Priority pollutant degradation by the facultative methanotroph, Methylocystis strain SB2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2125, USA.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 3.34). 08/2012; 97(11). DOI: 10.1007/s00253-012-4310-y
Methylocystis strain SB2, a facultative methanotroph capable of growth on multi-carbon compounds, was screened for its ability to degrade the priority pollutants 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA), and 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), as well as cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) when grown on methane or ethanol. Methylocystis strain SB2 degraded 1,2-DCA and 1,1,2-TCA when grown on either substrate and cis-DCE when grown on methane. Growth of Methylocystis strain SB2 on methane was inhibited in the presence of all compounds, while only 1,1-DCE and cis-DCE inhibited growth on ethanol. No degradation of any chlorinated hydrocarbon was observed in ethanol-grown cultures when particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) activity was inhibited with the addition of acetylene, indicating that competition for binding to the pMMO between the chlorinated hydrocarbons and methane limited both methanotrophic growth and pollutant degradation when this strain was grown on methane. Characterization of Methylocystis strain SB2 found no evidence of a high-affinity form of pMMO for methane, nor could this strain utilize 1,2-DCA or its putative oxidative products 2-chloroethanol or chloroactetic acid as sole growth substrates, suggesting that this strain lacks appropriate dehydrogenases for the conversion of 1,2-DCA to glyoxylate. As ethanol: (1) can be used as an alternative growth substrate for promoting pollutant degradation by Methylocystis strain SB2 as the pMMO is not required for its growth on ethanol and (2) has been used to enhance the mobility of chlorinated hydrocarbons in situ, it is proposed that ethanol can be used to enhance both pollutant transport and biodegradation by Methylocystis strain SB2.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bioremediation is one of the most effective ways to treat and dispose of chlorinated hydrocarbons, and methanotrophs are potentially useful to do so. Recent studies found that facultative methanotrophs can use compounds containing C-C bond as sources of carbon and energy, thus overcoming the limitation that obligate methanotrophsone uses only C1 compounds for this process. This is a unique metabolic approach that is becoming increasingly attractive in the field of contaminant biodegradation. Here, we summarized the bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by obligate and facultative methanotrophs. This process involves the degradation of various chlorinated hydrocarbons by diverse strains, including pure cultures and mixed cultures. We also compare the activity expression and catalytic properties of different types of methane monooxygenases in various substrates. We furthermore summarize the kinetic characteristics of the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons using the model strain Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, and outline the degradation and potential of chlorinated hydrocarbons by facultative methanotrophs. Lastly, we discuss current problems and future research directions for degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by methanotrophs.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sediment microorganisms play a crucial role in a variety of biogeochemical processes in freshwater ecosystems. The objective of the current study was to investigate the spatial distribution of sediment bacterial community structure in Luoshijiang Wetland, located in Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau (China). Wetland sediments at different sites and depths were collected. Clone library analysis indicates bacterial communities varied with both sampling site and sediment depth. A total of fourteen bacterial phyla were identified in sediment samples, including Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Proteobacteria (mainly Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria) predominated in wetland sediments. Moreover, the proportions of Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadete, and Planctomycetes were significantly correlated with chemical properties.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Methanotrophs could degrade methane and various chlorinated hydrocarbons. The analysis on methane monooxygenase gene cluster sequence would help to understand its catalytic mechanism and enhance the application in pollutants biodegradation. The methanotrophs was enriched and isolated with methane as the sole carbon source in the nitrate mineral salt medium. Then, five chlorinated hydrocarbons were selected as cometabolic substrates to study the biodegradation. The phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA using MEGE5.05 software was constructed to identify the methanotroph strain. The pmoCAB gene cluster encoding particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) was amplified by semi-nested PCR in segments. ExPASy was performed to analyze theoretical molecular weight of the three pMMO subunits. As a result, a strain of methanotroph was isolated. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain belongs to a species of Methylocystis, and it was named as Methylocystis sp. JTC3. The degradation rate of trichloroethylene (TCE) reached 93.79% when its initial concentration was 15.64 μmol/L after 5 days. We obtained the pmoCAB gene cluster of 3 227 bp including pmoC gene of 771 bp, pmoA gene of 759 bp, pmoB gene of 1 260 bp and two noncoding sequences in the middle by semi-nested PCR, T-A cloning and sequencing. The theoretical molecular weight of their corresponding gamma, beta and alpha subunit were 29.1 kDa, 28.6 kDa and 45.6 kDa respectively analyzed using ExPASy tool. The pmoCAB gene cluster of JTC3 was highly identical with that of Methylocystis sp. strain M analyzed by Blast, and pmoA sequences is more conservative than pmoC and pmoB. Finally, Methylocystis sp. JTC3 could degrade TCE efficiently. And the detailed analysis of pmoCAB from Methylocystis sp. JTC3 laid a solid foundation to further study its active sites features and its selectivity to chlorinated hydrocarbon.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.