In vitro activities of 3-hydroxy-1,5,6-trimethoxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone against non-small cell lung carcinoma
Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6H 3Z6, Canada.Archives of Pharmacal Research (Impact Factor: 2.05). 07/2012; 35(7):1251-8. DOI: 10.1007/s12272-012-0716-4
Medicinal herbs are the preferred candidates for drug discovery against human diseases including cancer. The roots of Prismatomeris connata have been used in traditional herbal medicine to treat many health problems, particularly pneumoconiosis. This study was to test the anti-tumor activity of 3-Hydroxy-1,5,6-trimethoxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (PCON6), a major anthraquinone derivative from C. connata, against lung cancer. Cell viability in cultures was assessed by MTT assay. Cell death or apoptosis was determined with Annexin-V and 7-Aminoactinomycin D staining. Cell cycle was analyzed by both propidium iodide DNA staining and BrdU incorporation assay. Here we showed that in a panel of fifteen different tumor cells lines, a group of four non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines exhibited a relatively higher sensitivity to PCON6 growth inhibition than the rest of most non-lung cancer cell lines (p = 0.0461). Further studies demonstrated that the suppression of NSCLC H520 cell growth by PCON6 was associated with its induction of apoptosis at 20 μM (p = 0.0008), and of cell accumulation at S phase cell cycle (p < 0.05) that was further supported by a decrease in cdc2 protein expression. This preliminary study suggests that natural compound PCON6 has relatively selective cytotoxicity against NSCLC growth and represent a concept of developing a novel drug therapy specific for NSCLC based on the roots of C. connata or PCON6.
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ABSTRACT: Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) is used widely alone or in combination with chemotherapy to treat lung cancer in China. Meta-analysis of clinical trials of TCHM against lung cancer suggested the potential, but not confirmed therapeutic effect. To gain detailed insight into the antilung cancer effects of TCHM, we searched for preclinical studies of TCHM against lung cancer published from 1995 to 2012 and systematically analyzed published articles focusing on the antitumor effect of individual TCHM in lung cancer cell lines or animal models. Among 93 herbal components isolated from 73 Chinese herbs, we found 10 herbal compounds that showed the strongest cytotoxicity in lung cancer cell lines through apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, and agents isolated from seven Chinese herbs that inhibited the primary tumor growth more than 35% in A549 xenografted mice models. In addition, three herbal components suppressed lung cancer cell migration in vitro at the concentration without cytotoxicity. Polyphyllin I, tanshinone IIA, isochaihulactone, 25-OCH3-PPD, and andrographolide were the five TCHM compounds that showed strong antilung cancer effects both in cells and in animal models, and studies of their analogs showed their structure-activity relationships. This review summarizes and analyzes contemporary studies on the antitumor effect of individual TCHM against lung cancer and animal models, providing perspectives to better understand the TCHM effect in lung cancer treatment and develop new antilung cancer drugs from TCHM.
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ABSTRACT: The root of Prismatomeris connata has been used in China for centuries as the medicinal herb Huang Gen (HG), but its phytochemicals or active ingredients are not well understood. In this study, we performed chemical analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction of a HG ethanol extract. We thus isolated seven new tetrahydroanthraquinones, prisconnatanones C-I (compounds 1-7) from the root of P. connata and identified their structures using spectroscopic analyses. Their absolute configurations were established by both modified Mosher's and Mo2OAc4 methods, and ORD techniques. Their cytotoxicity was tested in a panel of human lung tumor cells (H1229, HTB179, A549 and H520 cell lines). Prisconnatanone I (7) showed the highest activity, with an IC50 value ranging from 2.7 mu M to 3.9 mu M in the suppression of tumor cell growth, and the others with chelated phenolic hydroxyls exhibited relatively lower activity (IC50: 8-20 mu M). In conclusion, these data suggest that some of the natural tetrahydroanthraquinones in HG are bioactive, and hydroxylation at C-1 significantly increases the cytotoxicity of these compounds against lung tumor cell growth.
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