The Association of Physical Fitness With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Filipino Preadolescents
The objective of this study is are to examine the association of preadolescent obesity using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with health-related physical fitness components.
Grades 4 to 6 students in 2 private schools in Manila were included in this study. Height, weight, WC, and BMI were obtained. Physical fitness field tests were sit-and-reach test, 1-minute sit-ups, standing broad jump, 40-m sprint, and 20-m shuttle run.
Obese subjects had poorer scores in the field tests except in the sit-and-reach test. BMI and WC were significantly negatively associated with all the physical fitness parameters, except for the 40-m sprint where positive correlation was observed, and in the sit-and-reach test where no correlation was seen.
In the management of preadolescent overweight and obesity, exercise programs should therefore be designed toward enhancing these fitness parameters, while not sacrificing enjoyment and creativity.
Available from: Jordan Smith
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ABSTRACT: Physical fitness during childhood and adolescence has been identified as an important determinant of current and future health status. While research has traditionally focused on the association between cardio-respiratory fitness and health outcomes, the association between muscular fitness (MF) and health status has recently received increased attention.
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the potential physiological and psychological benefits associated with MF among children and adolescents.
A systematic search of six electronic databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, EMBASE, PsycINFO and OVID MEDLINE) was performed on the 20th May, 2013. Cross-sectional, longitudinal and experimental studies that quantitatively examined the association between MF and potential health benefits among children and adolescents were included. The search yielded 110 eligible studies, encompassing six health outcomes (i.e., adiposity, bone health, cardiovascular disease [CVD] and metabolic risk factors, musculoskeletal pain, psychological health and cognitive ability). The percentage of studies reporting statistically significant associations between MF and the outcome of interest was used to determine the strength of the evidence for an association and additional coding was conducted to account for risk of bias. Meta-analyses were also performed to determine the pooled effect size if there were at least three studies providing standardised coefficients.
Strong evidence was found for an inverse association between MF and total and central adiposity, and CVD and metabolic risk factors. The pooled effect size for the relationship between MF and adiposity was r = -0.25 (95 % CI -0.41 to -0.08). Strong evidence was also found for a positive association between MF and bone health and self-esteem. The pooled effect size for the relationship between MF and perceived sports competence was r = 0.39 (95 % CI 0.34-0.45). The evidence for an association between MF and musculoskeletal pain and cognitive ability was inconsistent/uncertain. Where evidence of an association was found, the associations were generally low to moderate.
The findings of this review highlight the importance of developing MF in youth for a number of health-related benefits.
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ABSTRACT: Self myofascial release (SMR) via a tennis ball to the plantar aspect of the foot is widely used and advocated to increase flexibility and range of movement further along the posterior muscles of a proposed "anatomy train". To date there is no evidence to support the effect of bilateral SMR on the plantar aspect of the feet to increase hamstring and lumbar spine flexibility.
The primary aim was to investigate the immediate effect of a single application of SMR on the plantar aspect of the foot, on hamstring and lumbar spine flexibility. The secondary aim was to evaluate the method and propose improvements in future research.
A pilot single blind randomised control trial.
Twenty four healthy volunteers (8 men, 16 women; mean age 28 years ± 11.13).
Participants underwent screening to exclude hypermobility and were randomly allocated to an intervention (SMR) or control group (no therapy). Baseline and post intervention flexibility was assessed by a sit-and-reach test (SRT). A one way between groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to compare between group outcome SRT measurements. Baseline pre-intervention and control SRT measurements were used as the covariate in the analysis.
There was a significant increase (p = 0.03) in the intervention SRT outcome measurements compared to the control group, with a large effect size.
An immediate clinical benefit of SMR on the flexibility of the hamstrings and lumbar spine was indicated and suggestions for methodological improvements may inform future research.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Available from: Pedro Delgado Floody
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ABSTRACT: Antecedentes: En Chile, el incremento de la obesidad infantil se ha transformado en una pandemia y ha llegado a ser un importante problema de salud pública.
Objetivo: El propósito del estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso de niños-adolecentes y analizar su asociación con el riesgo cardiometabólico y rendimiento físico.
Material y métodos: Participaron de la investigación 342 escolares (151 mujeres y 191 hombres), que presentaban entre 11 y 16 años de edad, se evaluó índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de masa grasa (%MG), contorno cintura (CC), razón cintura estatura (RCE) y rendimiento físico a través de una batería de test.
Resultados: El 3,2% de los niños-adolecentes presentaron bajo peso, el 48,5% normopeso, 30,9% sobrepeso y el 17,3 % obesidad. Las categorías se analizaron como la presencia o no de sobrepeso y obesidad. Se reportó una relación inversa entre el estado nutricional y el rendimiento físico. Los escolares con obesidad, en comparación con los que no la presentan, mostraron un incremento significativo en las medidas antropométricas, así como una disminución del rendimiento físico (p<0,05). El riesgo cardiometabólico presentó asociación con abdominales (OR=3,34, p<0,001), flexiones de codo (OR=3,5, p=0,007), y Test de Navette (OR=8,24, p<0,001).
Conclusión: Esta investigación reportó elevados niveles de sobrepeso y obesidad en la muestra de estudio, asociándose esta condición con disminución de la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, pérdida de funcionalidad muscular y aumento en el riesgo cardiometabólico.
Palabras clave: Sobrepeso. Obesidad. Escolares. Rendimiento físico. Riesgo cardiometabólico.
Background: In Chile, the increase of childhood obesity has become a pandemic, and it has become a major public health problem.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in children-adolescents and to analyze its association with cardiometabolic risk and physical performance.
Material and methods: 342 students participated in this investigation (191 men and 151 women), who were between 11 and 16 years old, was evaluated index of corporal mass (IMC), body mass percentage (BMP), waist contour (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and physical yield across multiple test.
Results: The 3.2 % of the children-adolescent had low weight, the 48.5 % normal weight, 30.9 % overweight and 17.3 % were obese. The categories were analyzed as the presence or not of overweight and obesity. It was reported an inverse relationship between nutritional status and physical performance. Schoolchildren with obesity, in comparison with those without, showed a significant increase in anthropometric measures, as well as a decrease in the physical performance (p<0, 05). Cardiometabolic risk presented partnership with abdominal (OR=3, 34, p=0,001), flexion of the elbow (OR=3, 5, p=0.007), and Navette Test (OR=8, 24, p=0.001).
Conclusion: This investigation reported high levels of overweight and obesity in the study sample, associating this condition decreased cardio capacity, loss of functionality muscle and increase in the cardiometabolic risk.
Key Words: Overweight. Obesity. School. Physical Performance. Cardiometabolic risk.
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