Archier E, Devaux S, Castela E et al.Carcinogenic risks of psoralen UV-A therapy and narrowband UV-B therapy in chronic plaque psoriasis: a systematic literature review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 26(Suppl 3):22-31
Oral 8-methoxypsoralen-UV-A (PUVA) and narrowband UV-B (NB-UVB or UVB TL-01) are effective and widely used treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis. Although the role of PUVA therapy in skin carcinogenesis in humans with psoriasis has been clearly demonstrated, there is still controversy regarding the risk of skin cancer with NB-UVB. Furthermore, there is no clear evidence about the maximum cumulative number of sessions not to be exceeded in a lifetime.
To assess the respective cutaneous carcinogenic risks of PUVA or NB-UVB in psoriasis; to estimate the respective dose-relationship between skin cancers and PUVA or NB-UVB; to estimate a maximum number of sessions for PUVA or NB-UVB not to be exceeded in a lifetime.
A systematic literature search was carried out in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases from1980 to December 2010 in English and French, with the keywords 'Psoriasis' AND 'UVB therapy' AND 'UVA therapy' AND 'cancer' AND 'skin' OR 'neoplasm' OR 'cutaneous carcinoma' OR 'melanoma'.
Of 243 identified references, 49 published studies were included. Most of them (45/49) concerned PUVA therapy, with 41 assessing the risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) following PUVA. All publications referring to the US prospective PUVA follow-up study revealed an increased risk of NMSC with the following characteristics: risk most pronounced for squamous cell carcinomas developing even with low exposures and increasing linearly with the number of sessions, tumors occurring also on non-exposed skin including invasive penile tumors, risk persisting after cessation of treatment. An increased risk of basal cell carcinomas was observed in patients receiving more than hundred PUVA sessions. The four prospective European studies selected in our review and most of the pre-1990 European and US retrospective studies failed to find a link between exposure to PUVA and skin cancer. Only the most recent cohorts, including three large long-term retrospective European studies comparing records with their respective national cancer registries reported on an independent increased risk of NMSC with PUVA, The risk was lower as compared to the US prospective PUVA follow-up study. Six studies assessed the risk of melanoma following PUVA therapy: two of the three US publications coming from the same PUVA prospective follow-up study revealed an increased risk with more than doubled incidence of both invasive and in situ melanoma among patients exposed to at least 200 PUVA treatments compared with patients exposed to lower doses, whereas the three retrospectives European studies, comparing the incidence of melanoma in PUVA users with national cancer registers, did not find any increased risk of melanoma. No increased risk of skin cancer was evidenced in the four studies specifically assessing the potential carcinogenic risk of NB-UVB.
There is an increased risk of skin cancer following PUVA, shown by both US and European studies. The greater risk measured by the US studies may be at least partly explained by high UVA dose exposure and the lighter phototypes of the treated patients. The lack of prospective studies in psoriasis patients treated with NB-UVB constitutes a barrier to the robust assessment of carcinogenic risk of this phototherapy technique.
Figures in this publication
Available from: Panagiotis Anagnostis
- "In contrast, TNF-a inhibitors were not associated with increased cancer risk in patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis in a previous meta-analysis . Only a few studies evaluated the possible carcinogenic risk of narrow-band UVB radiation in psoriatic patients, reporting no such effect . "
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ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by topical skin lesions as well as an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is also increasing evidence that patients with psoriasis are more prone to several CVD risk factors (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and smoking), non-cardiac vascular diseases (carotid, peripheral artery and chronic kidney disease) and metabolic co-morbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obstructive sleep apnea) compared with the general population. The associations are even greater in patients with severe psoriasis and those with psoriatic arthritis. Insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and obesity induced by several adipokines and inflammatory cytokines are proposed as the common mechanisms linking psoriasis with CVD, vascular risk factors and metabolic diseases. The present narrative review considers the associations between psoriasis (and psoriatic arthritis) with CVD, vascular risk factors and metabolic diseases. Drugs that reduce CVD risk and improve metabolic parameters may also beneficially affect psoriasis severity and prognosis. Furthermore, anti-psoriatic drugs can exert different effects on CVD risk and metabolic co-morbidities. Therefore, physicians should be aware of these associations in order to adequately monitor and treat psoriatic patients.
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ABSTRACT: Oral 8-methoxypsoralen-UV-A (PUVA) and Narrowband UV-B (NB-UVB or UVB TL-01) are well established treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis but there is limited evidence regarding their respective efficacy.
To prepare for evidence-based recommendations concerning the practical use of oral 8-methoxypsoralen-UV-A and Narrowband UV-B in psoriasis, a systematic review to assess respective response rates, remission duration and predictive factors of efficacy was performed.
A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, using the key words 'Psoriasis', 'UVB therapy', 'UVA therapy' for the period from 1980 to December 2010.
The initial literature search identified 773 articles. The final selection included 29 randomized controlled trials: 18 were about the efficacy of PUVA, eight about the efficacy of NB-UVB and three directly compared PUVA vs. NB-UVB. The response rate defined by 75% or more improvement in PASI was 80% with PUVA vs. 70% with NB-UVB. The meta-analysis of the three comparative studies found a higher probability of remission at 6 months with PUVA than with NB-UVB [OR = 2.73 (95% CI 1.19-6.27), P = 0.02]. The choice of initial dose, according to skin type, the minimal erythemal dose or minimal phototoxic dose, incremental regimen and periodicity of the sessions did not appear to be predictive factors of efficacy for PUVA or NB-UVB. Despite methodological limitations in trials, the number of sessions needed for psoriasis clearance appeared to be lower with PUVA than with NB-UVB (approx. 17 vs. 25, respectively).
PUVA and NB-UVB are both effective therapies in treatment of psoriasis. Our results suggest that compared with NB-UVB, PUVA tends to clear psoriasis more reliably, with fewer sessions, and provides with longer lasting clearance. However, the long-term safety of PUVA, especially its cutaneous carcinogenic risk, and the easier administration procedure often lead dermatologists to prefer NB-UVB as first line phototherapy treatment in plaque type psoriasis.
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ABSTRACT: Although topical treatments and phototherapy are available for more than 40 years, there is a paucity of evidence-based recommendations regarding their use.
The aim of this work was to develop evidence-based recommendations on topical treatments and phototherapy in psoriasis for daily clinical use.
A scientific committee selected clinically relevant questions on efficacy and safety of topical agents and phototherapy in psoriasis. This selection was made using the Delphi method. A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. The articles selected for analysis were reviewed and the level of evidence was appraised according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence. An Expert consensus meeting took place in June 2011, including 42 dermatologists. Recommendations for use of topical treatments and phototherapy were made during interactive workshops where the evidence was presented and discussed. Agreement among participants was assessed on a 10-point scale. The participants systematically assessed the impact of the recommendations on clinical practice.
A total of 3555 references were identified, among which 312 articles were included in the systematic reviews. Three recommendations were issued on phototherapy including both PUVA and narrow-band UVB. The recommendations related to administration schedule, clearance rate and risk of side-effects. The mean agreement between participants was good varying from 8.5 to 9.5. Six recommendations were issued on topical treatments focusing on administration schedule, clearance rate, risk of side-effects, cost-effectiveness and measures to improve treatment adherence. The mean agreement between participants varied from 7.3 to 9.9.
These recommendations for the use of topical agents and phototherapy in psoriasis are evidence-based and supported by a panel of dermatologists. The next step will be to disseminate these recommendations and assess the opinion of physicians who were not involved in generating the recommendations.
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