Article

A Prospective Study of Weight Training and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Men

Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 17.33). 08/2012; 172(17):1-7. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3138
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The role of weight training in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is largely unknown. METHODS To examine the association of weight training with risk of T2DM in US men and to assess the influence of combining weight training and aerobic exercise, we performed a prospective cohort study of 32 002 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study observed from 1990 to 2008. Weekly time spent on weight training and aerobic exercise (including brisk walking, jogging, running, bicycling, swimming, tennis, squash, and calisthenics/rowing) was obtained from questionnaires at baseline and biennially during follow-up. RESULTS During 508 332 person-years of follow-up (18 years), we documented 2278 new cases of T2DM. In multivariable-adjusted models, we observed a dose-response relationship between an increasing amount of time spent on weight training or aerobic exercise and lower risk of T2DM (P < .001 for trend). Engaging in weight training or aerobic exercise for at least 150 minutes per week was independently associated with a lower risk of T2DM of 34% (95% CI, 7%-54%) and 52% (95% CI, 45%-58%), respectively. Men who engaged in aerobic exercise and weight training for at least 150 minutes per week had the greatest reduction in T2DM risk (59%; 95% CI, 39%-73%). CONCLUSIONS Weight training was associated with a significantly lower risk of T2DM, independent of aerobic exercise. Combined weight training and aerobic exercise conferred a greater benefit.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Lars Bo Andersen, Oct 30, 2014
  • Source
    • "Particularly concerning was the finding that over 80 % of Australians do not engage in sufficient strength training. Research suggests that, independent of MVPA, strength training has beneficial outcomes which are important for health and wellbeing, such as prevention and treatment of diabetes[12,63]and cognitive de- cline[10]and improvements and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass/strength[10], bone mineral density[64]and physical functioning[65]. More research is now needed to examine the key factors influencing strength training participation[66]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The current Australia's Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines recommend that adults engage in regular moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and strength training (ST), and minimise time spent in sedentary behaviours (SB). However, evidence about the specific individual and concurrent distribution of these behaviours in Australia is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of MVPA, ST and SB in a national-representative sample of Australian adults. Methods Data were collected using face-to-face interviews, as part of the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011–12. The population-weighted proportions meeting the MVPA (≥150 min/week), ST (≥2 sessions/week) and combined MVPA-ST guidelines, and proportions classified as having ‘low levels of SB’ (<480 min/day) were calculated, and their associations with selected sociodemographic and health-related variables were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. This was also done for those at potentially ‘high-risk’, defined as insufficient MVPA-ST and ‘high-sedentary’ behaviour. Results Out of 9345 participants (response rate = 77.0 %), aged 18–85 years, 52.6 % (95 % CI: 51.2 %–54.0 %), 18.6 % (95 % CI: 17.5 %–19.7 %) and 15.0 % (95 % CI: 13.9 %–16.1 %) met the MVPA, ST and combined MVPA-ST guidelines, respectively. Female gender, older age, low/medium education, poorer self-rated health, being classified as underweight or obese, and being a current smoker were independently associated with lower odds of meeting the MVPA, ST and combined MVPA-ST guidelines. A total of 78.9 % (95 % CI: 77.9 %–80.0 %) were classified as having low levels of SB. Females, older adults and those with lower education were more likely to report lower levels of SB, whilst those with poor self-rated health and obese individuals were less likely to report lower levels of SB (i.e. SB = ≥480 min/day). A total of 8.9 % (95 % CI: 8.1 %–9.6 %) were categorised as individuals at potentially ‘high-risk’. Those with poorer self-rated health, obese individuals, those aged 25–44, and current smokers were more likely to be in the ‘high risk’ group. Conclusions The large majority of Australian adults do not meet the full physical activity guidelines and/or report excessive SB. Our results call for public health interventions to reduce physical inactivity and SB in Australia, particularly among the subgroups at the highest risk of these unhealthy behaviours.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Public Health
  • Source
    • "Current guidelines for T2DM prevention and management [3,19] recommend at least 150 min per week of moderate-vigorous aerobic activity and an additional two (ideally three) RT sessions per week (at least 60 min). Studies have reported that the combination of aerobic plus RT has additive benefits on glucose control [16,20,21] and can achieve greater reductions in T2DM incidence [22,23] than the use of a single exercise modality. However, multi-component (diet + aerobic exercise + RT) lifestyle interventions have the potential to become excessively burdensome, which could compromise program adherence. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current recommendations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes advise modification of diet and exercise behaviors including both aerobic and resistance training. However, the efficacy of multi-component interventions involving a combination of these three components has not been established. The aims of this review were to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on multi-component (diet + aerobic exercise + resistance training) lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes prevention. Eight electronic databases (Medline, Embase, SportDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Informit health collection, Cochrane library and Scopus) were searched up to June 2013. Eligible studies 1) recruited prediabetic adults or individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes; 2) conducted diet and exercise [including both physical activity/aerobic and resistance training] programs; and 3) reported weight and plasma glucose outcomes. In total, 23 articles from eight studies were eligible including five randomized controlled trials, one quasi-experimental, one two-group comparison and one single-group pre-post study. Four studies had a low risk of bias (score >= 6/10). Median intervention length was 12 months (range 4-48 months) with a follow-up of 18 months (range 6.5 - 48 months). The diet and exercise interventions varied slightly in terms of their specific prescriptions. Meta-analysis favored interventions over controls for weight loss (-3.79 kg [-6.13, -1.46; 95% CI], Z = 3.19, P = 0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (-0.13 mmol.L-1 [-0.24, -0.02; 95% CI], Z = 2.42, P = 0.02). Diabetes incidence was only reported in two studies, with reductions of 58% and 56% versus control groups. In summary, multi-component lifestyle type 2 diabetes prevention interventions that include diet and both aerobic and resistance exercise training are modestly effective in inducing weight loss and improving impaired fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, dietary and exercise outcomes in at risk and prediabetic adult populations. These results support the current exercise guidelines for the inclusion of resistance training in type 2 diabetes prevention, however there remains a need for more rigorous studies, with long-term follow-up evaluating program efficacy, muscular fitness outcomes, diabetes incidence and risk reduction.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
  • Source
    • "Evidence from randomized controlled trials has shown that RT improves glycemic control in patients with T2D, increases glucose disposal, and even improves the lipid and cardiovascular disease risk profile of patients with T2D [7] [8]. Furthermore, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study examined the association of RT in the primary prevention of T2D and found a 34% lower risk of T2D in men, independent of aerobic exercise [9]. However, there is limited mechanistic insight into how these adaptations occur. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glycogen synthesis, lipid accumulation, and impaired mitochondrial function. Exercise training has received increasing recognition as a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of T2D. Emerging research suggests that resistance training (RT) has the power to combat metabolic dysfunction in patients with T2D and seems to be an effective measure to improve overall metabolic health and reduce metabolic risk factors in diabetic patients. However, there is limited mechanistic insight into how these adaptations occur. This review provides an overview of the intervention data on the impact of RT on glucose metabolism. In addition, the molecular mechanisms that lead to adaptation in skeletal muscle in response to RT and that are associated with possible beneficial metabolic responses are discussed. Some of the beneficial adaptations exerted by RT include increased GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle, increased insulin sensitivity and hence restored metabolic flexibility. Increased energy expenditure and excess postexercise oxygen consumption in response to RT may be other beneficial effects. RT is increasingly establishing itself as an effective measure to improve overall metabolic health and reduce metabolic risk factors in diabetic patients.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
Show more