Impact of Global Economic Disparities on Practices and Outcomes of Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis in Children: Insights from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network Registry

Pediatric Nephrology Division, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, Heidelberg, Germany.
Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 07/2012; 32(4):399-409. DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2012.00126
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES, AND METHODS: The number of patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) is increasing rapidly on a global scale. We analyzed the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network (IPPN) registry, a global database active in 33 countries spanning a wide range in gross national income (GNI), to identify the impact of economic conditions on CPD practices and outcomes in children and adolescents.

We observed close associations of GNI with the fraction of very young patients on dialysis, the presence and number of comorbidities, the prevalence of patients with unexplained causes of end-stage kidney disease, and the rate of culture-negative peritonitis. The prevalence of automated PD increased with GNI, but was 46% even in the lowest GNI stratum. The GNI stratum also affected the use of biocompatible peritoneal dialysis fluids, enteral tube feeding, calcium-free phosphate binders, active vitamin D analogs, and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Patient mortality was strongly affected by GNI (hazard ratio per $10 000: 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 5.5) independently of young patient age and the number of comorbidities present. Patients from low-income countries tended to die more often from infections unrelated to CPD (5 of 9 vs 15 of 61, p = 0.1). The GNI was also a strong independent predictor of standardized height (p < 0.0001), adding to the impact of congenital renal disease, anuria, age at PD start, and dialysis vintage. Patients from the lower economic strata (GNI < $18 000) had higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium, and achieved lower hemoglobin concentrations. No impact of GNI was observed with regard to CPD technique survival or peritonitis incidence.

We conclude that CPD is practiced successfully, albeit with major regional variation related to economic differences, in children around the globe. The variations encompass the acceptance of very young patients and those with associated comorbidities to chronic dialysis programs, the use of automated PD and expensive drugs, and the diagnostic management of peritonitis. These variations in practice related to economic difference do not appear to affect PD technique survival; however, economic conditions seem to affect mortality on dialysis and standardized height, a marker of global child morbidity.

Download full-text


Available from: Franz Schaefer
  • Source
    • "While Norway (0.943) and Australia (0.929) had the highest HDI among the countries studied (Table 1), which possibly contributes to the higher CR (50–54) in these nations, the HDI of Turkey was the lowest (Table 1), which is likely to be related to its having the lowest CR (50–54) (Table 2). Research indicates that HDI assessments are affected by the mortality, morbidity, and economic conditions of a country [20,30]. This suggests that a comfortable socioeconomic environment based on high levels of economic success and human development might help the elderly to maintain the requisite social health required for successful aging. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the last fifty years, the number of centenarians has dramatically increased. The centenarian rate (CR) is representative of the general longevity prevalent in a nation; it indicates the number of individuals aged 100 years or above at a given date divided by the size of the corresponding cohort of a given age. Two important attributes of the CR (50-54) are that it reflects both unchanged age-specific fertility and the absence of migration in populations. It can generally be used in longevity-based evaluations of the broader concept of successful ageing. As such, this retrospective analysis of the social factors that contribute to the CR (50-54) may help to identify the factors associated with successful ageing.This study estimates the CR (50-54) and elucidates the influence of social factors on successful ageing and the CR (50-54), examining 32 member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The social indicators for this study were obtained from the United Nations database. The data for the analysis of centenarians in the 32 OECD countries were obtained from the world population prospects conducted by the United Nations. Associations between social factors and CR (50-54) were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models. Significant positive correlations were found between the CR (50-54) and the social factors of expenditure on health as a percentage of gross domestic product (HEGDP: r = 0.411, p < 0.021), general government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure (GGEH: r = 0.474, p < 0.006), the proportion of fixed-telephone subscriptions in the population (FTS: r = 0.489, p < 0.005), and the human development index (HDI: r = 0.486, p < 0.005). Finally, these CR (50-54) predictors were used to form a model of successful ageing, with higher HEGDP and GGEH as health expenditure, higher FTS as standard of living, and higher HDI as social well-being (R2 = 0.573, P < 0.025). The findings suggest that an increased CR (50-54) is affected by multiple social factors involved in successful ageing. Therefore, if they wish to improve their country's CR (50-54), governments must strengthen their existing support services for the elderly through making improvements to standards of living, social well-being and through increased financing of the health sector.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC International Health and Human Rights
  • Source

    Preview · Article · Jul 2012
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES, AND METHODS: Hospitalization and mortality rates in pediatric dialysis patients remain unacceptably high. Although studies have associated the presence of comorbidities with an increased risk for death in a relatively small number of pediatric dialysis patients, no large-scale study had set out to describe the comorbidities seen in pediatric dialysis patients or to evaluate the impact of those comorbidities on outcomes beyond the newborn period. In the present study, we evaluated the prevalence of comorbidities in a large international cohort of pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network registry and began to assess potential associations between those comorbidities and hospitalization rates and mortality. Results: Information on comorbidities was available for 1830 patients 0 - 19 years of age at dialysis initiation. Median age at dialysis initiation was 9.1 years [interquartile range (IQR): 10.9], median follow-up for calculation of hospitalization rates was 15.2 months (range: 0.2 - 80.9 months), and total follow-up time in the registry was 2095 patient-years. At least 1 comorbidity had been reported for 602 of the patients (32.9%), with 283 (15.5%) having cognitive impairment; 230 (12.6%), motor impairment; 167 (9.1%), cardiac abnormality; 76 (4.2%), pulmonary abnormality; 212 (11.6%), ocular abnormality; and 101 (5.5%), hearing impairment. Of the 150 patients (8.2%) that had a defined syndrome, 85% had at least 1 nonrenal comorbidity, and 64% had multiple comorbidities. The presence of at least 1 comorbidity was associated with a higher hospitalization rate [hospital days per 100 observation days: 1.7 (IQR: 5.8) vs 1.2 (IQR: 3.9), p = 0.001] and decreased patient survival (4-year survival rate: 73% vs 90%, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Nearly one third of pediatric CPD patients in a large international cohort had at least 1 comorbidity, and multiple comorbidities were frequently reported among patients with a defined syndrome. Preliminary analysis suggests an association between comorbidity and poor outcome in those patients. As this powerful international registry matures, further multivariate analyses will be important to more clearly define the impact of comorbidities on hospitalization rates and mortality in pediatric CPD patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012
Show more