Originally grown and produced in southern of Yunnan, China, Pu-erh tea has a long history and carries rich cultural connotations. Consumption of Pu-erh has been thought to possess numerous health benefits including weight-loss, lowering of blood glucose levels, and preventing cardiovascular diseases. Research on humans, rodents, and cell lines have each confirmed that Pu-erh tea indeed displays weight-loss and blood lipid lowering effects. The main bioactive components, such as theabrownin (TB), polysaccharides, polyphenols, and statins, may down-regulate the biosynthesis of fat and up-regulate the oxidation of fat to cut weight and reduce the content of lipids in blood. Here, we summarize current progress on understanding the mechanisms and bioactive components of Pu-erh's weight-cutting effects as well as highlighting current weaknesses in the field in order to suggest possible solutions for future research on Pu-erh tea.