit from viewing the file organization used by
senior investigators to garner ideas for organization.
Distractions can be devastating for research productivity. One should not
underestimate the effectiveness of decreasing immediate distractions: cell/
office phone, email and text audio notices, drop in visitors, and so forth.
These immediate distractions not only consume time, but refocusing on
scholarly activities requires time after the distraction disappears. With
Chase et al. 173
practice, we can learn to check these messages every few hours. People we
routinely communicate with will eventually learn that message will be
returned on the day they were received, but not in the same hour. Internal
distractions can be a problem. Some scholars keep a separate list of ideas so
when these mental distractions develop, they can be briefly recorded and
dismissed from thought to focus on the work at hand. Some people errone-
ously believe multitasking improves productivity. Multitasking is another
form of distraction. Single-task work is more productive, especially for the
complex activities required for research productivity.
Making time for research productivity requires avoiding other time com-
mitments. This is often a matter of deflecting seeming urgent needs to achieve
important long-term research productivity. Learning to decline these time-
occupying activities is important. Table 2 identifies some strategies to grace-
fully avoid time commitments, which are not a priority. These strategies
would be judiciously applied depending on the situation, including the person
making the request.
Problem solving to achieve research productivity is important. An honest
appraisal of barriers to research productivity can be discussed with a mentor
to develop potential solutions. Reassessment of research productivity after
instituting potential solutions is a vital part of the continuous quality improve-
ment process for becoming more productive. Even brilliant scholars can ben-
efit from a mentor’s observation that ceasing nonproductive approaches may
be essential.
Finally, time management to achieve research productivity must be recog-
nized at the school level as an important aspect of school success. Chairs,
associate deans for research, and faculty mentors can be powerful allies in
managing commitments to achieve high research productivity. Researchers
should actively enlist their support to facilitate research productivity.
Researchers face numerous perils to productivity related to ineffective use of
time. This article has detailed several strategies addressing effective time
management. These strategies are founded upon a firm dedication and com-
mitment to a unified goal among researchers: building and maintaining a
productive program of research. Researchers should assess their own use of
time to determine barriers and facilitators to effective time management.
Furthermore, planning and implementing a variety of strategies based on this
personalized assessment will encourage changes in time management behav-
iors. Finally, monitoring progress will promote identification of successes in
174 Western Journal of Nursing Research 35(2)
Table 2. Strategies to Decline Requests That Would Diminish Scholarship
Strategy Sample Wording
Do not make an
immediate decision: the
time delay gives you
time to really consider
whether the activity fits
your priorities
Let me think about it and get back to you.
I will look over my other commitments and let you know.
I need to talk with my mentor before making any
That is an interesting opportunity, I will need to
carefully consider my other obligations and get back
to you.
I need to examine my other commitments to make
sure I would have adequate time to do quality work, I
will let you know on Thursday.
Delay additional time
I am unable to assume any new responsibilities until
_____ happens (e.g., my grant is submitted next year,
I am reviewed for tenure).
I am sorry, I can’t help you now, please ask again after
____ happens.
Declare that you are not
the right person for the
I wish I could help you but that is outside my area of
I am sorry, I don’t have the knowledge to help with
this problem.
I think ___ would be much more capable of working
on this.
Acknowledge an excellent
opportunity: this allows
you to recognize the
importance of the work
without becoming
personally involved
That is a great opportunity, unfortunately I am unable
to participate at this time.
I appreciate the offer to be involved in this important
work, I am sorry I can’t participate.
Thanks for letting me know about this excellent
opportunity, I am sorry I am not in a position to
accept this offer.
Blame your mentor (if
your mentor agrees to
be blamed)
My mentor told me to not take on any additional
service responsibilities at this time.
My chair asked me to discuss all time commitments
with her/him before making a decision.
My mentor is very insistent that I not join any other
committees until my grant is submitted later this year.
Compliment the
requestor before
I would love to work with you because I know you
are an expert in this area, unfortunately I am unable
to join the project.
Chase et al. 175
Strategy Sample Wording
I admire you dedication to this topic, I am sorry I
won’t be able to work with you at this time.
I would really enjoy working with you because
you are an expert, I have to decline this wonderful
I am so glad you asked because I admire your work,
and I am very sorry to have to decline.
There is no one I would rather work with, I am sorry
I am unable to participate.
Express gratitude at being
ask, then decline
I am flattered that you think I could help with _____,
unfortunately I am unable to be involved.
Avoid specific excuses,
unless the excuse
is incontrovertible,
especially if the inviter is
likely to argue about the
I appreciate this opportunity but I’m afraid it just
won’t work for me.
I am sorry, but I am not able to help you.
You are doing important work, unfortunately I can’t
help you.
That is not something I do.
Acknowledge that this is
an important problem to
the requestor without
becoming personally
I know you care deeply about ____, I am sorry I can’t
help at this time.
I agree this is a very important problem,
unfortunately I won’t be able to help.
I see this is an important challenge. I am sure you will
find a good solution. Sorry I can’t help you develop
the solution.
Assume a smaller role
than the one offered
I am unable to be a task force member, but perhaps
I could offer ideas at one meeting related to my area
of expertise.
I can’t join as a coinvestigator, but I would be glad to
participate in occasional meetings to discuss ____.
I am unable to take on a coauthor role, but I would
be willing to comment on a draft of the paper.
Negotiate trade-offs to
meet the requestor’s
I could help you with ____ committee, if I were
released from ___ committee. Can you arrange that?
I am unable to join the task force this year, could I
become a member next year?
Note: Discretion is required to determine which invitations should be accepted and which
should be declined. Declining every request is not appropriate.
Table 2. (continued)
176 Western Journal of Nursing Research 35(2)
time management and areas that may need further improvement. Deliberately
cultivating time management skills is essential to maintaining a productive
and successful program of research among scientists in all stages of their
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research,
authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publica-
tion of this article.
Aloher, M. (2008, June 22). Fighting a war against distraction. The New York Times.
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ment literature. Personnel Review, 36, 255-276. doi:10.1108/00483480710726136
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ogy of love, traditional values and spiritual growth. New York, NY: Simon &
... Ademais, o estudante pode vivenciar incompatibilidades ao manejar a quantidade limitada de tempo disponível para manter um bom equilíbrio entre as obrigações do curso, da vida familiar, social e laboral. Chase et al. (2012) ressaltam que o ambiente de pesquisa demanda muitas responsabilidades, além de ser um contexto complexo e que exige um gerenciamento do tempo para evitar um decréscimo da produtividade das atividades inerentes ao curso. Assim, segundo os autores, é necessária a aprendizagem de estratégias que melhorem a gestão do tempo, tais como ter um planejamento que estabeleça metas possíveis de serem alcançadas, que mantenha o foco nos objetivos estabelecidos e que adote um procedimento de avaliação contínuo das estratégias utilizadas. ...
... A busca pelo aprimoramento profissional, pela produção de conhecimento e, consequentemente, pela certificação, requer o estabelecimento de metas e de estar intrinsecamente motivado para conduzir as exigências obtidas na "Formação Acadêmica" (Classe 2) e na "Desejabilidade de Status Social" (Classe 3) dos alunos de Doutorado. Os cursos de Pós--Graduação stricto sensu demandam o engajamento com investigações e requerem reponsabilidades com o gerenciamento do tempo devido à complexidade do ambiente de pesquisa e do ritmo de produtividade dos estudos (Chase et al., 2012). Ademais, os autores acrescentam que a aprendizagem de estratégias para aprimorar a gestão do tempo, planejar eficazmente, estabelecer objetivos possíveis de serem alcançados e avaliar continuamente as estratégias utilizadas são aspectos necessários. ...
The objective of this study was to understand how Master and PhD students in Psychology perceive their time management. Were held two workshops with six doctoral students and another with 12 master's students, aged between 24 and 55 years (M = 38.83 and SD = 9.59). The volunteers were informed of the objectives and the statements were analyzed using the IRAMUTEQ software. The results showed that students try to manage time to be efficient in carrying out activities and strive to distinguish what is urgent and what can be postponed. The study contributed to the critical reflection of time management. Prospective studies could rely on students from graduate programs in different locations, in addition to differentiating perceptions according to gender.
... The goal of time management is to spend our free time as efficiently as possible. (Chase et al., 2013) [3] Pointed out that Time management must be acknowledged at the school level as a crucial component of academic performance in order to attain research productivity. In managing responsibilities to achieve high research productivity, chairs, associate deans for research, and faculty mentors can be extremely effective allies. ...
... The goal of time management is to spend our free time as efficiently as possible. (Chase et al., 2013) [3] Pointed out that Time management must be acknowledged at the school level as a crucial component of academic performance in order to attain research productivity. In managing responsibilities to achieve high research productivity, chairs, associate deans for research, and faculty mentors can be extremely effective allies. ...
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Time is life. Every aspect of life depends upon time. As human life progress with time, energy and physical strength seem to diminish. It is all-important to perform various tasks during a specific time period. Any act performed after time is of no use. It is also important to live in the present moment. This research paper is an attempt to learn the essentials of time management and also its importance. For this purpose, literature survey was done. It was found that the most important tool for time management is to prioritize the task.
... Many editorials, including those by (Bergmanm et al. 2013;Chase et al. 2013;Hackworth 2008;and Stone 2015), present similar findings after assessing various methods for reducing distractions and improving focus. Setting attainable, realistic goals, maximising realistic planning, prioritising, scheduling, involving the team, rewarding oneself for success, avoiding potential distractions, and frequently reviewing progress were all mentioned as crucial techniques. ...
Time is an essential resource for every organisation in terms of accomplishing its goals and aims. Goal setting, prioritising, planning, and delegating are all examples of efficient time management strategies that can increase productivity, efficiency, work-life balance, and job satisfaction. On the other hand, poor time management has been connected to poor job quality, low productivity, a negative effect on career progression, and high levels of stress. This study aims to identify the strategies used by middle nurse managers. This interdisciplinary systematic study's search strategy made use of three different internet databases—Scopus, CINAHL, and MEDLINE. Quantitative studies of time management and nurse managers have been conducted and published. All included studies had their data extracted, analysed, and assessed for quality. The results show that prioritisation and work delegation are the two most often utilised and successful time management strategies among nurse managers. In conclusion, planning can be a useful time management approach, and a manager should educate him/herself on delegation. Managers’ ability to strike a good work-life balance depends on their ability to effectively manage their time, which influences productivity and organisational success.
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... 2008) editorials share common results analyzing a variety of approaches that minimize procrastination, interruptions and enhance discipline. They identified different important strategies, like setting realistic and attainable goals, optimizing realistic planning, prioritizing, effective scheduling, involving the team, rewarding yourself for achievement, managing potential distractions, and analyzing progress periodically (15,16). Arnold E. et al. (2004) review discussed the importance of TM and enlisted the most important skills for improving it. ...
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ஆய்வுச் சுருக்கம் மனிதன் தனது பல கடமைகளை வெற்றிகரமாகச் செய்ய முடியும் என்பதை உறுதி செய்ய நேர முகாமைத்துவம் குறித்து நவீன உலகில் நிறைய விவாதங்கள் உள்ளன. மனித வாழ்க்கையின் அனைத்து பிரிவுகளுக்கும் உற்பத்தி வழிகாட்டுதலை வழங்கும் நேர முகாமைத்துவம் குறித்த வழிகாட்டுதலை இஸ்லாம் வழங்கியுள்ளது. எனவே, நேர முகாமைத்துவம் குறித்த இஸ்லாமிய வழிகாட்டுதல்களை அடையாளம் காணவும், மனித செயல்பாடுகளில் அவை எவ்வாறு தாக்கத்தை ஏற்படுத்துகின்றன என்பதை விவரிக்கவும், இஸ்லாமிய வழிகாட்டுதல்களில் பிரதிபலிக்கும் பாரம்பரிய நேர முகாமைத்துவம் கூறுகளின் வடிவங்களை தெளிவுபடுத்தவும் இந்த ஆய்வு நடத்தப்பட்டது. முந்தைய ஆய்வுகளின் அடிப்படையில் குறிப்பாக இஸ்லாமிய ஆய்வுகளாக அமைந்த கட்டுரைகள், நூல்கள், இணையத் தகவல்கள் போன்றவற்றில் நேரமுகாமைத்துவம் குறித்து அல்-குரான் மற்றும் அல்-ஹதீஸ் போன்றவற்றில் பெறப்பட்ட செய்திகள் ஆய்வுக்கு உட்படுத்தப்பட்டுள்ள. சரியான நேர முகாமைத்துவத்தை மேற்கொள்வதற்கும், மகிழ்ச்சியான வாழ்க்கையை வாழவும், சமய, சமூக, பொருளாதார, குடும்பம் மற்றும் பிற பகுதிகளில் போதுமான நேரத்தை செலவிடுவதற்கும் இஸ்லாம் ஆக்கபூர்வமான வழிகாட்டுதல்களை மக்களுக்கு வழங்கியுள்ளது என்பது இந்தப் பகுப்பாய்வின் முக்கிய கண்டுபிடிப்பு ஆகும். பரபரப்பான சூழலை உடைய நவீன உலக வாழ்வில், அனைத்து அத்தியாவசியமானவற்றிலும் வெற்றிகரமாகக் கவனம் செலுத்துவதன் முக்கியத்துவத்தை, இஸ்லாமிய வழிகாட்டுதல் வழி தெளிவுபடுத்த இந்த ஆய்வு உதவும்.
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Research Question (RQ): Is time managementan effective strategy to improve organizational performance?Purpose:The purpose of the article wasto examine research evidence on time management and job and organizational performance. examiningpast and existent research on time management and its association with job performance and organizational performance.Method:Using theorizing method of search, I examined secondary data from several readingsand analysis of previous research studies and literature on the topic of this article. Ireviewed pastand existing literature with empirical evidence on the time management impact on job and organizational performance using search engines such as: DOAJ, Google Scholar, Public Med, Elsevier, SAGE,and other databases that contained the themes according to keywords: time management, job performance and organizational performance. To test associations between time management and job and organizational performance and to provide arguments for it, I used Pyramid principle method developed by Pinto (2002). Results: We tested the association between time management and job and organizational performance. Findings reveal that time management influences personal time behavior, job performance and organizational performance: 1) time management is panacea and not placebo, 2) time management successfully uses organizational resources and implements organization goals 3) time management requires the setting of distinctive time behaviors to impact job and organizational performance. Organizationand society:The awareness of the positive role of time management in the process of improving job and organizational effectiveness, help the management of organization to understand, promote and support time behavior of employees, which results in better performance. Originality:The research aims at promoting time management isanimportant factor in following the organization success and helps to provide new evidence on already scarce research on the topic of time management.Limitations / further research: The research islimited due to scarcity of empirical evidence on the topics and due to limited research articles reviewed available in the contents of search engines used. Research is based on indirect associations and not on correlations, so more rational and quantitative method should be used in future research.
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Purpose The purpose of this article is to provide an overview for those interested in the current state‐of‐the‐art in time management research. Design/methodology/approach This review includes 32 empirical studies on time management conducted between 1982 and 2004. Findings The review demonstrates that time management behaviours relate positively to perceived control of time, job satisfaction, and health, and negatively to stress. The relationship with work and academic performance is not clear. Time management training seems to enhance time management skills, but this does not automatically transfer to better performance. Research limitations/implications The reviewed research displays several limitations. First, time management has been defined and operationalised in a variety of ways. Some instruments were not reliable or valid, which could account for unstable findings. Second, many of the studies were based on cross‐sectional surveys and used self‐reports only. Third, very little attention was given to job and organizational factors. There is a need for more rigorous research into the mechanisms of time management and the factors that contribute to its effectiveness. The ways in which stable time management behaviours can be established also deserves further investigation. Practical implications This review makes clear which effects may be expected of time management, which aspects may be most useful for which individuals, and which work characteristics would enhance or hinder positive effects. Its outcomes may help to develop more effective time management practices. Originality/value This review is the first to offer an overview of empirical research on time management. Both practice and scientific research may benefit from the description of previous attempts to measure and test the popular notions of time management.
Fighting a war against distraction. The New York Times Retrieved from Claessens, A review of the time manage-ment literature
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Aloher, M. (2008, June 22). Fighting a war against distraction. The New York Times. Retrieved from Claessens, B. J. C., van Eerde, W., & Rutte, C. G. (2007). A review of the time manage-ment literature. Personnel Review, 36, 255-276. doi:10.1108/00483480710726136
The road less traveled, 25th anniversary edition: A new psychology of love, traditional values and spiritual growth
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Peck, M. S. (2003). The road less traveled, 25th anniversary edition: A new psychology of love, traditional values and spiritual growth. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Fighting a war against distraction. The New York Times
  • M Aloher
Aloher, M. (2008, June 22). Fighting a war against distraction. The New York Times. Retrieved from
A review of the time management literature
  • B J C Claessens
  • W Van Eerde
  • C G Rutte
Claessens, B. J. C., van Eerde, W., & Rutte, C. G. (2007). A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review, 36, 255-276. doi:10.1108/00483480710726136