Hemophilus influenza type b (Hib) infection has a high morbidity and mortality rate especially in children less than 5 years of age. The incidence of Hib disease in Iran is not known and Hib vaccine is not included in the National Immunization Program. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of antibody to Hib of children five years or younger living in Jahrom, Iran. Three hundred eighty six children 5 years or younger were selected by random sampling method. A blood samples were taken from those children. Anti-Hib IgG antibody (anti-PRP) level was determined in the serum by using anti-Hemophilus influenza IgG EIA kit (IBL, Germany). An anti-PRP antibody levels of 0.15 microg mL(-1) and over were accepted as the natural immunity. The mean concentration of Hib antibody was 0.94 +/- 0.480 microg mL(-1). Natural immunity was determined in three hundred and twenty six (84.5%) of the children. The proportion of natural immunity was increased from 64.9% among children = 12 month old to 95.2% in children aged 49-60 month (p < 0.001). The exposure rate of children with Hib was higher than expected, even in children who were just a few months old. Present data revealed need to be introducing Hib conjugate vaccine in the National Immunization Programs.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The national immunization program of Iran has played an important role in achievements toward the control, elimination and eradication of some important infectious diseases. However, there are challenges regarding both diseases covered by the program and the type of vaccine or route of delivery, which are discussed in this Commentary. The current immunization program does not provide vaccines for rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), varicella, pneumococcal and influenza. There are also issues regarding use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) instead of inactivated vaccine (IPV) and whole cell pertussis (wP) instead of acellular pertussis vaccine (aP). We have reviewed the evidence regarding these immunization issues; it seems that at least for rotavirus and Hib, there is sufficient evidence regarding the efficiency of vaccination in Iran. OPV is currently preferred because of the endemic situation of polio in Afghanistan and Pakistan (eastern neighbors) and considerations of efficiency. More data are needed for the analysis of policies on pneumococcal and influenza vaccines and aP vaccine. :
Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with beta-thalassaemia major and asplenia have an increased risk of encapsulated bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to determine the Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) antibody concentrations in beta-thalassaemia patients with or without spleens. The Hib antibody concentrations were investigated in 850 patients with thalassaemia major, of whom 437 had undergone splenectomy. Hib antibody levels equal or greater than 1.0 μg mL(-1) were classified as long-term protection, those between 0.15 and less than 1.0 μg mL(-1) as short-term protection and those less than 0.15 μg mL(-1) as no protection. The mean Hib antibody level was lower in asplenic subjects than in non splenectomised subjects (0.39 ± 0.5 vs. 1.08 ± 0.55 μg mL(-1), p < 0.001). The protective antibody level prevalence in asplenic patients was significantly lower than that in patients with spleens (32.3% vs. 85.7%, p < 0.001). Protection against Hib decreased as the time interval after splenectomy increased from 57.2% at a less than 60 months interval to 10.8% at a greater than 120 months interval (p = 0.001). Nearly 30% of the 437 splenectomised subjects had long-term protection against Hib, whereas 64.4% of the 413 non splenectomised subjects had long-term protection (p < 0.001). Asplenic subjects had lower Hib antibody levels than non splenectomised subjects. Additionally, the antibody levels decreased as the time interval increased after splenectomy. A Hib vaccine recommendation for splenectomised thalassaemia major seems essential.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences