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Whether, When, and How Is Spirituality Related to Well-Being? Moving Beyond Single Occasion Questionnaires to Understanding Daily Process

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Abstract

Prior research suggests that spirituality is positively related to well-being. Nevertheless, within-person variability in spirituality has yet to be addressed. Do people experience greater spirituality on some days versus others? Does daily spirituality predict daily well-being? Do within-person relationships between spirituality and well-being vary as a function of trait spirituality? The authors examined such questions using a daily diary study with 87 participants who provided reports of their daily spirituality and well-being for a total of 1,239 days. They found that daily spirituality was positively related to meaning in life, self-esteem, and positive affect, and the link from daily spirituality to both self-esteem and positive affect was fully mediated by meaning in life. Moreover, within-person relationships between daily spirituality and self-esteem and meaning in life were stronger for people higher in trait spirituality. Lagged analyses found positive relationships between present day spirituality and next day's meaning in life; there was no evidence for meaning in life as a predictor of the next day's spirituality. When focusing on affect, for people higher in trait spirituality, greater negative affect (and lower positive affect) predicted greater spirituality the next day. These results provide new insights into how spirituality operates as a fluctuating experience in daily life.

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... Another theoretical perspective comes from terror management theory (Greenberg et al., 1986), which suggests that religion enhances self-esteem by providing a cultural worldview incorporating a literal or symbolic immortality, thereby alleviating the distress caused by the awareness of mortality and associated perceptions that life is transient and meaningless (Pyszczynski et al., 2004). Several studies have found empirical support for the theory that self-esteem may act as a mediator between R/S and mood (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Le et al., 2007;Simoni & Ortiz, 2003). ...
... Religion can be an important vehicle for individuals to find meaning and purpose to life (Newton & McIntosh, 2013), and religious beliefs can help in the process of ascribing meaning to stressful life events, aiding in the psychological adjustment to setbacks and providing a path to enhanced emotional well-being (Park, 2005). Empirically, meaning or purpose in life has been found to mediate the relationship between R/S and positive affect (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012), mental well-being (Dar & Iqbal, 2019), and depression (Giannone et al., 2019;Nelson et al., 2009). ...
... Organized religion in particular can provide a defined worldview promising immortality, and participating in religious activities likely reinforces a belief that one is a worthy subscriber to that worldview. Self-esteem has been previously found to mediate the relationships between spirituality and positive affect (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012), religiosity and depressive symptoms (Le et al., 2007), and spirituality and depression (Simoni & Ortiz, 2003). The results of this study provide further evidence that the relationships between R/S and mood-related measures may be mediated by self-esteem. ...
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Negative correlations between religiosity or spirituality and depression symptoms have been frequently reported, but relatively few empirical studies have investigated the processes that mediate the relationships. This study investigated four theorized mediators in a single model to assess the unique contributions of self-esteem, social support, meaning in life, and positive religious coping to the relationship between religiosity, spirituality, and two markers of depression, positive affect and negative affect. Path analysis was employed to investigate multiple mediation models in a sample of 352 undergraduates. Non-significant paths were removed, and a second independent sample of 316 undergraduates was used to validate the trimmed models. Results indicated that self-esteem mediated the relationships between spirituality and both positive and negative affect. Meaning in life also mediated the relationship between spirituality and positive affect, while social support mediated the relationship between spirituality and negative affect. Positive religious coping did not mediate either relationship, possibly because the samples were not drawn from populations under stress. The relationship between intrinsic religiosity and positive affect was similarly mediated by self-esteem and meaning in life. Religiosity and negative affect were related through the mediators self-esteem and an unexpectedly adverse factor captured by positive religious coping in the models used.
... Few religion-wellbeing studies have used longitudinal data (not including clinical intervention studies with pre-and post-measures) (Altizer et al., 2014;Andersson, 2008;Fitchett et al., 1999;Hui et al., 2015;Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Keefe et al., 2001;King et al., 2007;Kivelä et al., 1996;Krause & Hayward, 2013;Nguyen et al., 2010;Ronneberg et al., 2016;Sun et al., 2012). Most consist of only two or three time points measured several months or years apart. ...
... This is not a limitation per se, but it provides a poor basis for examining individual associations. In addition, at least two studies obtain 5-6 measurement points (Altizer et al., 2014;Sun et al., 2012), and two studies obtain 14 and 30 measurements, respectively (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Keefe et al., 2001). These last two studies find overall positive associations between spirituality and wellbeing measures, but both fail to provide information on the variation in individual relationships, e.g., on how many individuals that showed a negative relationship. ...
... These longitudinal studies improve on cross-sectional designs. Kashdan and Nezlek (2012), in particular, open for the prospect of establishing the causal relationship between spirituality and wellbeing using hierarchical linear models. To our knowledge, no longitudinal studies have yet reported the variance in individual-level associations between religion and wellbeing measures. ...
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The often touted positive association between religion and wellbeing is mainly based on evidence from cross-sectional studies. This is problematic because such studies tend to draw conclusions at the individual level despite reporting associations at the group level. In addition to this fallacy, inferences at the group level are also likely to be inflated by the social desirability effect, which may further exacerbate misrepresentations of the individual level. To avoid these pitfalls, we examined prayer-wellbeing (P-WB) associations and social desirability effects at both levels, using single-level and multilevel regression analysis on a longitudinal dataset. Weekly reports of prayer and wellbeing from 282 frequently praying Danish Christians, totaling 4254 complete responses, were combined with a comprehensive background questionnaire featuring a social desirability measure targeting the religious domain. A typical weak positive P-WB association was observed at the group level, which disappeared when controlling for social desirability. At the individual level, the average association across individuals was positive after controlling for social desirability. This overall relationship, however, conceals considerable individual variance with almost a fourth of the estimated individual P-WB associations going in the negative direction, emphasizing the need to be cautious when extrapolating group-level data to the individual level. These findings suggest that cross-sectional studies may oversimplify the P-WB relationship, especially, if the social desirability effect is ignored.
... ." and asked participants to rate ''On the whole, I was satisfied with myself" on a seven-point scale ranging from ''Very uncharacteristic of me today" to ''Very characteristic of me today." This item has been previously explored and validated in daily diary research (trait measure items with high factor loadings were reworded for experience-sampling) (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012). This rewording included a specific focus on the day in the answer stem. ...
... This rewording included a specific focus on the day in the answer stem. This method of developing state-level analogs of trait measures has been used successfully in the past (see Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012, p. 1526. We also included a second item, which was a single adjec tive-''satisfied"-that participants rated on a seven-point scale ranging from ''Did not feel this way at all" to ''Felt this way very strongly." ...
... Our study employed face-valid adjective assessments of satisfaction, consistent with many experience sampling designs (e.g. Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012), and we note several additional advantages (over and above face validity) of our chosen measure. First, the latent constructs exhibited reliable variance, as indicated by Omegas of 0.72 and 0.90 at the within-person and between-person levels, respectively. ...
Article
Assessments of global life satisfaction capture beliefs about overall well-being; state satisfaction assessments focus on short-term or “in-the-moment” appraisals of current life circumstances. Prior research has examined how trait measures of life satisfaction and affect are related at between-person and within-person levels of analysis. At the state level, however, a lack of clarity exists about the nature and magnitude of the association between satisfaction and affect. In a diary study involving assessments of both affect and satisfaction at the daily level (N = 350 with 6024 assessments), we found a consequential effect of affect on state satisfaction due to greater within-person variance over time.
... subjective religiosity) whereas their satisfaction with life related to their overall religiosity. ***Kashdan & Nezlek [72]. ...
... [70], and 162 Iranian women with breast cancer [71]. The remaining 30% were conducted with other study populations, including 87 college students [72], 1287 older Jews in Europe [73], 208 Jewish men and women [74], 274 older Koreans living alone in Chuncheon [28], 107, 683 older adults in a national health survey [75], and 1774 American adults [76]. All the 20 studies selected for the review employed quantitative research designs, while one study adopted a mixed-methods design (i.e., [29]). ...
... Calvo et al. [70] reported that QoL and life satisfaction of the caregivers of patients with ALS was associated with aspects of RS. Kashdan and Nezlek [72] reported a significant positive relationship between daily RS and psychological functioning (i.e., self-esteem, meaning in life, and positive affect). ...
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Background: Despite the increasing number of evidence-based research on relational spirituality (RS) and quality of life (QoL) in medical-health research, little is known about the links between RS and QoL outcomes and the mechanisms by which RS aspects are functionally tied to QoL. Objective: To determine how RS is perceived/positioned in relation to QoL, we (a) examined recent available data that identify and appraise the links between RS and QoL; (b) identified themes emerging from the association between RS and QoL, and (c) discussed the implications of the effects of RS on QoL outcomes. Methods: We conducted an integrative research review of English-language peer-reviewed articles published between 2007 to March 2017 which examined an association between RS and QoL, as identified from a search of three databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect. Results: A total of 20 studies were analysed. Of these, twelve (60%) reported positive association between RS and QoL, three (15%) studies reported inverse associations, whereas five (25%) studies showed evidence of lack of association (with two out of the five studies showing an indirect association). Physical health and psychological functioning were the most researched domains of QoL, and some studies suggest an attachment-based model of RS in the last 10 years of RS and QoL research. Studies conducted with participants with serious illnesses ranging from dementia, cardiac arrest, and breast cancer reported no association between RS and physical health. Our review shows evidence of both the direct and/or indirect effects of RS on QoL as a possible spiritual coping model for complementary alternative health therapy, albeit occurring through several religious-related psychosocial conduits. Conclusion and implication: RS appears to be associated with health benefits as indicated across QoL domains. General medical practitioners and other healthcare agencies could benefit from the understanding that a spiritual coping model could aid their patients, and therefore their clinical practices, in the healing process.
... Nevertheless, the moderating function of positive ER style in this relationship could not be tested as there was no significant correlation between adolescents' positive ER style and the use of rumination. Although adolescents with a higher predisposition to use positive ER strategies are more likely to engage less in negative strategies (e.g., rumination; [13]), results measured at the "trait" level may be independent of those measured at the "state" or "within-person" level [50,51]. In other words, adolescents with a certain ER style can use both positive and negative ER strategies depending on the situation, and this may be reflected in our findings. ...
... However, no significant interaction effects were shown between negative ER style and momentary factors (i.e., the type of everyday situation and the type of the adolescent's predominant emotion). These results probably reflect what has already been repeatedly discussed above about the possible independence between outcomes measured at the "trait" level from those measured at the "state" or "within-person" level [50,51]. ...
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This study explored the association between temperament—i.e., positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA)—and emotion regulation (ER), and what momentary factors influence the selection of rumination or reappraisal during adolescents’ daily life. The type of social situation in which negative events occurred, the self-rated degrees of discomfort, the types of predominant emotions experienced, and the use of reappraisal and rumination were assessed at 24 different times with an ecological momentary assessment approach given to 71 adolescents. PA, NA, and ER style were evaluated using self-reports. Bivariate Pearson correlations analysis revealed that NA and negative ER style correlated positively with the rumination use whereas PA correlated negatively with the rumination use. Negative ER style moderated the relationship between NA and the frequency with which rumination was used. The moderated function of positive ER style could not be tested due to its lack of association with the rumination use. Adolescents selected rumination more often during family-related events and when experiencing depression-like emotions. No interaction effects were shown between negative ER style and the momentary factors related with the type of social situation and the type of prevailing emotion during negative event. No associations between study variables and reappraisal were found. This study provides a better understanding of ER patterns in adolescence.
... The existing literature supports the notion that with the passage of time, the researches examining the relationship between spirituality and psychological well-being are also increasing. A research conducted to examine the fact that daily spiritual experience predicts daily well-being revealed that daily spirituality was positively related to meaning in life, self-esteem, and positive affect 5 .Moreover, they also found out that higher daily spirituality, self-esteem and meaning in life the higher would be the individual's trait of psychological wellbeing. Zubairi and Sawari 6 conducted a research to examine the psychological and spiritual health of the staff of Islamic college. ...
... The scale is designed to capture a broad conception of well-being including affectiveemotional aspects, cognitive-evaluative dimensions and psychological functioning. The scale comprised of 14 items each answered on a five-point scale, ranging from none of the time (1) to all time (5), and is scored by summing all the items into the total well-being score (range 14-70). High scores obtained on this scale depict higher level of well-being whereas low scores on the scale depict lower level of psychological well-being. ...
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The present study examining the relationship between spirituality and psychological well-being among Muslims and Christians adolescents and young adults. Daily Spiritual Experience Scale and Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale were used to examine the study variables. The present study was carried out on the sample of (N = 254) i.e. Muslims (n = 123) and Christians (n = 131). The sub sample of Muslims and Christians were further divided into males (n = 48) and females (n = 75). Similarly Christian males (n = 60) and Christian females (n = 71). The instruments used to measure the variables possessed satisfactory reliability i.e. spirituality (α = .80) for Muslims and (α = .92) for Christians and psychological well-being (α = .82) for Muslims and (α = .84) for Christians. Results of the study revealed that spirituality not only had significant positive correlation with psychological well-being but also found to be significant positive predictor of psychological well-being among Muslims as well as Christians. Additional findings of the study further revealed that significant differences exist in the terms of gender and age. Limitations, suggestion and implications were also discussed at the end of the study.
... It is often accompanied with feelings of interconnectedness with others and presence of higher meaning. A large body of research has shown that individual differences in spirituality are associated with greater well-being (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Piedmont, 1999;Van Cappellen et al., 2016a, b). People reporting greater spirituality also more frequently practice meditation in everyday life (Masci & Hackett, 2018) and they may also be more attuned and receptive to a meditation intervention. ...
... Though spirituality was expected to have similar mental health boosting effects as resilience, the present study only found that spirituality was associated positively with subjective well-being symptoms and negatively with depressive symptoms regardless of study time point. Although this adds to the growing body of literature regarding spirituality and mental health symptoms (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Piedmont, 1999;Van Cappellen et al., 2016a, b), it does not support the original hypothesis that higher spirituality would result in greater mental health gains from meditation. These results align with another study that failed to find that daily spiritual experiences moderated the reduction in depressive symptoms following a mindfulnessbased meditation intervention (Greeson et al., 2015). ...
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Objectives Engaging in meditation seems to be an effective manner of bettering psychosocial health. Although these findings hold for most people, individual differences may affect who gets greater gains from meditation. Psychological (i.e., resilience, spirituality) and biological (i.e., cardiac vagal tone, oxytocin) personal resources may work individually or synergistically to catalyze meditation-related improvements in mental health, such as increased positive (well-being) and decreased negative (depression) mental health symptoms.MethodsA community-based sample of 210 adults (modeage = 35 years; 61.86% female) were recruited and randomly assigned to either mindfulness (n = 107; 51.2%) or loving-kindness (n = 102; 48.8%) meditation conditions (1 missing). The study lasted 18 months, starting with baseline measures, succeeded by a 6-week meditation intervention, and follow-up assessments every 3 months.ResultsThe fixed effect of resilience was significant, as was the interaction between resilience and time, indicating different mental health symptom trajectories during and after a meditation intervention based on resilience.Conclusions Participants low in resilience tended to have the greatest gains (increased subjective well-being and decreased depressive symptoms) following a meditation intervention, yet these gains were not maintained 18 months following the intervention. Those high in resilience did not show mental health gains following a meditation intervention but did have higher subjective well-being symptoms 18 months following the intervention indicating that they may have experienced delayed gains.
... Presence of MIL has consistently been found to positively mediate the effect of intrinsic religiosity, religiousness, religious commitment and spirituality on well-being including self-esteem and satisfaction with life among adolescents and young adults (Kaiser-Ahmad & Iqbal, 2017;Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Steger & Frazier, 2005;Wnuk & Marcinkowski, 2014;You & Lim, 2019). However, there is an inconsistent result. ...
... The present study is novel in providing a comprehensive framework on the mediating relationship of presence of, and search for MIL between all religiosity variables on self-esteem and life satisfaction; and to compare these relationships across gender. Intrinsic religiosity and its related constructs have consistently found to have an indirect effect on well-being through MIL-P (Kaiser-Ahmad & Iqbal, 2017; Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Steger & Frazier, 2005;Wnuk & Marcinkowski, 2014;You & Lim, 2019). The present study only finds this true for boys. ...
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The present study examines and explores the indirect effects of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity on well-being, namely self-esteem and life satisfaction, through presence of and search for meaning in life, and its gender difference among adolescents. 301 girls and 395 boys from Hong Kong participated in this cross-sectional survey study. Independent t-test, correlation and four mediation model analyses with a bootstrap of 5000 samples were conducted. Girls score higher in extrinsic religiosity (personal) and search for meaning in life; lower in self-esteem compared with boys. Presence of meaning in life was found to positively mediate the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic personal religiosity on self-esteem and life satisfaction for boys but is not significant for girls. However, intrinsic religiosity promotes higher search for meaning in life, which in turn lowers self-esteem only for girls. The indirect effect of extrinsic social religiosity on well-being was not significant for both genders. Finding suggests that boys benefit more from religiosity on well-being.
... Spiritual intelligence as one of the new concepts of intelligence involves a kind of adjustment and problem-solving behavior with the highest levels of growth in different cognitive, moral, emotional, and interpersonal domains and helps the person to adjust with the surrounding phenomena and achieve internal and external integration [8]. According to previous studies, there is a positive correlation between spirituality and well-being [9]. A study revealed a significant positive correlation between the power of spiritual faith and psychological well-being [10]. ...
... This finding is consistent with the results of some studies that suggest students' spiritual intelligence promotes mental health [7] and causes happiness [13] e.g. Kashdan and Nezlek [9], Pargament and Mahoney [10], King and de Sicko [15] and confirms previous research. According to the definition of spiritual intelligence as a kind of adjustment and problem-solving behavior, it can be stated that students who have higher levels of spiritual intelligence, are more capable of coping with, adjusting to, and solving the problems they may encounter during their education and this capability helps them improve their mental health. ...
... Whereas longitudinal studies tend to examine mean-level changes or profiles of change across longer periods to time to establish developmental trends, experience sampling methods tend to focus on intraindividual fluctuations over shorter periods of time that explain the processes of within-person change. Several studies have now examined spirituality with experience sampling methods (Hardy et al. 2014;Kashdan and Nezlek 2012;Tong 2017). ...
... Recent work with adults has begun to probe spirituality in terms of a distribution of spiritual states across time and contexts through experience sampling methodology. In one study, participants completed daily reports of their spirituality, meaning in life, and self-esteem at the end of each day for 2 weeks (Kashdan and Nezlek 2012). Lagged analyses showed that daily spirituality positively predicted the next day's meaning. ...
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The fields of personality and social psychology, with their focus on individual differences and human communalities, have much to offer the study of religious and spiritual development in adolescence. This review describes the ways McAdams and Pals’ comprehensive personality theory and Saroglou’s Big Four functional account of religion inform the scientific understanding of adolescents’ religious and spiritual development. These theories suggest religious/spiritual development of adolescents should be studied at three levels of personality (traits, characteristic adaptations, and narrative identity/objective biography) and account for the potential functions of religion in relation to behaving (moral), believing (cognitive), belonging (social), and bonding (emotional) across diverse cultural contexts. The utility of these theories for investigating adolescent religious/spiritual development is illustrated through description of empirical studies and lines of research based on methodologies commonly employed in personality and social psychology, including longitudinal studies, religious priming experiments, and experience sampling methods. Likewise, this review highlights areas for future investigation and provides specific suggestions for inquiry on adolescent religious/spiritual development, which include deploying experimental designs, merging narrative identity with identity status approaches, and adopting a more holistic view of traits through analysis of experience sampling data.
... Maneviyat, pek çok insanın günlük yaşamının önemli bir parçasını oluşturmaktadır (Kashdan ve Nezlek, 2012;Underwood ve Teresi, 2002). Farklı bağlamlarda kullanılan maneviyat kavramı; dinsel bağlamda dini yaşamın içsel boyutunu ifade ederken, diğer bağlamlarda kişisel yaşamın, olağan duyumların ötesindeki aşkın boyutunu ifade eder (Underwood, 2006). ...
... Son zamanlarda ise bu kavramın nöropsikoloji ve psikoloji ile ilişkisini ele alan çok sayıda çalışma vardır (Newberg ve D'aquıli, 1998;Underwood ve Teresi, 2002). Manevi deneyim kavramı depresyon (Park ve Roh, 2013), algılanan stres (Jackson, 2010), anksiyete (Lee, 2011) ve alkol kullanımı (Underwood ve Teresi, 2002) gibi olumsuz yaşam olayları ile negatif yönde ilişkili bulunurken; psikolojik iyi oluş (Ellison ve Fan, 2008;Greenfield, ve ark., 2007), yaşamın anlamı (Kashdan ve Nezlek, 2012), yaşam doyumu, sağlığı geliştirici tutum (Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Zuttermeister ve Benson, 1991), yaşam kalitesi (Underwood ve Teresi, 2002), öz-merhamet (Akın ve Akın, 2017) ve stresle başa çıkma (Whitehead ve Bergeman, 2011) gibi olumlu yaşam olayları ile pozitif yönde ilişkili bulunmuştur. Karasu'ya (1999) göre maneviyat, inanç ve anlam kavramlarını içeren bir yapıya sahiptir. ...
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Bu araştırmanın amacı üniversite öğrencilerinin stresle başa çıkma düzeyinin, günlük manevi deneyim ve yaşamın anlamı açısından incelemektir. Araştırma, ilişkisel tarama modeline uygun olarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu, Konya ilinde bulunan devlet üniversitelerinin çeşitli bölümlerinde öğrenim gören 497 öğren-ciden oluşmaktadır. Yaşları 18 ile 43 arasında değişen katılımcıların 297'si kadın, 200'ü erkektir. Araştırma verilerinin analizinde korelasyon ve doğrusal regresyon analizi teknikleri kullanılmıştır. Korelasyon analizi sonuçlarına göre; üniversite öğrencilerinin manevi deneyimleri, sahip oldukları anlam duygusu ve stresle başa çıkma stilleri arasında anlamlı ilişkiler mevcuttur. Çoklu doğrusal regresyon analizi sonuçlarına göre ise manevi deneyim ve yaşamın anlamı stresle başa çıkmayı anlamlı dü-zeyde yordamaktadır. Araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlar ilgili alanyazın ışığında tartışılmış ve önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
... Kiamarsi and Abolghasemi (2010) showed that there is a positive significant relationship between life satisfaction and mental health in the patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Also, Kashdan and Nezlek (2012) showed that daily spiritual experience is related to life sense, self-esteem, and positive affection. ...
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social self-efficacy refers to the individual capabilities in dealing with social challenges and the ability to handle interpersonal conflicts. A lot of research has demonstrated that family and the relationships among its members can pave the way to create social self-efficacy beliefs among children especially in dealing with social situations. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between family communication patterns (Conversation and Conformity) and social self-efficacy in students. The study sample consisted of 496 fourth to sixth grade elementary school students (252 boys and 244 girls), who were administered the revised family communication patterns scale (Fitzpatrick and Ritchie, 1994) and the social selfefficacy questionnaire for students (Wheeler and Led, 1982). The reliability and validity of the instruments have been confirmed. Collected data was analyzed using the simultaneous multiple regression analysis. In addition and in order to compare social efficacy of boys and girls in different educational grades, a two-way ANOVA was used. Results showed that family Conversation orientation is a positive and significant predictor of social self-efficacy. Family Conformity orientation is, on the other hand, a significant negative predictor of social self-efficacy. There was no significant difference among different grades with regard to the total score of social self-efficacy, subscale of conflict situations, and subscale of non-conflict. In addition no significant differences were observed when comparing boys and girls in terms of their mean score of the subscale of non-conflict. However, regarding the conflict subscale, girls had significantly higher scores than the boys. Moreover the mean scores of boys and girls were significantly different with regard to the total social self-efficacy scale score and girls had higher levels of social self-efficacy than boys. As a result, the promotion of Conversation in the family is a predictor of social self-efficacy in children while emphasizing Conformity in the family diminishes the children's social self-efficacy.
... In all three studies we measured presence of meaning in life using two items that had been used in previous diary studies (e.g., Kashdan and Nezlek, 2012): "How meaningful did you feel your life was today?" and "How much did you feel your life had purpose today?" Each item used a 7-point scale (1 = not at all, 7 = very much). ...
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The goal of the present study was to examine differences in the daily experiences of vegetarians and non-vegetarians. At the end of each day for two weeks, a convenience sample of American undergraduates described how they felt and how they thought about themselves that day, and they described the events that occurred to them that day. Multilevel modeling analyses (days nested within persons) found that vegetarians (individuals who avoided all meat and fish, n = 24) reported lower self-esteem, lower psychological adjustment, less meaning in life, and more negative moods than semi-vegetarians (individuals who ate some meat and/or fish, n = 56) and omnivores (individuals who did not restrict their intake of meat or fish, n = 323). Vegetarians also reported more negative social experiences than omnivores and semi-vegetarians. Although women were more likely than men to identify as vegetarians and semi-vegetarians, controlling for participant gender did not change the results of the analyses. The differences we found are consistent with other research that suggests that vegetarians are less psychologically well-adjusted than non-vegetarians. The implications of the present results for understanding relationships between dietary habits and well-being are discussed.
... Similarly, asking whether someone is religious or spiritual misses the fact that these behaviors tend to change depending on the quality of the prior day. A good day leads to less spiritual behavior the next day whereas a bad day leads to an uptick in spiritual behaviora cyclical affair that is lost in a trait-based approach (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012). Fine-grained analyses of when, how, and where people use different strengths as well as their impact offer important theoretical contributions. ...
Article
Following the advent of modern positive psychology, there has been a surge of empirical research on strengths and a call for incorporating strengths into clinical models of psychopathology. In this review, we conceptualize strengths as a subset of personality traits and dissect the criteria used to define strengths. In hopes of improving theoretical models of strengths, we reconsider the personal choice to deploy strengths, the implications of strength use for well-being, and the costs of over-relying on particular strengths. As an illustration, we critically examine a new model of strengths with suggestions for defining, measuring, and developing interventions for strengths. These insights are offered to encourage critical examination of the conditions under which strengths best facilitate well-being.
... Steger & Frazier, 2005;Steger, Kashdan, & Oishi, 2008). Furthermore, daily reports of MIL relate to daily spirituality and religious behaviors (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Steger & Frazier, 2005), daily positive social and achievement events (Machell, Kashdan, Short, & Nezlek, 2015), and daily eudiamonic behaviors such as volunteering or writing out one's future goals (Steger et al., 2008). These findings support our assumption that momentary perceptions of MIL represent genuine construct fluctuations. ...
Article
Previous research links the experience of meaning in life (MIL) with environmental structure and the coherence of external stimuli. The current studies directly test the association between one source of structure in everyday life—routines—and MIL. First, Study 1 (N = 317) found a positive relationship between trait preference for routine and MIL. Study 2 expanded upon this cross-sectional finding with experience sampling data (N = 85; 2,590 episodes) showing that the degree to which current, naturally occurring, behavior followed a typical routine positively related to participants’ momentary feelings of MIL. These findings have implications for conceptualizations of MIL, suggesting a previously unnoted, mundane, and ubiquitous source of MIL. The potential roles of boredom and novelty and individual and situational differences for these effects are discussed.
... Religious beliefs embedded within cultural beliefs also appear to directly influence happiness and wellbeing. Indeed, studies consistently evidence that religion is a source of wellbeing in itself (Abu-Raiya et al. 2016;Kashdan and Nezlek 2012;Tay et al. 2014), in particular with respect to Muslims (Gulamhussein and Eaton 2015;Parveen et al. 2014;Sahraian et al. 2013;Thomas et al. 2016). Moreover, religious people in religious nations have higher levels of happiness than do religious people in nonreligious nations (Diener et al. 2011). ...
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While developing excellence in knowledge and skills, academic institutions have often overlooked their obligation to instill wellbeing. To address this, we introduced a 14-week positive psychology intervention (PPI) program (Happiness 101) to university students from 39 different nations studying in the United Arab Emirates (N = 159). Students were exposed to 18 different PPIs. Pre, post, and 3-month-post measures were taken assessing hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, and beliefs regarding the fear and fragility of happiness. At the end of the semester, relative to a control group (N = 108), participants exposed to the Happiness 101 program reported higher levels of both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, and lower levels of fear of happiness and the belief that happiness is fragile. Boosts in life satisfaction and net-positive affect, and reduction of fear of happiness and the belief that happiness is fragile were maintained in the Happiness 101 group 3 months post-intervention.
... We adopted the 7-point Likert scale (1 = totally disagree to 7 = totally agree) for both versions. The procedure of creating daily measures from corresponding global or retrospective measures has been increasingly applied with success in studies of daily life (Kashdan and Nezlek 2012;Kashdan and Steger 2006). In the current study, for each beep, a mean for the CR and ES scores was calculated based on the average score from the items on each scale. ...
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Parents are the main socialization agents in the development of emotion regulation (ER). In this study, we evaluated adolescents’ and their respective parents’ perspectives about their use of two ER strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) in daily life. In addition, we evaluated the within-family associations between adolescents’ and their parents’ use of strategies. We controlled for adolescents’ gender and age and the perceived quality of their relationships with their parents (mothers and fathers). The sample consisted of 33 12- to 18-year-old adolescent–father–mother triads, totaling99 participants. Parents and adolescents reported their use of ER strategies in response to eight random prompts throughout the day, by means of the experience sampling method for 1 week. Participants provided 4082 reports on their momentary experiences. The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for the hierarchical structure of the repeated daily assessments. The significant association between parents’ and adolescents’ use of ER strategies was specific to mother–adolescent dyads. The significant association between adolescents’ and their mothers’ ER strategies varied as a function of the adolescents’ age and the quality of their relationship with thei r mothers according to adolescents’ reports, but not as a function of adolescent gender. These findings suggest that mothers have a role in their adolescents’ emotion regulation in a developmental period characterized by autonomy from parental guidance.
... For example, attendance at a place of worship is correlated with higher life satisfaction (Lim and Putnam 2010) as well as physical (Debnam et al. 2012) and mental health (Ronneberg et al. 2016). Religious observance has also been associated with increased purpose in life (Hui and Fung 2009) and greater levels of self-esteem (Kashdan and Nezlek 2012). Further, some research suggests that religious support has an even greater positive impact than general social support (e.g., Debnam et al. 2012;Krause 2006). ...
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As awareness of Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders and diagnosis rates rise, concern about developing such conditions may also increase, referred to here as dementia worry (DW). Few studies have examined DW and potential protective factors. Religiosity provides diverse psychological benefits and may be associated with lower DW; however, intrinsic/extrinsic motivations were expected to differentially relate to DW. Among 83 older adults (M = 69.48 years), both greater intrinsic and extrinsic-social religious motivation were associated with lower DW. Results suggest internalizing one’s religious beliefs and building a social network within a religious community may provide a psychological buffer against DW.
... Causality cannot be determined with data collected at a single moment. Nevertheless, different longitudinal studies have shown that R/S has led to greater well-being (e.g., Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Park & Slattery, 2012). Causal influence need not be unidirectional: positive experiences (i.e., life satisfaction, happiness) have been shown to operate as a positive self-reinforcing process (Garland, Gaylord, & Fredrickson, 2011;Kok & Fredrickson, 2010). ...
Chapter
In contemporary literature, religiosity and spirituality are increasingly being recognized as important aspects of well-being. Spirituality and religiosity are multifaceted and highly interrelated constructs. In this chapter, we focus on two aspects: First, we explore the importance of religiosity and spirituality in the life of the participants of the Hope-Barometer 2015 by comparing groups of different demographic backgrounds (i.e., age groups, gender). Second, we investigate the associations between religiosity/spirituality on the one hand, and subjective and physical well-being on the other. Based on these results and further analyses, interesting insights into the role of religion and spirituality in the life of persons of different age stages can be gained. The chapter further discusses how religiosity and spirituality can play an important role in the context of critical life events and the adaptation to profound life transitions.
... First, state measures of meaning in life showed a high level of convergent validity with trait measures of meaning in life (Kashdan & Steger, 2007;Steger, Kashdan, & Oishi, 2008), with some people having a more stable meaning in life and some more unstable (Steger & Kashdan, 2013). Second, daily fluctuations of meaning in life was associated with daily life events, including daily religious behavior (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012), daily positive social and achievement events (Machell, Kashdan, Short, & Nezlek, 2015), daily eudaimonic behaviors (Steger et al., 2008), and routines (Heintzelman & King, 2019), supporting its fluctuations. Therefore, we conclude that measuring meaning in life as an everyday life experience is valid. ...
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Objectives: Prior studies have found that as people age, they value low-arousal positive affect (LAP) to a greater extent and high-arousal positive affect (HAP) to a lower extent. We aimed to investigate whether actually achieving those ideal affects was related to better well-being outcomes, measured in terms of meaning in life. Methods: Using a time sampling design across 14 days (N = 162), we investigated whether the experience of LAP and HAP was related to the experience of meaning in life and how these associations differed across younger and older adults in Hong Kong. Results: Both LAP and HAP contributed to the experience of meaning in life for both younger and older adults. The global effect of LAP on meaning in life was stronger for older than younger adults, whereas the momentary effect of HAP on meaning in life was stronger for younger adults than older adults.
... We also administered one of the most utilized measures of SWB: the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). We also included a spiritual well-being measure derived from Kashdan and Nezlek (2012). This measure included two items: 'This week, the spiritual part of my life was very important to me' , and 'This week, my relationship with a power greater than myself was important to me. ...
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In three studies we investigated joy and its relationship to subjective well-being (SWB). We developed measures of joy based on recent conceptualizations of joy in the humanities and social sciences. In Studies 1 and 2 we developed reliable measures of state and trait joy. In Study 3 we used a two-month prospective design to investigate the relationship of joy to gratitude and SWB. We found that dispositional gratitude predicted increases in state joy over time. We also found that trait joy predicted increases in state gratitude, providing evidence for an intriguing upward spiral between joy and gratitude. Finally, we found that trait joy was associated with increases in SWB over time. Factor analyses indicated that joy loaded separately from other positive emotions. We conclude that joy is a discrete positive emotion, it can be measured reliably with self-report instruments, and that it may be an important component of well-being.
... Diversos reportes han vinculado a las creencias religiosas o espirituales con la felicidad (Cuadra & Florenzano, 2003;Ivtzan, Chan, Gardner, & Prashar, 2013;Lun & Bond, 2013;Upadhyaya, 2014) o han encontrado evidencia de su efecto positivo sobre la salud mental y física (Doane & Elliot, 2016;Elliott & Doane, 2014l;Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Koenig, 2015;Park, Lee & Sun, 2013;Quiceno & Vinaccia, 2009), aun cuando igualmente se ha reportado que no tendría influencia en la salud física (Hayward, Krause, Ironson & Emmons, 2016). En algunos estudios se encuentra que la religión no siempre se asocia con variables de corte positivo, e incluso en ocasiones esta es negativa (Librán, 2002). ...
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The study of well-being has gained increasing relevance given its relationship with psychological states such as anxiety, depression, stress, as well as health. Nonetheless, there are few explanatory proposals on well-being, or any empirical cross-cultural validation of these. The present study evaluated the effect of the inclusion of a cultural contextual variable on an explanatory model of well-being, specifically on whether religious beliefs moderate the mediating effect of the positive affects on the relationship between optimism and health. The sample of this study consisted of 529 participants from two Latin American countries (285 from Chile and 244 from Colombia). The results indicate that, in both countries, there is a significant effect of optimism on the perception of health mediated by positive affects. However, religious beliefs do not exert a significant effect on the intensity of the relationships between the variables of the base model. The importance of cultural factors and cross-cultural studies on well-being are presented and discussed.
... Across many different measures, research has repeatedly suggested a correlation between spirituality and well-being (Rosmarin, Wachholtz, & Ai, 2011). For example, spiritual practices have been associated with improved mental healthrelated quality of life (Greeson et al., 2011), and positive correlations have been found between spirituality and psychological well-being in general (Ivtzan, Chan, Gardner, & Prashar, 2013), and on a day-to-day level (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012). ...
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The current study investigated the dimensions of spirituality in an Australian context, its association with religious institutions, and with psychological well-being. An Australian community sample of 104 men and 195 women (ages ranging from 18-22 to 60 and above) provided data for an exploratory factor analysis that was used to develop a new spirituality scale. A second community sample of 112 men and 203 women of similar ages provided data for subsequent confirmatory factor analysis of the model. The second sample also answered questions about their personal and culture of upbringing association with religious institutions, and responded to a measure of psychological well-being. The spirituality model explained 74% of the variance in the first sample data. Confirmatory factor analysis with the second sample showed encouraging results for the model. Significant differences in spirituality scores were found between religious and non-religious participants. No significant differences in spirituality scores were found between Judeo-Christian participants and participants with other religious orientations. In general, spirituality scores were significantly and positively correlated with psychological well-being.
... Daily presence of and searching for meaning in life were measured using items adopted from Steger et al. (2006) that have been used successfully in previous studies (e.g., Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012). Items were worded to reflect a focus on daily experience. ...
Article
The present study moved beyond trait reports of rumination, reflection, and meaning in life (presence and search) by examining within-person relationships between daily states of these constructs and well-being. Participants (N = 130) completed reports at the end of the day for 14 days. When analyzed together, daily rumination was negatively related to daily well-being whereas daily reflection was not (with one exception). In contrast, daily reflection was positively related to daily search for meaning in life, whereas rumination was not related to daily search for meaning in life. Reflection moderated the within-person relationships between rumination and well-being such that negative relationships between rumination and well-being were stronger at higher levels of reflection. In contrast, rumination had virtually no effect on search for meaning in life at higher levels of reflection. Lagged analyses found that daily reflection led to increases in daily positive deactivated affect (e.g., relaxation) and searching for meaning in life, and daily rumination led to increased presence of meaning in life the following day. These results highlight the importance of considering both reflection and rumination in studies of within-person variation and the value of considering within-person variability in understanding presence of and search for meaning in life.
... Religious and spiritual beliefs may be particularly beneficial for people with bipolar disorder who have difficulty regulating their emotions in the context of disorganized goal pursuit (Johnson, 2005). Spirituality may also boost well-being among people with bipolar disorder, as research suggests that feeling connected with a higher power is associated with greater well-being at the trait (Pargament & Mahoney, 2009) and daily level (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012). Many people with bipolar disorder endorse a direct link between religious beliefs and a willingness to manage their illness (e.g., Galvez, Thommi, & Ghaemi, 2011;Mitchell & Romans, 2003), suggesting that meaning derived from spiritual and religious systems may improve the course of bipolar disorder. ...
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For decades, researchers and practitioners have theorized psychological disorder and health as opposite ends of a single continuum. We offer a more nuanced, data driven examination into the various ways that people with psychological disorders experience well-being. We review research on the positive emotions, meaning and purpose in life, and social relationships of people diagnosed with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, social anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, and trauma-related disorders. We also discuss when and how friends, family members, and caregivers of these people are adversely impacted in terms of their well-being. Throughout, we highlight important, often overlooked findings that not all people with mental illness are devoid of well-being. This review is meant to be illustrative as opposed to comprehensive, synthesizing existing knowledge and inspiring explorations of unclear or undiscovered territory.
... However, no association was observed with non-ACSC hospitalizations, suggesting that purpose has a somewhat selective association with hospitalization, perhaps involving more effective management of conditions with high care demands. It is also possible that purpose effects are partly due to factors related to purpose that were not controlled for in analyses such as spirituality (43), quality and quantity of social networks (44), and sleep (45). Another consideration is that older people face multiple challenges, particularly declining health and functional capacity, personal loss, and other external factors which may have contributed to the decline in purpose that was observed in the present study. ...
Article
Objective: To test the hypothesis that higher level of purpose in life is associated with lower subsequent odds of hospitalization. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Participants' residences in the Chicago metropolitan area. Participants: A total of 805 older persons who completed uniform annual clinical evaluations. Measurements: Participants annually completed a standard self-report measure of purpose in life, a component of well-being. Hospitalization data were obtained from Part A Medicare claims records. Based on previous research, ICD-9 codes were used to identify ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) for which hospitalization is potentially preventable. The relation of purpose (baseline and follow-up) to hospitalization was assessed in proportional odds mixed models. Results: During a mean of 4.5 years of observation, there was a total of 2,043 hospitalizations (442 with a primary ACSC diagnosis; 1,322 with a secondary ACSC diagnosis; 279 with no ACSCs). In initial analyses, higher purpose at baseline and follow-up were each associated with lower odds of more hospitalizations involving ACSCs but not hospitalizations for non-ACSCs. Results were comparable when those with low cognitive function at baseline were excluded. Adjustment for chronic medical conditions and socioeconomic status reduced but did not eliminate the association of purpose with hospitalizations involving ACSCs. Conclusions: In old age, higher level of purpose in life is associated with lower odds of subsequent hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions.
... may be related to. In fact, meaning in life during this period, adolescents to solve the identity crisis (Rathi and Rastogi, 2007, p.31), creating a quality life and to maintain a solid ground (Kashdan andNezlek, 2012, p.1524) contributes to increase life satisfaction. ...
... Although valuable, these studies have not investigated if and how CBM-I influences individuals in daily life. To consider only a narrow range of outcomes, without directly measuring associated state processes, potentially obscures rich information about how our clients' goals for treatment are, or are not, being met over time (notably, associations between results that are measured at the trait level are often weakly associated with those measured at the state level, affect; Brose et al. 2015;emotion regulation;Kashdan and Nezlek 2012). Yet, current CBM-I treatment outcome monitoring relies mainly on trait selfreport questionnaires. ...
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Background Reducing one’s tendency to interpret ambiguous situations negatively can improve symptoms of social anxiety. This study examines the effectiveness of a 1-week period of online Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretations (CBM-I) for socially anxious individuals. In addition to measuring intervention effectiveness through traditional trait measures, this study investigates whether associated state measures are sensitive to intervention effects in daily life.Methods One-hundred and six participants scoring high on a measure of trait social anxiety completed two in-lab sessions separated by 5 weeks of ecological momentary assessment, with 51 participants randomly assigned to receive the online CBM-I intervention halfway through the 5-week monitoring period.ResultsCBM-I training was more effective than monitoring alone in reducing trait negative interpretation bias, indicating target engagement. However, this change was not reliably accompanied by changes on other cognitive processing style outcomes. Further, while trait and state social anxiety symptoms and fear of negative evaluation improved, these changes were not unique to the CBM-I intervention group.Conclusion This study demonstrates the challenges and opportunities associated with investigating intervention effects in daily life.
... Nezlek et al. Barrett and Russell, 1998) Values: daily life satisfaction via two items based on those used by Oishi et al. (2007), presence of meaning in life via two items that had been used in previous diary studies (e.g., Kashdan and Nezlek, 2012) There were no significant outcome differences between omnivores and semi-vegetarians. Personality: Compared to omnivores and semi-vegetarians, vegetarians had lower self-esteem, lower psychological adjustment, stronger negative moods, more negative social events, and had more pronounced thoughts about themselves. ...
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Numerous medical studies have documented vegetarian diets as having various health benefits. Studies have also compared vegetarians with other dietary groups from a socio-psychological perspective. The objective of this review is to investigate the differences between vegetarians and omnivores in terms of their personality profiles, values, and empathy skills. A search was conducted across three electronic databases. Non-randomized, observational, cross-sectional, and cohort studies were eligible. Outcomes provided information about the differences between the above-mentioned dietary groups regarding their personality profiles, values, and empathy skills. A shortened version of the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale was used to assess the risk of bias for the included studies. Of the 2,513 different studies found, 25 (total number of participants n = 23,589) were ultimately included. These studies indicate that vegetarians significantly differ from omnivores in their personalities, values, and ability to be empathetic. Omnivorism is associated with an increased orientation toward social dominance, greater right-wing authoritarianism, and, in line with this, a stronger tendency to be prejudiced. Vegetarianism is associated with greater openness and empathy. The values of vegetarians are based more on universalism, hedonism, stimulation, and self-direction, whereas the values of omnivores are based more on the idea of power. To answer a narrowly defined and clear question, issues such as animal ethics, animal rights, and environmental protection are not considered in this review. The findings of this review, showing marked differences in personality correlating to the choice of diet and the increasing influence of plant-based diets on a global level, indicate that further studies about vegetarianism are warranted.
... The system of beliefs and norms provided by a religion may give an individual a sense of coherence in understanding the world, own being, and social interactions, creating a meaning and purpose in life (Hayward and Krause 2014;Park 2005;van Cappellen et al. 2016). Psychological studies indeed provide evidence that active religious participation and religious practicing is positively related to meaning in life, self-esteem, and perceived control in life, leading to greater subjective well-being (Jackson and Bergeman 2011;Kashdan and Nezlek 2012;Park 2005; You and Lim 2019). ...
Chapter
The flourishing literature in economics, sociology, and religious studies finds that religious individuals are happier than the nonreligious. This chapter summarizes the most influential literature on this topic, focusing on theoretical foundations, empirical applications, and challenges in analyzing the religion-happiness relationship. Based on previous economic literature, several theories explaining why individuals engage in religious activities are outlined, including the theory of time allocation to religious and secular (market) activities, rational choice theory, and the club goods theory. The chapter also discusses how these theories explain why religiosity helps to promote happiness. The review of empirical studies focuses on the insurance effect of religion and summarizes the studies of happiness and religion at the individual- and country-levels. Another dimension underscored in the chapter is the geography of religious beliefs and the studies of happiness and religion in different world regions. Finally, the major challenges in studying the religion-happiness relationship are highlighted and several avenues for future academic and policy-oriented research on the topic are outlined. The chapter underscores that studying the religion-happiness relationship and understanding the channels behind it is an important milestone in pursuing happiness, well-governed institutions, and more generally, sustainable development.
... For instance, one study found that neuroticism and conscientiousness related negatively to one another at the between-person level but positively at the withinperson level (Beckmann et al., 2010). Research on psychological states has been thriving on topics such as affective states and personality states for decades, and there has recently been more attention to R/S states such as daily spiritual experiences (see Hardy et al., 2014;Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012). ...
... Daily measures of presence of meaning and search for meaning included items used in previous daily studies on a scale of 1-7 (1= not at all, 7= very much) (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Kashdan & Steger, 2007). The daily presence scale included the items "How meaningful did you feel your life was today?" and "How much did you feel your life had purpose today?" ...
... Following the recommendation of Nezlek (2012), we created abbreviated daily measures that were adapted from trait measures. These measures have been used reliably in previous research (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Newman et al., 2018;Nezlek, 2005). Daily satisfaction with life was measured with a single item on a 7-point scale: "How satisfied were you with your life today?" ...
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Experimental manipulations of nostalgia that privilege positive aspects of the bittersweet emotion have led to the conclusion that nostalgia is a predominantly positive emotion, yet nostalgia covaries negatively with well-being in daily life. To reconcile this discrepancy, we developed and tested the bittersweet variation model of nostalgia that posits that (a) nostalgic feelings vary not only in intensity but also in valence (i.e., how bitter or sweet a nostalgic feeling is); (b) daily events influence the valence of nostalgic feelings; and (c) nostalgia's valence influences well-being. Across two daily diary studies (N = 151; 1,356 daily reports), we found that the valence of nostalgic feelings varied considerably within-persons. Daily positive events predicted more positively rated nostalgic feelings, whereas daily negative events predicted more negatively rated nostalgic feelings. Controlling for the effects of daily events on well-being, positive nostalgic feelings predicted greater well-being, whereas negative nostalgic feelings predicted lower well-being. To provide more robust causal evidence of the effect of nostalgia valence on well-being, we conducted two experiments (N = 445) in which we manipulated nostalgia valence by asking participants to write about positive nostalgic feelings (involving people they remain close to) or negative nostalgia feelings (involving people they no longer remain close to), mimicking typical nostalgic feelings in daily life. Positive nostalgic feelings improved well-being compared with negative nostalgic feelings. Thus, nostalgia is not inherently positive or negative. Rather, the effect of nostalgia on well-being depends on its valence, which is influenced by the eliciting event. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Decades of research has shown that religious belief and behavior, as a framework of meaning-making, can have both positive or negative effects on mental health depending on the beneficial or harmful quality of those beliefs and behaviors (Rosmarin and Koenig, 2020). Several studies have shown S/R engagement, especially positive religious coping, to be associated with reduced risk for mental illness both in general and in psychiatric populations including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidality (Ford and Hill, 2012;Koenig et al., 2012;Miller et al., 2012;VanderWeele et al., 2016), with components of psychological well-being such as positive affect, hope, and life satisfaction (Kashdan and Nezlek, 2012;Kim et al., 2014;Pirutinsky et al., 2019), and with favorable treatment outcomes (Rosmarin et al., 2013a). These findings have led to various S/R-integrated mental health interventions (Rosmarin, 2018). ...
Article
Religious coping is prevalent among individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders, however its clinical relevance has been insufficiently studied. Thirty ultra-Orthodox Jewish patients experiencing current psychotic symptoms and receiving treatment in the inpatient and day-care units were administered measures assessing severity of psychotic symptoms, psychological distress/well-being, beliefs about treatment credibility/expectancy, and aspects of religious belief and coping. Among men, negative religious coping was associated with lower treatment credibility. Among women, positive religious coping was associated with increased treatment expectancy and greater quality of life; and trust in God was associated with reduced psychiatric symptoms and greater treatment expectancy. Study findings indicate that religious factors may promote treatment motivation and engagement, crucial factors for subpopulations facing culturally-based barriers to treatment, as well as boost more favorable outcomes. Sensitivity to religious factors in treatment appears to play an important role in the management of psychotic disorders and should be engaged when culturally appropriate in order to maximize treatment potential.
... Our findings are partially consistent with this hypothesis since, as we expected, adolescents' negative ER style and rumination use in their day-to-day life were positively linked. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between positive ER style and rumination use; although adolescents with a higher predisposition to use positive ER strategies are more likely to engage less in negative strategies (e.g., rumination; [33]), results measured at the "trait" level may be independent of those measured at the "state" or "within-person" level [76,77]. In other words, adolescents with a certain ER style can use both positive and negative ER strategies depending on the situation, and this may be reflected in our findings. ...
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Adolescence is a vulnerable period for depressive and anxious symptom development, and emotion regulation (ER) may be one mechanism linking temperament-i.e., positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA)-with such symptomatology. Rumination is a common ER strategy that is traditionally assessed using self-reported questionnaires, but it would also be interesting to examine it with an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) approach. Sixty-five adolescents (Mage = 14.69; SDage = 0.82; range = 14-17 years old; 53.80% girls) completed self-report measures of temperament, ER style, depression and anxiety, and underwent an EMA to investigate rumination use. Results revealed that negative ER style and rumination use mediated the relationship between NA and depression, while only rumination use mediated the relationship between PA and depression. Moreover, NA contributed to increase anxiety, but negative ER style did not significantly mediate this relationship. Rumination use also had no effect on anxiety. This study provides further support for the relationship between temperament, ER, and internalizing problems. It seems that both a negative ER style and rumination use mediate the relationship between NA and depression whereas only NA had a significant direct effect on anxiety. Furthermore, PA buffered the effect of rumination use on depression in this study.
... Gratitude (McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002), awe (Van Cappellen & Saroglou, 2012), and love (Kim-Prieto & Diener, 2009) have all been found to associate positively with religiousness, suggesting that religious individuals experience such emotions to a greater extent than those who are less religious (Tong, 2017). Longitudinal studies have also provided evidence that religious practices enhance the experience of self-transcendent emotions (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Lambert, Fincham, Braithwaite, Graham, & Beach, 2009). Conversely, experimental induction of self-transcendent emotions has also been shown to enhance religious and spiritual beliefs (Saroglou, Buxant, & Tilquin, 2008;Van Cappellen & Saroglou, 2012), suggesting that the relationship between religious belief and self-transcendent positive emotions is reciprocal and self-sustaining. ...
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This article reports 7 studies showing that God primes inhibit self-concept accessibility. Study 1A provided the first supportive evidence using undergraduate samples. Study 1B replicated the findings using working adult participants. Study 2A to 2C showed that the inhibitory effect of the God concept on implicit self-concepts was not due to concepts related to love, power, hope, religion, devil, and father. Study 3 found the same inhibitory effect when the God prime was subliminally presented. Study 4 showed that God concept priming influenced implicit self-representations, but not other types of implicit representations. Finally, a meta-analysis of our findings reveal a large effect of priming. In addition, the effect was consistent across different religious affiliations. These findings provide evidence at the social– cognitive level that activation of God concepts can induce lower self-orientation: a possible mechanism for religious self-transcendence.
... Este hecho indicaría que los posibles efectos de la mayor religiosidad sobre las variables de ajuste psicológico analizadas se explicarían atendiendo a la mayor presencia de sentido experimentada por las personas con alta religiosidad. Este resultado va en la línea de estudios previos que han encontrado este efecto de mediación empleando otras muestras y metodologías (Chamberlain & Zika, 1988;Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Steger & Frazier, 2005). La religiosidad, a través de su sistema de creencias y prácticas, puede ser una fuente de sentido. ...
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This study aims to test the hypothesis that the relationship between religiousness and psychological well-being could be mediated by the levels of meaning or purpose in life a person experiences. A survey study was carried out. A sample comprising 1553 participants from Latin America (87.6 % female), with age ranging from 18 to 70 years (M = 40.16, DE = 16.02) completed a questionnaire survey including measures of meaning in life (Purpose in Life Test) and psychological adjustment (Satisfaction with Life Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, GHQ-12, and PANAS). Results indicated that practicing-believers reported, overall, higher levels of well-being, and lower levels of psychological symptoms and negative affect, compared with non-practicing believers. Non-practicing believers, in turn, presented better psychological adjustment, compared with non- believers. The relationships between religiousness and psychological adjustment was partially or fully mediated by scores of meaning in life, with practicing believers reporting highest levels. We conclude that perception of meaning and purpose in life is a key variable to understand the relationship between religion and well-being. Keywords religiousness; well-being; meaning in life; purpose; mental health.
... Of the factors affecting mental health is spiritual intelligence (7). It has been suggested that there is a positive relationship between people's spiritual beliefs and mental health (9). Thus spirituality and spiritual growth in human & its role in various parts of life has increasingly drawn the attention of psychologists & mental health experts to itself in the recent decades (10). ...
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Background and Purpose: Diagnosing coronary artery disease can cause considerable impairment in patients' mental health. On the one hand, psychological factors play an important role in the development and progression of heart disease. Therefore, identifying the factors affecting the patient's ability to adapt such as spiritual intelligence (SI) is significant. The study aims to determine the status of spiritual intelligence and its related factors in patients suffering from ischemic heart disease. Methods: This study community consists of the patients with ischemic heart disease hospitalized in cardiac ward of Dr.Heshmat Hospital; 186 patients were selected by accessible sampling method. Data were collected by spiritual intelligence 29-item questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, ANOVA and Pearson). Results: In this study, the majority of the samples were in the age range of 45-64 years old (68/8%), men (67/2%), married (99/5 %), with elementary education level (51/1%) and housewives (29%). The results implied that more than 90% of the patients had high spiritual intelligence. Also based on the statistical analysis, no significant association has been observed between the demographic variable and spiritual intelligence. Conclusion: It seems that high spiritual intelligence in the community resulted from stress induced illness leading to their greater tendency to spirituality. In general, according to the psychological literature, spiritual intelligence can promote the patients' mental and physical health. Then, paying attention to spiritual intelligence in these patients seems to be critical.
... Regarding the subscale of spiritual growth, although the results indicated that spiritual growth was higher in the healthy group compared to the hypertension group, this difference was not statistically significant. Another study has indicated that a positive relationship exists between the spiritual beliefs of individuals and their mental health [41]. Studies on the relationship between spirituality and other chronic diseases have indicated that higher levels of spirituality are associated with lower levels of disease progress over time [42]. ...
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Introduction: Increase in the prevalence of hypertension has become a major health problem nowadays. It seems that psychological factors are involved in this chronic disease. The aim of the current research was to compare the health promotion lifestyle and the health locus of control in both individuals with hypertension and healthy individuals. Method: The present study was a causal-comparative research in which 100 healthy individuals and 100 individuals with hypertension were selected through convenience sampling. To gather the data, the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) were used, and data were analyzed by independent t-test. Results: Findings indicated that among the subscales of lifestyle, there are significant differences between the subscales of physical activity (p < 0.01), nutrition (p< 0.01), and interpersonal relationship (p < 0.01) in both groups. In terms of health locus of control, there are significant differences in the subscales of chance control (p < 0.01) and external locus of control (p< 0.01). Conclusion: Accordingly, health promoting lifestyle and health locus of control are two main psychological constructs related to hypertension. Therefore, focusing on these factors can be useful in the prevention and treatment of this chronic disease.
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Objective Previous research has demonstrated a robust relationship between religion and well‐being, and it has been proposed that positive emotions are important mediators of this effect. Yet the mechanism via which religion promotes positive emotions has not been widely studied. We sought to examine whether teleological explanations of daily events and resulting positive emotions serially mediated the effects of religion on well‐being. Method These hypotheses were tested over three studies. In study 1, participants completed measures of religiousness and well‐being, and explained and described three recent personally significant events and their resulting emotions. Studies 2 and 3 adopted an ecological momentary assessment approach to measure teleological explanations, resulting emotions, and well‐being in almost real time. Results In study 1, teleological explanations and positive emotions serially mediated the effects of religiousness on well‐being. In study 2, momentary teleological explanations of daily events mediated the positive relationship between religiousness and the momentary positive emotions. In Study 3, serial mediation of the relationship between religiousness and momentary well‐being by momentary teleological explanations and positive emotions was observed. Conclusions These results provide evidence of the importance of teleological explanations of daily events in religious enhancement of well‐being. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Objective: Previous research has demonstrated a robust relationship between religiosity and well-being, and it has been proposed that positive emotions are important mediators of this effect. Yet the mechanism via which religiosity promotes positive emotions has not been widely studied. We sought to examine whether teleological explanations of daily events and resulting positive emotions serially mediated the effects of religiosity on well-being.Method: These hypotheses were tested over three studies. In study 1, participants completed measures of religiosity and well-being, and explained and described three recent personally significant events and their resulting emotions. Studies 2 and 3 adopted an ecological momentary assessment approach to measure teleological explanations, resulting emotions, and well-being in almost real time.Results: In study 1, teleological explanations and positive emotions partially and serially mediated the effects of religiosity on well-being. In study 2, momentary teleological explanations of daily events fully mediated the positive relationship between religiosity and momentary positive emotions. In Study 3, full serial mediation of the relationship between religiosity and momentary well-being by momentary teleological explanations and positive emotions was observed.Conclusions: These results provide evidence of the importance of teleological explanations of daily events in religious enhancement of well-being.
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Awe is described as an a “epistemic emotion” because it is hypothesised to make gaps in one’s knowledge salient. However, no empirical evidence for this yet exists. Awe is also hypothesised to be an antecedent to interest in science because science is one way to fill those knowledge gaps. Results from four pre-registered studies (N = 1518) indicate that manipulating awe through online (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c) and virtual reality (Study 2) videos, led to greater awareness of knowledge gaps. Awareness of knowledge gaps was consistently associated with greater science interest and to choosing tickets to a science museum over tickets to an art museum (Study 1b). These effects were not consistently observed on, nor moderated by, other measures related to cognition, religion, and spirituality. However, exploratory analyses showed that science interest was better predicted by positive emotions than by awe. Still, these results provide the first empirical evidence of awe as an “epistemic emotion” by demonstrating its effects on awareness of knowledge gaps. These findings are also extended to the effects of awe on science interest as one possible outcome of awareness of knowledge gaps.
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Although spirituality has been considered a protective factor against shopping addiction, the mechanisms involved in this relationship are still poorly recognized. The present study aims to test the association of daily spiritual experiences, self-efficacy, and gender with shopping addiction. The sample consisted of 430 young adults (275 women and 155 men), with a mean age of 20.44 (SD = 1.70). The Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Bergen Shopping Addiction Scale were used to measure the study variables. The results showed that: (1) Daily spiritual experiences had a direct negative effect on shopping addiction; (2) daily spiritual experiences were positively related to self-efficacy, thought the effect was moderated by gender; (3) self-efficacy negatively correlated with a shopping addiction; and (4) the indirect effect of daily spiritual experiences on shopping addiction through self-efficacy was significant for women but insignificant for men. The findings confirm that spirituality protects young adults against developing a shopping addiction. They also suggest that when introducing spiritual issues into shopping addiction prevention or treatment programs, the gender-specific effects of spirituality on shopping addiction via self-efficacy should be considered to adequately utilize young women’s and men’s spiritual resources.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of knowledge sharing from the perspectives of broaden-and-build theory and expectancy theory. Its research purpose is to understand how knowledge sharing is driven by such predictors as optimism, pessimism, and positive affect through their complex interactions with collectivism or power distance. In the proposed model of this study, knowledge sharing relates to optimism and pessimism via the partial mediation of positive affect. At the same time, the influence of optimism, pessimism, and positive affect on knowledge sharing are moderated by the national culture of collectivism and power distance, respectively. Design/methodology/approach This study’s hypotheses were empirically tested using data from high-tech firms across Taiwan and Malaysia. Of the 550 questionnaires provided to the research participants, 397 usable questionnaires were collected (total response rate of 72.18 percent), with 237 usable questionnaires from Taiwanese employees and 160 usable questionnaires from Malaysian employees. The data from Taiwan and Malaysia were pooled and analyzed using: confirmatory factor analysis for verifying data validity, independent sample t-tests for verifying the consistency with previous literature regarding cultural differences, and hierarchical regression analysis for testing relational and moderating effects. Findings This study demonstrates the integrated application of the broaden-and-build theory and expectancy theory for understanding optimism, pessimism, and positive affect in the development of knowledge sharing. The test results confirm that positive affect partially mediates the relationship between optimism and knowledge sharing and fully mediates the relationship between pessimism and knowledge sharing. Moreover, collectivism and power distance have significant moderating effects on most of the model paths between knowledge sharing and its predictors except for the relationship between pessimism and knowledge sharing. Originality/value This study extends the expectancy theory to justify how optimistic and pessimistic expectations are stable traits that dominate the way employees share their knowledge sharing. This study shows how collectivism and power distance of Hofstede’s cultural framework can be blended with the broaden-and-build theory and expectancy theory to jointly explain knowledge sharing. Besides, this study provides additional support to the adaptation theory of well-being that suggests psychosocial interventions, which manage to enhance well-being by leveraging positive affect, hold the promise of reducing stressful symptoms and boosting psychological resources among employees.
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This paper sheds more light on the topic of spirituality by clarifying what it embraces by means of a dual approach: it examines the secular literature as well as collecting related teachings and tenets from Spiritism Doctrine. Although the discipline of spirituality is relatively young and its ontology needs consensus, it is noticeable that spirituality adopts different and competing thin. It unfolds through the deep understanding about the meaning of life, human nature, and the adoption of a transcendental perspective. It argues that we live in a suitable moment on this planet to take advantage of transformative potential derived from spiritual knowledge for the betterment of the human community. The evidence gathered here shows that by developing our own spirituality we can transform ourselves and our creations, including society and institutions. The approach of this endeavor reveals that both science and religion agree that the spiritual element permeates all things.
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Kehadiran orang tua berperan besar bagi kesejahteraan psikologis anak, khususnya remaja. Namun realitanya ada sebagian remaja yang tidak mendapatkan bimbingan dan afeksi orang tuanya, yaitu remaja di panti asuhan. Kesejahteraan psikologis dipengaruhi beberapa faktor, seperti kepribadian dan psikososial. Faktor kepribadian misalnya adalah internal locus of control, sedangkan faktor psikososial adalah spiritualitas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara internal locus of control dan spiritualitas dengan kesejahteraan psikologis pada remaja yang tinggal di panti asuhan. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik studi populasi dengan jumlah 75 remaja. Pengumpulan data menggunakan skala kesejahteraan psikologis (28 aitem, α = 0,881), skala internal locus of control (22 aitem, α = 0,856), dan skala spiritualitas (26 aitem, α = 0,905). Hasil regresi berganda menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan antara internal locus of control dan spiritualitas dengan kesejahteraan psikologis (Ryx1x2 = 0,790; p < 0,05. Analisis regresi sederhana pertama menunjukkan terdapat hubungan antara internal locus of control dengan kesejahteraan psikologis (rx1y = 0,466; p < 0,05). Analisis regresi sederhana kedua menunjukkan terdapat hubungan antara spiritualitas dengan kesejahteraan psikologis (rx2y = 0,490; p < 0,05). Artinya semakin tinggi internal locus of control dan spiritualitas yang dimiliki seseorang, maka semakin tinggi kesejahteraan psikologisnya, begitu pula sebaliknya. Besar sumbangan efektif spiritualitas lebih besar terhadap kesejahteraan psikologis dengan memberikan sumbangan sebesar 32,5%, dibandingkan internal locus of control yaitu sebesar 30%.
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Detailed Analysis on the Relationship of religiosity with important economic and demographic variables based on a Large-Scale survey on Turkey Population
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to systematically examine and classify the multitude of personality traits that have emerged in the literature beyond the Big Five (Five Factor Model) since the turn of the 21st century. The authors argue that this represents a new phase of personality research that is characterized both by construct proliferation and a movement away from the Big Five and demonstrates how personality as a construct has substantially evolved in the 21st century. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of personality research from 2000 to 2020 across 17 management and psychology journals. This search yielded 1,901 articles, of which 440 were relevant and subsequently coded for this review. Findings The review presented in this study uncovers 155 traits, beyond the Big Five, that have been explored, which the authors organize and analyze into 10 distinct categories. Each category comprises a definition, lists the included traits and highlights an exemplar construct. The authors also specify the significant research outcomes associated with each trait category. Originality/value This review categorizes the 155 personality traits that have emerged in the management and psychology literature that describe personality beyond the Big Five. Based on these findings, this study proposes new avenues for future research and offers insights into the future of the field as the concept of personality has shifted in the 21st century.
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Few studies have examined how trait emotion dysregulation relates to momentary affective experiences and the emotion regulation (ER) strategies people use in daily life. In the current study, 112 college students completed a trait measure of emotion dysregulation and completed experience sampling and end-of-day surveys over a two- to three-week period, asking about their emotional experiences and ER strategy use. Participants completed a total of 3798 experience sampling (in-the-moment) and 995 nightly diary surveys. We examined the top 40% of each participant’s reported instances of negative affect (to capture times when emotions more likely need regulation). Results indicated that a higher level of trait emotion dysregulation was associated with the following in-the-moment responses: (a) higher level of negative affect; (b) greater desire to change emotions; (c) more attempts to regulate emotion; (d) higher relative endorsements of avoidant (e.g. thought suppression) versus engagement (e.g. acceptance) ER strategy use; and (e) lower perceived effectiveness of ER. Further, individuals with a higher (vs. lower) level of trait emotion dysregulation were less able to identify emotions over the course of the day. Findings demonstrate how trait emotion dysregulation may predict emotional experiences and ER in daily life.
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Most adults in a community sample (N = 150; ages 25-56) perceived their top 10 strivings as being connected to God (theistic sanctification) and having sacred, transcendent qualities (nontheistic sanctification), with highest ratings given to religious goals, family relationships, altruistic endeavors, and existential concerns. Greater sanctification of strivings correlated positively with the importance, commitment, longevity, social support, confidence, and internal locus of control of strivings. Based on 5 phone interviews about the prior 48 hr, people invested more time and energy in their 2 most highly sanctified strivings than their 2 least sanctified strivings. Greater sanctification of strivings related to a greater sense of life purpose and meaning and joy yielded by strivings but not fewer psychological or physical health difficulties.
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Spirituality and religion have been seen as beneficial, harmful, and irrelevant to health. We examine the recent research on this topic. We focus on (a) defining spirituality and religion both conceptually and operationally; (b) the relationships between spirituality/religion and health; and (c) priorities for future research. Although the effect sizes are moderate, there typically are links between religious practices and reduced onset of physical and mental illnesses, reduced mortality, and likelihood of recovery from or adjustment to physical and mental illness. The three mechanisms underlying these relationships involve religion increasing healthy behaviors, social support, and a sense of coherence or meaning. This research is based on religion measures, however, and it should be emphasized that spirituality may be different. Read More: http://guilfordjournals.com/doi/abs/10.1521/jscp.2000.19.1.102?journalCode=jscp
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Meaning in life has been identified as a potential mediator of the link between religiousness and psychological health. The authors tested this hypothesis in 2 studies, using multiple methods and measures of religiousness and well-being. In the studies, meaning in life mediated the relation between religiousness and life satisfaction (Study 1A), as well as self-esteem and optimism (Study 1B). In addition, using an experience sampling method, the authors found that meaning in life also mediated the relation between daily religious behaviors and well-being (Study 2). The authors discuss these findings and suggest that meaning in life may be an effective conduit through which counselors and clients can discuss "ultimate" matters, even when they do not share similar perspectives on religion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, 103 participants provided measures of their daily self-concept clarity (SCC), mood (negative affect [NA] and positive affect [PA]), and self-esteem (SE), and they described the events that occurred each day. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses found that daily SCC covaried with daily positive and negative events, with daily NA, and with daily SE. None of these relationships was moderated by trait levels of SE, SCC, PA, NA, or measures of depressogenic self-concept, anxiety, or depressive symptoms. Analyses that simultaneously included SE, mood, and events suggested that relationships between daily SCC and daily events were mediated by daily NA and daily SE. Such mediation suggests that daily events lead to changes in mood and SE, which in turn lead to changes in SCC. Additional analyses found that temporal variability of SE, PA, NA, and SCC was negatively correlated with trait SCC.
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A conceptual and analytic framework for understanding relationships among traits, states, situations, and behaviours is presented. The framework assumes that such relationships can be understood in terms of four questions. (1) What are the relationships between trait and state level constructs, which include psychological states, the situations people experience and behaviour? (2) What are the relationships between psychological states, between states and situations and between states and behaviours? (3) How do such state level relationships vary as a function of trait level individual differences? (4) How do the relationships that are the focus of questions 1, 2, and 3 change across time? This article describes how to use multilevel random coefficient modelling (MRCM) to examine such relationships. The framework can accommodate different definitions of traits and dispositions (Allportian, processing styles, profiles, etc.) and different ways of conceptualising relationships between states and traits (aggregationist, interactionist, etc.). Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Increasingly, social and personality psychologists are conducting studies in which data are collected simultaneously at multiple levels, with hypotheses concerning effects that involve multiple levels of analysis. In studies of naturally occurring social interaction, data describing people and their social interactions are collected simultaneously. This article discuses how to analyze such data using random coefficient modeling. Analyzing data describing day-to-day social interaction is used to illustrate the analysis of event-contingent data (when specific events trigger or organize data collection), and analyzing data describing reactions to daily events is used to illustrate the analysis of interval-contingent data (when data are collected at intervals). Different analytic strategies are presented, the shortcomings of ordinary least squares analyses are described, and the use of multilevel random coefficient modeling is discussed in detail. Different modeling techniques, the specifics of formulating and testing hypotheses, and the differences between fixed and random effects are also considered.
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Multilevel modeling is a technique that has numerous potential applications for social and personality psychology. To help realize this potential, this article provides an introduction to multilevel modeling with an emphasis on some of its applications in social and personality psychology. This introduction includes a description of multilevel modeling, a rationale for this technique, and a discussion of applications of multilevel modeling in social and personality psychological research. Some of the subtleties of setting up multilevel analyses and interpreting results are presented, and software options are discussed.
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Despite the amount of attention that researchers have devoted to the topic of self-esteem, many central questions remain unanswered. Sociometer theory addresses many such questions by suggesting that self-esteem is part of a psychological system (the sociometer) that monitors the social environment for cues indicating low or declining relational evaluation (e.g., lack of interest, disapproval, rejection) and warns the individual when such cues are detected. The theory suggests that people are not motivated to maintain their self-esteem per se as has been typically assumed, but rather seek to increase their relational value and social acceptance, using self-esteem as a gauge of their effectiveness. The present chapter describes sociometer theory's perspective on self-esteem, reviews evidence relevant to the theory, and describes how it explains phenomena in which self-esteem has been implicated, including interpersonal emotion, social identity effects, intergroup behaviour, and clinical disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
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Research largely shows that religion and spirituality have a positive correlation to psychological well-being. However, there has been a great deal of confusion and debate over their operational definitions. This study attempted to delineate the two constructs and categorise participants into different groups based on measured levels of religious involvement and spirituality. The groups were then scored against specific measures of well-being. A total of 205 participants from a wide range of religious affiliations and faith groups were recruited from various religious institutions and spiritual meetings. They were assigned to one of four groups with the following characteristics: (1) a high level of religious involvement and spirituality, (2) a low level of religious involvement with a high level of spirituality, (3) a high level of religious involvement with a low level of spirituality, and (4) a low level of religious involvement and spirituality. Multiple comparisons were made between the groups on three measures of psychological well-being: levels of self-actualisation, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative. As predicted, it was discovered that, aside from a few exceptions, groups (1) and (2) obtained higher scores on all three measures. As such, these results confirm the importance of spirituality on psychological well-being, regardless of whether it is experienced through religious participation.
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Interest in meaning and meaning making in the context of stressful life events continues to grow, but research is hampered by conceptual and methodological limitations. Drawing on current theories, the author first presents an integrated model of meaning making. This model distinguishes between the constructs of global and situational meaning and between "meaning-making efforts" and "meaning made," and it elaborates subconstructs within these constructs. Using this model, the author reviews the empirical research regarding meaning in the context of adjustment to stressful events, outlining what has been established to date and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of current empirical work. Results suggest that theory on meaning and meaning making has developed apace, but empirical research has failed to keep up with these developments, creating a significant gap between the rich but abstract theories and empirical tests of them. Given current empirical findings, some aspects of the meaning-making model appear to be well supported but others are not, and the quality of meaning-making efforts and meanings made may be at least as important as their quantity. This article concludes with specific suggestions for future research.
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Three experience-sampling studies explored the distributions of Big-Five-relevant states (behavior) across 2 to 3 weeks of everyday life. Within-person variability was high, such that the typical individual regularly and routinely manifested nearly all levels of all traits in his or her everyday behavior. Second, individual differences in central tendencies of behavioral distributions were almost perfectly stable. Third, amount of behavioral variability (and skew and kurtosis) were revealed as stable individual differences. Finally, amount of within-person variability in extraversion was shown to reflect individual differences in reactivity to extraversion-relevant situational cues. Thus, decontextualized and noncontingent Big-Five content is highly useful for descriptions of individuals' density distributions as wholes. Simultaneously, contextualized and contingent personality units (e.g., conditional traits, goals) are needed for describing the considerable within-person variation.
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In this chapter, it is argued that meaning in life is an important variable for human well-being. Literature supporting this contention is reviewed, and complexities regarding defining meaning in life are discussed. Definitions of meaning have focused on several components, two of which appear central and unique to meaning in life, suggesting a conceptual framework of meaning in life comprised of two pillars: comprehension and purpose. Comprehension encompasses people's ability to find patterns, consistency, and significance in the many events and experiences in their lives, and their synthesis and distillation of the most salient, important, and motivating factors. People face the challenge of understanding their selves, the world around them, and their unique niche and interactions within the world, and the notion of comprehension unifies these domains of understanding. Purpose refers to highly motivating, long-term goals about which people are passionate and highly committed. In the framework presented in this chapter, it is suggested that people devote significant resources to the pursuit of their purposes and that the most effective and rewarding purposes arise from and are congruent with people's comprehension of their lives. Literature is reviewed regarding where meaning might come from, and other dimensions of meaning are considered (i.e., sources of meaning and search for meaning). Suggestions for future research are proposed.
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To the founding fathers of psychology, spiritual phenomena represented critically important topics for psychological study. Since the early part of the twentieth century, however, psychologists have tended to (a) ignore spirituality; (b) view spirituality as pathological; or (c) treat spirituality as a process that can be reduced to more basic underlying psychological, social, and physiological functions. Fortunately, this situation has begun to change (Weaver, Pargament, Flannelly, & Oppenheimer, 2006), for several good reasons. First, spirituality is a "cultural fact" (cf. Shafranske & Malony, 1996): the vast majority of Americans believe in God (90%), engage in prayer (90%), and feel that religion is very important or fairly important to them (84%) (Gallup, 2004; Poloma & Gallup, 1991). Second, as we will see, empirical studies have linked spirituality to a number of aspects of human functioning. Finally, in a more practical vein, the American Psychological Association has defined religiousness as a "cultural diversity" variable. Although it has received relatively less attention than other diversity variables, psychologists are no less ethically obligated to attend to this dimension and reduce potential biases in their professional work with clients of diverse religious backgrounds (see Principle D, Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct of APA, 1992).
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This book, the first of its kind, reviews and discusses the full range of research on religion and a variety of mental and physical health outcomes. Based on this research, the authors build theoretical models illustrating the various behavioural, psychological, and physiological pathways by which religion might affect health. They also review research that has explored the impact of religious affiliation, belief, and practice one use of health services and compliance with medical treatment. Finally, they discuss the implications of these findings, examine a number of possible clinical applications, and make recommendations for future research in this area
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Clinical observations suggesting a relationship between spiritual experiences, life purpose and satisfaction, and improvements in physical health led to the development of an Index of Core Spiritual Experience (INSPIRIT). Data from 83 medical outpatients showed the INSPIRIT to have a strong degree of internal reliability and concurrent validity. Multiple regression analyses showed the INSPIRIT to be associated with: (1) increased life purpose and satisfaction, a health-promoting attitude; and (2) decreased frequency of medical symptoms.
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The present study attempts to measure how individuals define the terms religiousness and spirituality, to measure how individuals define their own religiousness and spirituality, and to examine whether these definitions are associated with different demographic, religio/spiritual, and psychosocial variables. The complete sample of 346 individuals was composed of 11 groups of participants drawn from a wide range of religious backgrounds. Analyses were conducted to compare participants' self-rated religiousness and spirituality, to correlate self-rated religiousness and spirituality with the predictor variables, and to use the predictor variables to distinguish between participants who described themselves as "spiritual and religious" from those who identified themselves as "spiritual but not religious." A content analysis of participants' definitions of religiousness and spirituality was also performed. The results suggest several points of convergence and divergence between the constructs religiousness and spirituality. The theoretical, empirical, and practical implications of these results for the scientific study of religion are discussed.
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The availability of language codes determines the individual's ability and willingness to describe feeling state. In this study, transcendental experiences are taken as the feeling state in question. Two language codes, religiousmystical and aesthetic, are available in United States' society for describing transcendental experiences. It is suggested that the individual's choice of which code to use is dependent on his position in the social structure rather than on intrinsic differences in the nature of the experiences. Data were collected through a national survey organization. A weighted sample of 3,218 cases based on 1,553 interviews was taken. Subjects were asked a series of ten questions on whether they had had a transcendental experiences, what had caused it, how frequently they had had such experiences, and whether the experience had affected the subject's life in any way. Data gave tentative confirmation to the hypothesis that the kind of feeling state does not depend on the nature of the experience, but on the person's position in the social structure.
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Two studies examined the role of religious commitment in moderating the relationship between positive affect (PA) and meaning in life. In Study 1, Sample 1, religiosity was found to moderate the relationship between naturally occurring PA and meaning in life, showing that high levels of religiosity attenuated the effects of PA on meaning in life. In Study 1, Sample 2, religiosity similarly moderated the effects of induced mood on meaning in life. In addition, this pattern of results was shown to be unique to meaning in life compared to another life domain (life satisfaction). In Study 2, subliminally priming Christians with positive religious words (e.g., “Heaven”) was further shown to weaken the association between PA and meaning in life, whereas subliminal primes of negative religious words (e.g., “hell”) weakened the association between religious commitment and meaning in life. A competition of cues model is proposed to account for these effects.
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Recent research on spirituality in the workplace has documented its potential benefits. This article complements these prior writings by providing a brief overview of spiritual and religious struggles in work settings. Struggles could occur at the organizational level, as leaders wrestle with decisions about whether and how to encourage expressions of spirituality or religion in the workplace. Other conflicts could surround interpersonal disagreements in religious beliefs or values. Some employees may also experience more private spiritual struggles at work involving the pursuit of virtue, doubts and shifts in belief, crises of meaning, and anger or other negative feelings toward God or a Higher Power. Although any of these spiritual or religious challenges could create stress in work settings, they could also serve as catalysts for growth and positive change. We propose that the time is ripe for increased research on spiritual and religious struggles within the workplace.
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This study tested the roles of age, religious beliefs and organizational religiosity in the prediction of depressive symptoms and positive affect. Data provided by 129 younger and older adults were used to test a path model in which both direct and indirect effects of age and beliefs on well being were hypothesized. Both age and religious beliefs were positively and significantly associated with organizational religiosity. Individuals who reported more frequent participation in organizational religiosity reported fewer depressive symptoms and higher positive affect. Neither age nor religious beliefs, however, exerted direct effects on the outcomes. Results of the current investigation suggest that a better understanding of the content and function of religious beliefs may add to our understanding of well being and aging. Moreover, we advocate the further investigation of religiosity and positive emotional experiences.
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Psychologists have tended to view religion from a distance as a global, undifferentiated, stable process that is largely good or largely bad. This article presents a more fine-grained analysis of religion and its implications for well-being, positive and negative. The empirical literature points to five conclusions. First, some forms of religion are more helpful than others. Well-being has been linked positively to a religion that is internalized, intrinsically motivated, and based on a secure relationship with God and negatively to a religion that is imposed, unexamined, and reflective of a tenuous relationship with God and the world. Second, there are advantages and disadvantages to even controversial forms of religion, such as fundamentalism. Third, religion is particularly helpful to socially marginalized groups and to those who embed religion more fully in their lives. Fourth, religious beliefs and practices appear to be especially valuable in stressful situations that push people to the limits of their resources. Finally, the efficacy of religion is tied to the degree to which it is well integrated in the individual's life. These conclusions belie stereotypes or simple summaries about religion. Instead, they suggest that religion is a richer, more complex process than psychologists have imagined, one that has the potential both to help and to harm. Questions about the general efficacy of religion should give way to the more difficult but more appropriate question, How helpful or harmful are particular forms of religious expression for particular people dealing with particular situations in particular social contexts according to particular criteria of helpfulness or harmfulness?
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This chapter provides an overview of research on the influence of religious involvement on psychiatric and mental health outcomes by summarizing existing empirical findings and recent theoretical developments in the field. First, empirical findings from studies of religious effects on mental health outcomes are briefly reviewed. This section includes summaries both of clinical and epidemiologic studies and of social and gerontological research. Second, several salutogenic mechanisms or pathways are proposed as possible explanations for religious effects on mental health, including health-related behavior, social support, positive emotions, health beliefs or personality styles, and optimism and hope. Third, midrange theoretical models are proposed as ways to understand the interrelation of these potential mediating factors with religion and mental and physical health. This discussion focuses on 5 distinct specifications, termed suppressor, distress-deterrent, prevention, moderator, and health effects models. Finally, implications of these findings and theories for researchers and clinicians are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Religiousness and spirituality (R/S) are consistently linked with positive indicators of well-being, but the mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that an individual's level of perceived control (PC) acts as a mediator of this relationship and that this effect is stronger in older adults. Participants were 529 adults from the Notre Dame Study of Health and Well-Being (aged 31–88). Regression analyses tested both mediating and moderating functions of PC for three different R/S components (religious practices, daily spiritual experiences, and religious/spiritual coping); composite variables were used for PC and subjective well-being (SWB) in all analyses. These effects were tested using the full sample, as well as separately by age group (early midlife, aged 31–49; late midlife, aged 50–59; and later life, aged 60 and over), in order to discover any age differences that may exist. Results revealed differences by both R/S dimension and age group: PC partially mediated the religious practices-SWB relationship in the full sample and in the later life group; the effects of religious/spiritual coping and spiritual experiences on SWB were partially mediated by PC in the full sample, the late midlife group, and the later life group; and none of the R/S-SWB relationships were mediated in the early midlife group. Moderating effects were indicated by significant interactions between PC and spiritual experiences in the full sample, PC and religious coping in the full sample, and PC and religious practices in the later life group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Purpose-a cognitive process that defines life goals and provides personal meaning-may help explain disparate empirical social science findings. Devoting effort and making progress toward life goals provides a significant, renewable source of engagement and meaning. Purpose offers a testable, causal system that synthesizes outcomes including life expectancy, satisfaction, and mental and physical health. These outcomes may be explained best by considering the motivation of the individual-a motivation that comes from having a purpose. We provide a detailed definition with specific hypotheses derived from a synthesis of relevant findings from social, behavioral, biological, and cognitive literatures. To illustrate the uniqueness of the purpose model, we compared purpose with competing contemporary models that offer similar predictions. Addressing the structural features unique to purpose opens opportunities to build upon existing causal models of "how and why" health and well-being develop and change over time.
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Stressors encountered in daily life, such as family arguments or work deadlines, may play an important role in individual health and well-being. This article presents a framework for understanding how characteristics of individuals and their environments limit or increase exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. Research on daily stressors has benefited from diary methods that obtain repeated measurements from individuals during their daily lives. These methods improve ecological validity, reduce memory distortions, and permit the assessment of within-person processes. Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences, which used a telephone-diary design, highlight how people's age, gender, and education and the presence or absence of chronic stressors in their lives predict their exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. Finally, future directions for research designs that combine laboratory-based assessment of stress physiology with daily-diary methods are discussed.
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Religion invests human existence with meaning by establishing goals and value systems that potentially pertain to all aspects of a persons' life. A goals approach provides a general unifying framework to capture the dynamic aspect of religion in people's lives. Empirical research on the measurement of spirituality and religion through personal goals is described. To illustrate the application of the goals framework, data from the author's research program on personal goals and quality of life in persons with neuromuscular diseases are described. Framing subjective quality-of-life outcomes in terms of goals can lead to new possibilities for understanding adaptation to physical disabilities and in particular, the understanding of the religious and spiritual dimensions of disability and rehabilitation.
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Psychologists' emerging interest in spirituality and religion as well as the relevance of each phenomenon to issues of psychological importance requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of each construct. On the basis of both historical considerations and a limited but growing empirical literature, we caution against viewing spirituality and religiousness as incompatible and suggest that the common tendency to polarize the terms simply as individual vs. institutional or ′good′ vs. ′bad′ is not fruitful for future research. Also cautioning against the use of restrictive, narrow definitions or overly broad definitions that can rob either construct of its distinctive characteristics, we propose a set of criteria that recognizes the constructs' conceptual similarities and dissimilarities. Rather than trying to force new and likely unsuccessful definitions, we offer these criteria as benchmarks for judging the value of existing definitions.
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This study focuses on one of the most significant recent innovations in the conceptualization and measurement of religiousness and spirituality, the Daily Spiritual Experience scale (DSES; Underwood (2006) Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv fur Religion Psychologie, 28, 181–218). Using data from 1998 and 2004 NORC General Social Surveys, we address a number of questions regarding the social patterning of daily spiritual experiences, and the relationships between spiritual experiences and multiple dimensions of psychological well-being. Our results suggest a robust positive association between DSES and psychological well-being. By contrast, DSES appears to have little bearing on negative affect. We also found that DSES does not account for the association between religious practices and psychological variables. That is, DSES appears to tap another aspect of spirituality that is relevant for well-being, above and beyond the influence of religious practices. Various implications of the findings, as well as study limitations and future research direction are discussed.
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This study examined curiosity as a mechanism for achieving and maintaining high levels of well-being and meaning in life. Of primary interest was whether people high in trait curiosity derive greater well-being on days when they are