information about factors contributing to emergence of
HIVDR in populations receiving ART in Ouagadougou and
throughout the country. Additionally, the result of this TDR
survey reinforces the need to strengthen prevention and ad-
herence support interventions for those receiving ART.
To further investigate the relationship between clinic and site
factors that may be leading to emergence of HIVDR, Burkina
Faso has implemented WHO surveys of acquired HIVDR in
2 ART clinics and plans to repeat the TDR survey in the same
population in Ouagadougou and expand it to other areas of the
country in the near future.
In conclusion, although the ﬁndings of moderate TDR are of
concern, they should be treated with caution. Present ﬁndings
are insufﬁcient to change current ART guidelines in Burkina Faso
but do signal the importance of routine robust programmatic
monitoring of factors know to be associated with the emergence
of HIVDR at all treatment sites and the need for ongoing routine
surveillance of transmitted and acquired HIVDR.
Acknowledgements. We thank the staff of the Service of Bacteriology-
Virology of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Oue
the participants at the various study sites.
Disclaimer. The conclusions and opinions expressed in this article
are those of the authors and do not reﬂect those of the World Health
Financial support. This work was supported by The Bill & Melinda
Gates Foundation and the National Institutes of Health (grants 5 T32
AI007438-18 to A. M. R. and NIH K23 AI074423-05 to M. R. J.).
Supplement sponsorship. This article was published as part of a sup-
plement entitled ‘‘The World Health Organization HIV Drug Resistance
Prevention and Assessment Strategy: Global, Regional, and Country
Progress,’’ sponsored by The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (38180).
Potential conﬂicts of interest. All authors: No reported conﬂicts.
All authors have submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential
Conﬂicts of Interest. Conﬂicts that the editors consider relevant to the
content of the manuscript have been disclosed.
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