Structural Basis of Rev1-mediated Assembly of a Quaternary Vertebrate Translesion Polymerase Complex Consisting of Rev1, Heterodimeric Polymerase (Pol) , and Pol

From the Department of Biochemistry, Duke University, Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 08/2012; 287(40):33836-46. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.394841
Source: PubMed


DNA synthesis across lesions during genomic replication requires concerted actions of specialized DNA polymerases in a potentially mutagenic process known as translesion synthesis. Current models suggest that translesion synthesis in mammalian cells is achieved in two sequential steps, with a Y-family DNA polymerase (κ, η, ι, or Rev1) inserting a nucleotide opposite the lesion and with the heterodimeric B-family polymerase ζ, consisting of the catalytic Rev3 subunit and the accessory Rev7 subunit, replacing the insertion polymerase to carry out primer extension past the lesion. Effective translesion synthesis in vertebrates requires the scaffolding function of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rev1 that interacts with the Rev1-interacting region of polymerases κ, η, and ι and with the Rev7 subunit of polymerase ζ. We report the purification and structure determination of a quaternary translesion polymerase complex consisting of the Rev1 CTD, the heterodimeric Pol ζ complex, and the Pol κ Rev1-interacting region. Yeast two-hybrid assays were employed to identify important interface residues of the translesion polymerase complex. The structural elucidation of such a quaternary translesion polymerase complex encompassing both insertion and extension polymerases bridged by the Rev1 CTD provides the first molecular explanation of the essential scaffolding function of Rev1 and highlights the Rev1 CTD as a promising target for developing novel cancer therapeutics to suppress translesion synthesis. Our studies support the notion that vertebrate insertion and extension polymerases could structurally cooperate within a megatranslesion polymerase complex (translesionsome) nucleated by Rev1 to achieve efficient lesion bypass without incurring an additional switching mechanism.

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    • "Rev1 also is important for TLS in human cells, but it does not insert dCMP opposite the AP-site. Rev1's likely role in AP-site bypass is the scaffolding function of the C-terminal domain that interacts with the Rev1-interacting region of other pols, including the Rev7 subunit of pol ζ [40], [41]. The type of mutations in the Rev1 and pol ζ knockdown cells, however, did not change appreciably from that in HEK 293T cells (Figure 7, Figure S2 and Table S8). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abasic [apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP)] sites are the most common DNA damages, opposite which dAMP is frequently inserted ('A-rule') in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide insertion opposite the AP-site in eukaryotic cells depends on the assay system and the type of cells. Accordingly, a 'C-rule', 'A-rule', or the lack of specificity has been reported. DNA sequence context also modulates nucleotide insertion opposite AP-site. Herein, we have compared replication of tetrahydrofuran (Z), a stable analog of AP-site, in E. coli and human embryonic kidney 293T cells in two different sequences. The efficiency of translesion synthesis or viability of the AP-site construct in E. coli was less than 1%, but it was 7- to 8-fold higher in the GZGTC sequence than in the GTGZC sequence. The difference in viability increased even more in pol V-deficient strains. Targeted one-base deletions occurred in 63% frequency in the GZG and 68% frequency in GZC sequence, which dropped to 49% and 21%, respectively, upon induction of SOS. The full-length products with SOS primarily involved dAMP insertion opposite the AP-site, which occurred in 49% and 71% frequency, respectively, in the GZG and GZC sequence. dAMP insertion, largely carried out by pol V, was more efficient when the AP-site was a stronger replication block. In contrast to these results in E. coli, viability was 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher in human cells, and the 'A-rule' was more rigidly followed. The AP-site in the GZG and GZC sequences gave 76% and 89%, respectively, Z→T substitutions. In human cells, targeted one-base deletion was undetectable, and dTMP>dCMP were the next preferred nucleotides inserted opposite Z. siRNA knockdown of Rev1 or pol ζ established that both these polymerases are vital for AP-site bypass, as demonstrated by 36-67% reduction in bypass efficiency. However, neither polymerase was indispensable, suggesting roles of additional DNA polymerases in AP-site bypass in human cells.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The recruitment and recognition mechanisms between TLS polymerases and Rev1 revealed by our studies exactly agree with the functions of TLS polymerases in TLS. Remarkably, our fluorescence anisotropy studies show that the RIM of inserter polymerase k and extender polymerase z (Rev7/Rev3) can bind to the PID of Rev1 simultaneously (Supplementary Figure S5A and B), which is in accord with the parallel work published recently (Wojtaszek et al., 2012). Further confocal images of the HEK-293T cells prove that the triple complex of Rev1-PID/ Polk-RIM/Polz (Rev7/Rev3) can present even in cells (Figure 1H). "

    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to DNA repair pathways, cells utilize translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) to bypass DNA lesions during replication. During TLS, Y-family DNA polymerase (Polη, Polκ, Polı and Rev1) inserts specific nucleotide opposite preferred DNA lesions, and then Polζ consisting of two subunits, Rev3 and Rev7, carries out primer extension. Here, we report the complex structures of Rev3-Rev7-Rev1(CTD) and Rev3-Rev7-Rev1(CTD)-Polκ(RIR). These two structures demonstrate that Rev1(CTD) contains separate binding sites for Polκ and Rev7. Our BIAcore experiments provide additional support for the notion that the interaction between Rev3 and Rev7 increases the affinity of Rev7 and Rev1. We also verified through FRET experiment that Rev1, Rev3, Rev7 and Polκ form a stable quaternary complex in vivo, thereby suggesting an efficient switching mechanism where the "inserter" polymerase can be immediately replaced by an "extender" polymerase within the same quaternary complex.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Protein & Cell
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