A Novel Measure of Dietary Change in a Prostate Cancer Dietary Program Incorporating Mindfulness Training
Diet may represent a modifiable prostate cancer risk factor, but a vegetable-based prostate-healthy diet is a major change for most men. We used a ratio of animal to vegetable proteins (A:V) to evaluate whether a comprehensive dietary change was self-sustaining following completion of 11 weekly dietary and cooking classes that integrated mindfulness training. Thirty-six men with recurring prostate cancer were randomized to the intervention or wait-list control. Assessments were at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Of 17 men randomized to the intervention, 14 completed the requirements. Nineteen were randomized to control and 17 completed requirements. Compared with controls, a significant postintervention (3 months) decrease in A:V in the intervention group (P=0.01) was self-maintained 3 months postintervention (P=0.049). At each assessment, A:V was correlated with lycopene, fiber, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol, four dietary components linked to clinically relevant outcomes in prostate cancer. Change in A:V was also significantly correlated with changes in fiber, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol intake. Participants reported regular mindfulness training practice, and there was a significant correlation between mindfulness training practice and changes in both initiation and maintenance of the change in A:V. These pilot results provide encouraging evidence for the feasibility of a dietary program that includes mindfulness training in supporting dietary change for men with recurrent prostate cancer and invite further study to explore the possible role of mindfulness training as a means of supporting both initiation of dietary changes and maintenance of those changes over time.
Available from: Matthew Hunsinger
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ABSTRACT: How best to support change in health-related behaviors is an important public health challenge. The role of mindfulness training in this process has received limited attention. We sought to explore whether mindfulness training is associated with changes in health-related behaviors. The Health Behaviors Questionnaire was used to obtain self-reported data on dietary behaviors, drinking, smoking, physical activity, and sleep quality before and after attendance at an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program. T-tests for paired data and χ2 tests were used to compare pre–post intervention means and proportions of relevant variables with P = .05 as level of significance. Participants (n = 174; mean age 47 years, range 19-68; 61% female) reported significant improvements in dietary behaviors and sleep quality. Partial changes were seen in physical activity but no changes in smoking and drinking habits. In conclusion, mindfulness training promotes favorable changes in selected health-related behaviors deserving further study through randomized controlled trials.
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Increasing a parent's ability to influence a child's vegetable intake may require reducing the parent's use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices. The present study was designed to understand the psychosocial influences on ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted to model use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices using validated scales from a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices.
The dependent variable was a composite ineffective vegetable parenting practices index. The independent variables included validated subscales of intention, habit, perceived barriers, desire, competence, autonomy, relatedness, attitudes, norms, perceived behavioural control and anticipated emotions. Models were analysed using block regression with backward deletion.
Parents of 307 pre-school children (3-5 years old).
Variables significantly positively related to ineffective vegetable parenting practices in order of relationship strength included habit of controlling vegetable practices (standardized β=0·349, P<0·0001) and desire (standardized β=0·117, P=0·025). Variables significantly negatively related to ineffective vegetable parenting practices in order of relationship strength included perceived behavioural control of negative parenting practices (standardized β=-0·215, P<0000), the habit of active child involvement in vegetable selection (standardized β=-0·142, P=0·008), anticipated negative parent emotional response to child vegetable refusal (standardized β=-0·133, P=0·009), autonomy (standardized β=-0·118, P=0.014), attitude about negative effects of vegetables (standardized β=-0·118, P=0·015) and descriptive norms (standardized β=-0·103, P=0·032). The model accounted for 40·5 % of the variance in use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
The present study is the first report of psychometrically tested scales to predict use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices. Innovative intervention procedures will need to be designed and tested to reduce ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
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To evaluate whether dispositional mindfulness (defined as the ability to attend nonjudgmentally to one's own physical and mental processes) is associated with obesity and central adiposity.
Study participants (n = 394) were from the New England Family Study, a prospective birth cohort, with median age 47 years. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Central adiposity was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans with primary outcomes android fat mass and android/gynoid ratio. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2).
Multivariable-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that participants with low vs. high MAAS scores were more likely to be obese (prevalence ratio for obesity = 1.34 (95 % confidence limit (CL): 1.02, 1.77)), adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, birth weight, childhood socioeconomic status, and childhood intelligence. Furthermore, participants with low vs. high MAAS level had a 448 (95 % CL 39, 857) g higher android fat mass and a 0.056 (95 % CL 0.003, 0.110) greater android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Prospective analyses demonstrated that participants who were not obese in childhood and became obese in adulthood (n = 154) had -0.21 (95 % CL -0.41, -0.01; p = 0.04) lower MAAS scores than participants who were not obese in childhood or adulthood (n = 203).
Dispositional mindfulness may be inversely associated with obesity and adiposity. Replication studies are needed to adequately establish whether low dispositional mindfulness is a risk factor for obesity and adiposity.
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