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Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy in the Management of Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder

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Objective: To compare 2 different treatment approaches, physical therapy modalities, and joint mobilization versus whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) combined with physical therapy modalities and joint mobilization, for symptoms of adhesive capsulitis (AC) of the shoulder. Design: A randomized trial. Setting: Hospital. Participants: Patients with AC of the shoulder (N=30). Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The WBC group received physical therapy modalities, passive joint mobilization of the shoulder, and WBC, whereas the non-WBC group received only physical therapy modalities and passive joint mobilization of the shoulder. Main outcome measures: Visual analog scale (VAS), active range of motion (ROM) of flexion, abduction, internal and external rotation of the shoulder, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: A statistically significant difference between groups was found for the VAS, active ROM of flexion, abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation, and the ASES with greater improvements in the WBC group (Ps<.01). Overall, both groups showed a significant improvement in all outcome measures and ROM measures from pre to post at a level of P<.01. Conclusions: There is significant improvement with the addition of WBC to treatment interventions in this sample of patients.
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FEATURED ARTICLE
Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy in the Management
of Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder
Sang-Yeol Ma, PhD, PT,
a
Hyun Dong Je, PhD,
b
Ji Hoon Jeong, PhD,
b,c
Hae-Young Kim, PhD, DDS,
d,e
Hyeong-Dong Kim, PhD, PT
d,e
From the
a
Department of Physical Therapy, Masan University, Changwon, Gyeongnam;
b
Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy,
Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk;
c
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul;
d
Department of Dental Laboratory Science and Engineering and
e
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science, Korea University,
Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Abstract
Objective: To compare 2 different treatment approaches, physical therapy modalities, and joint mobilization versus whole-body cryotherapy
(WBC) combined with physical therapy modalities and joint mobilization, for symptoms of adhesive capsulitis (AC) of the shoulder.
Design: A randomized trial.
Setting: Hospital.
Participants: Patients with AC of the shoulder (NZ30).
Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The WBC group received physical therapy modalities, passive joint mobilization of
the shoulder, and WBC, whereas the non-WBC group received only physical therapy modalities and passive joint mobilization of the shoulder.
Main Outcome Measures: Visual analog scale (VAS), active range of motion (ROM) of flexion, abduction, internal and external rotation of the
shoulder, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES) were measured before and after the
intervention.
Results: A statistically significant difference between groups was found for the VAS, active ROM of flexion, abduction, internal rotation, and
external rotation, and the ASES with greater improvements in the WBC group (Ps<.01). Overall, both groups showed a significant improvement
in all outcome measures and ROM measures from pre to post at a level of P<.01.
Conclusions: There is significant improvement with the addition of WBC to treatment interventions in this sample of patients.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2013;94:9-16
ª2013 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine
Adhesive capsulitis (AC), also termed frozen shoulder, is the one
of the most common disorders of the shoulder.
1
Motion restriction
and pain can result in a progressive underuse of the affected side
and lead to a gross loss of function.
2,3
A typical pattern of loss of
motion associated with AC is in external rotation, the most
significant loss of motion, followed by abduction, flexion, and
then internal rotation.
4
Although an exact cause of AC is not fully understood,
a variety of clinical conditions and diseases can contribute to the
initiation of AC. These include prolonged immobilization of the
shoulder for different reasons including rotator cuff injuries,
tendinitis and trauma, postsurgical intervention, acute fractures,
missed fractures, dislocations, exacerbation of cervical pain, pain
after overuse, and a multitude of different medical conditions.
5-11
AC is more prevalent in women, those in middle age, and in
persons with diabetes.
12-14
A variety of treatment strategies for AC have been developed to
alleviate pain and enhance range of motion (ROM) of the
shoulder. The mainstay of these is physical therapy, with other
options including chiropractic manipulation, corticosteroids either
through local injection or systemically, manipulation under
general anesthesia, scalene block, surgical intervention (arthro-
scopic and open arthrolysis), and intraarticular injection of fluid
volume.
15-20
Although numerous physical therapy interventions,
No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting
this article has or will confer a benefit on the authors or on any organization with which the authors
are associated.
0003-9993/13/$36 - see front matter ª2013 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2012.07.013
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
journal homepage: www.archives-pmr.org
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2013;94:9-16
such as heat or ice applications, interferential therapy, trans-
cutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, ultrasound, proprioceptive
neuromuscular facilitation techniques, active and/or passive ROM
exercises, muscle strengthening exercises, and joint mobilization
techniques, are used to treat shoulder AC,
21,22
mobilization
techniques, frequently used by physical therapists and manual
therapists, are an important part of the intervention of many
physical therapy programs. Several studies
2,23-25
have found
favorable outcomes after mobilization of the shoulder alone or in
combination with active exercises or local steroid injections. In
those studies, improved ROM of the shoulder, reduction in
shoulder pain, and improvement in shoulder function were
reported. However, in another study comparing manual mobili-
zation in combination with passive stretching (stretching group)
with supportive therapy in addition to exercises within the pain
limits (supervised neglect group), the supervised neglect group
was found to show better outcomes than the stretching group in
regards to shoulder function and the speed of recovery. Although
there is growing interest in the use of these techniques for shoulder
AC, studies to support the use of these treatments are lacking.
Advances in the delivery of cryotherapy have led to broad
application of cold as an anesthetic agent for treatment of ortho-
pedic injuries. Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is a tool admin-
istered with a brief exposure of very cold air in minimal clothing
that is maintained at 110Cto140C, generally for 2 to 3
minutes on the surface of the body in a special temperature-
controlled chamber to treat symptoms of various diseases.
26
Whole-body cryostimulation is usually performed once a day
for 10 days, although research regarding frequency is sparse.
27
WBC has been found to decrease skin temperature abruptly
(.38C decrease in sublingual temperature during a temperature
of 100C WBC in 90s),
28
possibly reducing pain and inflam-
matory symptoms with fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic
low back pain, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
29,30
Whatever technique used, the main physiologic responses of the
human body to cold temperatures consist of changes in the
circulatory system (concentration of blood vessels in the skin
followed by their dilation and congestion of the skin),
31
neuro-
muscular system (reduction of nerve conduction velocity and
muscle tension),
32
endocrine system (increase in adrenocortico-
tropin concentration, b-endorphins, epinephrine, norepinephrine,
and testosterone concentration in men),
33-36
and immunologic
system (increase in cell-mediated and humoral immunity).
33,37-40
Studies of physiologic changes after human body exposures to
WBC have shown changes in antioxidant/prooxidant balance in
blood,
41,42
and an anti-inflammatory
43
and analgesic effect.
44
It is
believed that increased b-endorphin concentration combined with
decreased nerve conduction in afferent fibers, which are respon-
sible for pain reception, cause analgesic effect.
34,44
Such complex
reactions of WBC on the human body could have a positive effect
on the rate of postinjury recovery after conservative AC treatment
and reinforce the usefulness of WBC in rehabilitation. Although
there has been a growing interest in WBC in rehabilitation,
management of AC of the shoulder with WBC has never been
investigated. WBC was first introduced toward the end of the
2000s in a few hospitals in South Korea.
Other physical therapy interventions, such as thermal and
electrical modalities, are used to relieve pain and increase physical
function in patients with AC, and more recently they have been
considered as adjuncts to the medical and physical therapy
management of the pathologies frequently seen by those special-
izing in musculoskeletal injury. Thermotherapy, such as a moist
heating pad and ultrasound, is the application of heat to the body
to relieve pain related to musculoskeletal injuries.
45
Interferential
current therapy is also commonly used by physical therapists to
reduce pain.
46-48
However, there is insufficient evidence to support
or refute the effectiveness of physical agents, such as thermal and
electrical modalities, combined with other physical therapy
interventions for AC.
The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the
most appropriate recovery strategy for shoulder AC. To do so, this
study compares 2 different treatment approaches (physical therapy
modalities and joint mobilization vs WBC combined with physical
therapy modalities and joint mobilization) on symptoms of AC. It
is hypothesized that the addition of WBC to physical therapy
modalities and joint mobilization for patients with AC is more
effective in reducing pain and disability than physical therapy and
joint mobilization alone.
Methods
This study was a single-blinded randomized trial, where the
investigator who performed the tests was blinded from group
assignments and from the randomization procedures. A total of 30
patients with AC of the shoulder ranging in age from 47 to 66 with
an average age SD of 57.26.6 years participated in this study,
including 24 women (80%) and 6 men (20%). They were treated
between August 2009 and January 2010 at the outpatient clinic of
the department of physical therapy at the local hospital. Thirty
subjects were randomly assigned to either the WBC group (nZ15)
or the non-WBC group (nZ15) based on the treatment allocation
that was stored in consecutively numbered, opaque sealed enve-
lopes to ensure concealment. The treatment allocation was
generated by an administrative assistant. Visual analog scale
(VAS) scores, active ROM measures, and the American Shoulder
and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form
(ASES) scores were obtained at baseline and 4 weeks after
randomization by a physical therapist not associated with
recruitment and intervention. Subjects were instructed not to
discuss any contents of their treatments with the assessor at
reassessment in order to maintain assessor blinding.
The WBC group received physical therapy modalities, passive
joint mobilization, and WBC, whereas the non-WBC group
received only physical therapy modalities and passive joint
mobilization. In both groups, the right shoulder was involved in
23 patients (77%) and the left shoulder in 7 (23%). In order to be
included in the study, subjects with AC were required to fulfill the
following inclusion criteria: (1) aged over 18 years and with an
AC diagnosis; (2) have had at least a 3-month history of pain and
stiffness of the shoulder; (3) have shown global restriction of
active and passive ROM of the shoulder concomitant with at least
25% loss of range in at least 2 motions of the shoulder, as
compared with the contralateral side; (4) not have had any
List of abbreviations:
AC adhesive capsulitis
ADL activities of daily living
ASES American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized
Shoulder Assessment Form
ROM range of motion
VAS visual analog scale
WBC whole-body cryotherapy
10 S-Y Ma et al
www.archives-pmr.org
previous mobilization, manipulation, or arthroscopy; (5) have
demonstrated at least mild pain at the extreme of all motions of
the shoulder because of AC, constituting a 3 point on a 10 point
VA S
49,50
; and (6) did not have pathologic radiographic findings.
Plain film radiographs of the affected shoulder were obtained in all
cases, and the images of the radiographs indicated no abnormality
of the affected shoulder in all participants. All subjects reported
previous treatments including oral medication and physical
therapy interventions, except for manual therapy.
We excluded subjects with a history of type 1 or 2 diabetes
mellitus, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease or cardio-
vascular disease, a history of any previous disorders of the
affected shoulder, a history of trauma to the distal part of the
affected limb (eg, elbow, forearm, wrist, or hand), a previous
shoulder surgery or recent fracture of the proximal humerus on the
same side, any known shoulder problems affecting shoulder ROM
(eg, rotator cuff tear or residual tear after repair), shoulder dislo-
cation, and significant glenohumeral arthritis, reflex sympathetic
dystrophy, previous stroke with motor deficits, previous distension
of the affected shoulder, severe neurologic deficit of the affected
limb, extreme muscular size or morbid obesity, and cold
hypersensitivity.
We recruited all subjects by referral from an orthopedic
surgeon working in the hospital where the current study was
performed. All patients were screened by the same orthopedic
surgeon and a physical therapist, who had 10 years of clinical
experience, prior to inclusion in the study, and to address any
questions regarding the study. Prior to the study, all subjects
provided written informed consent, and the ethics committee of
the local hospital approved the study. Subject characteristics and
primary diagnosis are summarized in table 1.
The 2 groups were assessed using a VAS, active ROMs of
flexion, abduction, internal and external rotation of the shoulder,
and the ASES. The measurements were done prior to the start of
intervention and again after 4 weeks. Numerical pain intensity on
a typical day secondary to AC was rated using a 10-point VAS
with a score of 0 (no shoulder pain during a typical day) to 10
(worst possible shoulder pain during a typical day). The VAS has
a test-retest reliability of .60 to .70
51
and a concurrent validity of
.76 to .84.
51
Previous studies have reported that the responsiveness
of the VAS for shoulder pain was moderate to good.
52,53
Active ROMs of flexion, abduction, and internal and external
rotation of the shoulder were measured with each patient in
a supine position using a conventional goniometer at pre- and
postintervention, in accordance with the guidelines of the Amer-
ican Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.
54
These shoulder
measurements using a goniometer have been found to be highly
reliable when performed by the same physical therapist.
55
Reduced ability to manage activities in everyday life secondary
to AC was estimated using the 30-point ASES (30 Zno limitation
of activities of daily living [ADL]; 0 Zunable to participate in
ADL).
56
The ASES score was determined by the patient, who
rated 10 items, each ranging from 0 (unable to perform the
activity) to 3 (no difficulty in performance of the activity). The
ASES has a test-retest reliability coefficient of .86
56
and
a convergent validity of .66 to .86.
56
The interventions were comprised of modalities/joint mobili-
zation combined with WBC or modalities/joint mobilization
alone. Hot packs, electrotherapy, and ultrasound were delivered to
both groups in order to reduce pain. Both modalities and mobi-
lization took place 3 times per week over a 4-week period
(12 sessions in total). The first session of cryostimulation
(12 sessions in total and delivered in the morning) was done after
modalities/mobilization, and the second session of cryo-
stimulation (12 sessions in total and delivered in the afternoon)
was completed after modalities/mobilization/first cryostimulation
on days they were done together.
Heat pack therapy was delivered for 15 minutes to provide
superficial heating to the patients, followed by 5 minutes of
ultrasound treatment (SM-250
a
), using a 1MHz, 5-cm
2
sound head
at an intensity of 1.5W/cm
2
in continuous mode and 15 minutes of
interferential current treatment (SM-850P
a
) at an intensity of
25mA before administration of mobilization.
Shoulder mobilization was performed for 10 minutes after the
heat and stimulation. Mobilization techniques include ante-
roposterior glide, inferior glide of the glenohumeral joint and
anterior, posterior, and inferior capsule stretch of the gleno-
humeral joint, and distraction of the scapulothoracic joint. To
perform the anteroposterior glide of the humerus, the treating
clinician’s hand was placed over the humerus near the axilla,
while the other hand was placed around the humerus above and
near the lateral aspect of the elbow. The clinician then glided the
humeral head anteriorly and posteriorly, keeping the patient’s arm
parallel to the body. To perform the inferior glide of the shoulder,
the clinician grasped the patient’s elbow with 1 hand and palpated
with the other hand the distal spine of the scapula posteriorly and
below the distal clavicle anteriorly over the humeral head. The
clinician then pulled the humeral head inferiorly, while monitoring
to see whether the humeral head moved distally in the glenoid
cavity. To perform the anteroposterior glide of the humerus, the
clinician abducted the patient’s arm to 45and grasped the
humerus with 1 hand near the elbow, stabilizing the lateral aspect
of the elbow with the other hand. The clinician then applied
forward/backward force while maintaining abduction.
In order to perform the anterior capsule stretch, with the
patients’ arm abducted the clinician grasped the proximal humerus
medially while stabilizing the force arm with the other hand. The
clinician then rotated the humerus externally while gliding the
humeral head anteriorly. To perform the posterior capsule stretch,
with the arm in 90of flexion and elbow flexion, the clinician
grasped the elbow and cradled the forearm while stabilizing the
lateral scapular border with the wrist. The clinician then stretched
the glenohumeral joint into horizontal adduction. To perform the
inferior capsule stretch, with the arm in end-range abduction, the
clinician placed the volar wrist of 1 hand over the lateral border of
the scapula to stabilize, while grasping the humerus with the other
hand above the elbow. The clinician then provided stretch into
abduction. For scapular distraction, the treating clinician
Table 1 Study subject characteristics
Characteristic
WBC Group
(nZ15)
Non-WBC Group
(nZ15)
Sex, no. of female (%) 13 (87) 11 (73)
Age (y) 56.16.3 54.96.7
Height (cm) 162.26.8 164.27.2
Weight (kg) 64.56.7 61.89.6
Affected shoulder side,
no. of right side (%)
12 (80) 11 (73)
Duration of symptoms (wk) 4.31.2 5.31.5
NOTE. Values are mean SD or as otherwise indicated.
Whole-body cryotherapy and adhesive capsulitis 11
www.archives-pmr.org
positioned the participant prone on the treatment table with the
forearm behind the back, and then placed the index finger of 1
hand under the medial scapular border while the other hand
grasped the superior scapular border. The clinician then distracted
the scapula from the thorax.
The above-mentioned mobilization techniques were applied
with intensity of grades III and IV according to Maitland’s
description of the grades of joint movement.
57
Mobilization was
performed by a physical therapist trained in manual therapy, and
the subjects were asked to report to the physical therapist about
pain during and after treatment.
Prior to the start of WBC, all participants were examined by
a physician for any contraindications against cryostimulation. Just
before each session of WBC, the participant’s systolic and dia-
stolic blood pressure were measured in order to check for the most
common contraindication, high blood pressure. Accepted blood
pressure ranges for participation for systolic blood pressure was of
120mmHg or less, and for diastolic blood pressure was 80mmHg
or less. The WBC group underwent six 4-minute exposures per
week (twice a day, 3 times per week) over 4 consecutive weeks
(24 visits in total) in a specially designed temperature-controlled
unit
b
consisting of 2 chambers with different temperatures
(50and 110C). Just before entering the cryogenic chamber,
the participants thoroughly dried their bodies to eliminate
a sensation of cold. During exposures, in order to prevent frostbite,
all subjects were instructed to wear cap, earband, triple layer
gloves, dry socks, and shoes in the chambers; to slightly move
their fingers, arms, and legs by walking; and avoid breath holding.
All subjects breathed through a surgical mask to protect the upper
airways. The men wore shorts while women wore bathing suits.
Each subject was exposed to the first prechamber (50C) for
1-minute before entering the therapy chamber (110C). Each
subject was exposed to the therapy chamber for 2.5 minutes, and
after this each subject was exposed to the prechamber (50C)
again for 0.5 minutes. Microphones and camera were used to
maintain contact with subjects throughout the treatment. After the
WBC session, subjects were instructed to walk in a temperate
room (24C) at their normal and comfortable pace for approxi-
mately 10 minutes. The temperature in each chamber remained
constant during the period of treatment (50C and 110C), and
the air in the chambers was dry and clear.
All subjects completed all of the sessions, and no one was seen
any less than 12 visits in the modalities/mobilization group and no
less than the 24 visits in the WBC group. No illness or side effects
occurred during the experiment. Subjects were allowed to
continue taking medications for control of pain if they had started
taking them prior to enrollment. All subjects were advised to
avoid all other interventions or training or sporting activities
associated with the shoulder. Both groups were also instructed to
avoid any activities or movements that may have provoked
shoulder pain or could have contributed to shoulder symptoms.
Data analysis
The sample size (15 subjects per group) was determined under the
assumption that the analysis had approximately 83% power to
detect approximately 1.1 SD difference in mean changes of
measured variables between 2 groups at a significance level .05.
Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat principle; thus,
all available data from all subjects were included in the analysis.
Analysis of covariance using a regression model, which controls
for initial differences of the variable examined between the 2
groups based on a pretest measure, was used to compare the
changes of outcome measures in pain, ROMs, and the ASES
between the 2 groups at discharge. A paired ttest was used to
examine the differences within each treatment group between
preintervention and discharge variables. The Pvalue of <.05 was
considered statistically significant. Dependent variables included
VAS, active ROMs of flexion, abduction, internal and external
rotation of the shoulder, and the ASES scores. The software
package SPSS 14.0 KO
c
was used for statistical analyses.
Results
Each group followed its own protocol, and all subjects completed
initial and posttreatment active ROMs of the shoulder, VAS, and
the ASES assessments. There were no outliers in all scores
measured, and data from all subjects were used in the statistical
analysis. At baseline, the participants showed ROM restriction in
flexion, abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation of the
shoulder and moderate to high pain scores as well as low ASES
scores. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the
baseline preintervention scores in all measured parameters
between the 2 groups (table 2).
After the treatment, all participants reported a clinically
meaningful improvement in measured ROMs of the shoulder,
pain, and function (tables 2 and 3). A comparison between pre-
and postintervention showed a statistically significant improve-
ment for both groups in all measured movement directions, such
as flexion, abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation, and
VAS scores, as well as the ASES scores (Ps<.01).
As the interaction terms between the preintervention scores
and experimental groups were not statistically significant in full
factorial models for all the outcomes (P>.05), main effect models
were applied and statistically significant differences were found in
all outcome measures between the 2 groups. VAS scores
(F
1,27
Z57.86, P<.01) and all measured ROMs, such as flexion
(F
1,27
Z44.08, P<.01), abduction (F
1,27
Z55.94, P<.01), internal
rotation (F
1,27
Z51.62, P<.01), and external rotation (F
1,27
Z33.1,
P<.01), as well as the ASES scores (F
1,27
Z83.88, P<.01) in the
WBC group were significantly better than those in the non-WBC
group at postmeasurement. For the WBC group, the mean ROM
scores SD of flexion, abduction, internal rotation, and external
rotation were 1625.3, 1585.3, 532.7, and 802.6, respec-
tively, at discharge were significantly greater than the non-WBC
group (see table 2). Moreover, the mean pain score SD of the
WBC group was 2.50.5 of 10 at discharge, which was signifi-
cantly lower than the non-WBC (see table 3). Finally, the mean
ASES score SD was significantly greater for the WBC group
(241.4) when compared with the other group (see table 3). More
details concerning the outcomes after treatment in both groups for
measured dependent variables are provided in tables 2 and 3.
Discussion
This study compared the effectiveness of 2 different treatment
strategies for AC of the shoulder: WBC in combination with
modalities and joint mobilization versus modalities and joint
mobilization alone. Both treatments improved ROM, pain, and
shoulder function after 4 weeks of treatment. The results of this
study also confirmed the hypothesis that the addition of WBC to
modalities and mobilization is more effective than modalities and
12 S-Y Ma et al
www.archives-pmr.org
mobilization alone. Pain, ROM, and the ASES scores reflected
a better outcome for the WBC group than the non-WBC group.
AC of the shoulder has been shown to be a self-limiting
disease, which develops over a period of 6 months and may last
approximately 24 months, then gradually disappear.
58-60
Untreated AC of the shoulder resolves after 12 to 42 months
(mean duration of the disease: 30mo).
61
Because subjects from the
current study had symptoms for at least 3 months, recovery seen
after 1 month of intervention may contribute to modalities/
mobilization or a combination of modalities/mobilization and
WBC rather than the natural history of the condition. However,
because there was no control group in this study, we do not know
for certain that the improvement was not because of natural
progress of the condition or because of any other factors. For
ethical reasons, we did not include a nontreatment group.
Because of a poor understanding of the pathophysiology of AC
of the shoulder, management is generally directed at relief of pain
and improvement of shoulder function. Nonsurgical treatment is
often the first line of management for AC of the shoulder, and the
success rate is high.
62,63
Physical therapy is the foundation of
shoulder problem treatment.
As expected, in both groups, the intervention brought major
changes to ROM, pain, and function. At discharge of the study, the
mean ROM increases were between 9and 38, with the flexion
showing the largest improvement, whereas the external rotation
improved by 9. The improvement of 4 motions (flexion, abduc-
tion, internal rotation, and external rotation) after both treatments
seems clinically interesting, with values representing 12% to 43%
of the overall improvement. The average improvements in flexion
(38), abduction (34), internal rotation (15), and external rota-
tion (9) are greater than the cited error of measurement ranging
from 5to 7.
64,65
The gain in ROM is probably related to the
decrease in pain and the treatment effect of joint mobilization. The
pain and the ASES also improved by 48% (decreased from 6 to
3.1 in the VAS score) and 76% (increased from 12.5 to 22 in the
ASES score), respectively, and these changes were more marked
than for the changes in ROM. A previous study
66
reported that in
the shoulder pain and disability index, a change greater than 10%
is considered clinically important. Previous studies
2,67
reported
improvement of ROMs and VAS pain scores of the shoulder joint
with joint mobilization in patients with AC.
Several possible explanations are suggested for the anatomical,
mechanical, and neurophysiologic effects of the joint mobilization
technique on AC of the shoulder. Mobilization techniques induce
rheologic changes in synovial fluid and increase the exchange
between synovial fluid and cartilage matrix, and also enhance
synovial fluid turnover. As a result of these changes in the joint,
joint mobility is maintained or increased.
68
In addition, mobili-
zation techniques have also been demonstrated to produce
mechanical changes, such as breaking-up of adhesions, realign-
ment of collagen, or enhancement of fiber gliding when stress of
specific movements are directed toward specific parts of the
capsular tissue.
69
Furthermore, joint mobilization techniques are
assumed to stimulate peripheral mechanoreceptors and inhibit
nociceptors.
69-71
Of particular interest, we were unable to find any reports in the
literature of investigations of the effectiveness of a combined
treatment of mobilization and modalities with WBC as an inter-
vention for AC of the shoulder. We were also unable to find any
article reporting on a comparison of a modalities/mobilization and
a combined treatment of a modalities/mobilization and WBC. To
our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the clinical
Table 2 Changes in mean SD scores of shoulder mobility, differences within groups, and differences between groups
Parameter Group Before Intervention*Range Discharge Range P
y
Flexion WBC
z
1166.7 106e128 1625.3 153e168 <.01
Non-WBC
z
1197.7 103e130 1495.9 140e160
Abduction WBC
z
1176.4 105e125 1585.3 151e167 <.01
Non-WBC
z
1198.0 103e128 1455.4 137e156
Internal rotation WBC
z
342.1 31e37 532.7 48e58 <.01
Non-WBC
z
342.1 30e36 443.3 38e51
External rotation WBC
z
692.9 64e74 802.6 73e84 <.01
Non-WBC
z
692.8 64e72 752.3 71e78
NOTES. Units are in degrees. For each group, nZ15.
* No significant differences (P>.05) between the WBC group and the non-WBC group before intervention for all measurements.
y
Pobtained by analysis of covariance for comparison of postintervention scores of 2 groups under adjustment of baseline scores.
z
Significant change (P<.01) within the groups (WBC and non-WBC) at discharge compared with before intervention by paired ttest.
Table 3 Changes in mean SD scores on the VAS and ASES for each group, differences within groups, and differences between groups
Parameter Group Before Intervention*Range Discharge Range P
y
VAS WBC
z
6.00.7 5e7 2.50.5 2e3<.01
Non-WBC
z
6.00.8 5e7 3.70.6 3e5<.01
ASES WBC
z
121.4 9e14 241.4 22e27 <.01
Non-WBC
z
131.6 9e14 201.2 18e22 <.01
NOTE. For each group, nZ15.
* No significant differences (P>.05) between the WBC group and the non-WBC group before intervention for all measurements.
y
Pobtained by analysis of covariance for comparison of postintervention scores of 2 groups under adjustment of baseline scores.
z
Significant change (P<.01) within the group (WBC and non-WBC) at discharge compared with before intervention by paired ttest.
Whole-body cryotherapy and adhesive capsulitis 13
www.archives-pmr.org
evidence base in support of WBC for treatment of AC of the
shoulder. In the present study, after exposure of repeated WBC in
addition to modalities/joint mobilization, the WBC group showed
greater improvement in pain, ROM of the shoulder, and the ASES
scores than the non-WBC group.
WBC conferred added benefit to modalities/joint mobilization
in the management of shoulder pain and restriction. The absolute
differences in outcome measures between the 2 treatment strate-
gies were 5to 16in ROM, 1.2 score in pain, and 4 scores in the
ASES. When considering the design of the study and its power
calculation, we assumed that 15% to 20% differences in
improvement in the variables measured would be clinically
significant, and this magnitude of the treatment effect was ach-
ieved in the present study. Differences in improvement in all
outcome measures between the 2 treatment strategies were 53% in
flexion, 58% in abduction, 90% in internal rotation, 83% in
external rotation, 32% in the VAS, and 20% in the ASES. We
found that the clinical improvement in the WBC group was
considerable. Therefore, for patients with AC presenting pain and
restriction, the addition of WBC to modalities and joint mobili-
zation could be the preferred treatment strategy.
A number of mechanisms induce the observed changes in
patients with AC of the shoulder. One potential candidate could be
that the WBC produces local analgesic effects by a lessening of
nerve transmission over a large area of the body, combined with an
increased endorphine concentration, reducing the perception of
pain.
72,73
Previous studies
74,75
suggested that in order to produce
local analgesia in cryotherapy, skin temperature needs to be below
13.6C, when nerve conduction and acetylcholine formation
become suppressed. This temperature was achieved in the
extremities and in the back during the WBC of 2 minutes
at 110C (2.5min of WBC exposure at 110C in the current
study), but not in the hands and feet, which were covered by
gloves and socks.
76
Skin temperature recorded in the calf muscle
was 9.043.78C immediately after WBC.
77
Thus, it is possible
that this mechanism may be responsible for alleviating pain
further after the addition of WBC to modalities and mobilization.
Another possible explanation for the beneficial pain-alleviating
effects of WBC might be cold-induced increase in norepinephrine
from both peripheral nerve endings and brain nuclei released by
sympathetic stimulation during the exposure of WBC.
78,79
Previous studies
80-82
demonstrated that spinal administration of
norepinephrine in experimental animals and epidural injections of
an adrenoreceptor agonist in humans, reduced pain. Thus, cold-
induced increase in norepinephrine may therefore have a role in
pain alleviation in the spinal cord where pain afferents from skin
terminate.
80-82
Moreover, sustained noradrenaline stimulation
caused by accelerated elimination of triiodothyronine and acti-
vation of the sympathetic nervous system during long-term cold
exposure and repeated WBC could relieve pain and induce an
increased sense of well-being.
83
Study limitations
This study has a number of limitations. No control group was
included in the study. Without a control group, it was difficult to
determine the exact contribution of the treatment to the measured
changes. Placebo effect or spontaneous resolution cannot be
dissociated from the treatment effect. In addition, the participants
in the current study had a much greater external rotation than
internal rotation, which is not a typical capsular pattern of the
shoulder in which the most limited range occurs in external
rotation. This can be explained by the measurement of active
ROM of the shoulder instead of passive ROM in the current study.
A capsular restriction is always a passive constraint and not just an
active constraint, and in most studies, most reliable data for
goniometric measurements were done with passive ROM not
active ROM. Moreover, the multimodal approach, including
physical therapy modalities with joint mobilization and WBC, was
used in the current study. Thus, it is unknown whether each
component of the intervention is effective. The study sample
consisted of a small homogeneous sample of patients with idio-
pathic AC of the shoulder; thus, our findings cannot be generalized
to the whole population with various stages of AC of the shoulder.
Finally, no follow-up data were collected. It was not possible to
determine the long-term outcomes of the intervention.
Conclusions
The findings of the present study provide significant evidence in
support of the efficacy of a multimodal treatment approach using
physical therapy modalities, joint mobilization, and WBC or
physical therapy modalities and joint mobilization alone in
management of AC of the shoulder. The statistics also suggest that
the addition of WBC to modalities and joint manipulation proved
to be more effective in improvement of ROM of the shoulder,
pain, and the ASES than modalities and mobilization alone. It is
our opinion that a well-designed randomized controlled trial using
a larger patient population and follow-up is warranted, in order to
further enhance these conclusions regarding effectiveness of 2
multimodal treatment approaches for AC of the shoulder.
Suppliers
a. SamsonMed, 130, Donghwa, Gongdan-ro, Munmak-eup,
Wongju-si, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea, 220-805.
b. Deluxe-2000; Cryomeditec, 963, Sewoori Bldg, Doonsandong,
Seo-gu, Doonsandong, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 302-120.
c. SPSS Korea Data Solution Inc., Level 3 Samjung Bldg., Yuksam-
Dong, Kangnam-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 135-513.
Keywords
Bursitis; Rehabilitation; Shoulder
Corresponding author
Hyeong-Dong Kim, PhD, PT, Dept of Physical Therapy, College
of Health Science, Korea University, #1 Jeongneung 3-dong,
Sungbuk-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 136-703. E-mail address:
hdkimx0286@yahoo.com.
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16 S-Y Ma et al
www.archives-pmr.org
... A variety of studies (Ma et al., 2013;Giemza et al., 2015;Romanowski and Straburzynska-Lupa, 2020) have found favorable outcomes in the improvement of range of motion (ROM) and flexibility after one or multiple cryo-exposures. Ma et al. (2013) studied the effects of a cycle of 24 WBC sessions (3 min, −110 • C) on the active ROM of flexion, abduction, internal, and external rotation of the shoulder in subjects suffering from adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. ...
... A variety of studies (Ma et al., 2013;Giemza et al., 2015;Romanowski and Straburzynska-Lupa, 2020) have found favorable outcomes in the improvement of range of motion (ROM) and flexibility after one or multiple cryo-exposures. Ma et al. (2013) studied the effects of a cycle of 24 WBC sessions (3 min, −110 • C) on the active ROM of flexion, abduction, internal, and external rotation of the shoulder in subjects suffering from adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. The authors divided 30 patients into two groups: the WBC group received physical therapy modalities, passive joint mobilization of the shoulder, and cryostimulation, whereas the control group received only physical therapy modalities and passive join mobilization of the shoulder. ...
... A variety of studies (Ma et al., 2013;Giemza et al., 2015;Romanowski and Straburzynska-Lupa, 2020) have found favorable outcomes in the improvement of range of motion (ROM) and flexibility after one or multiple cryo-exposures. Ma et al. (2013) studied the effects of a cycle of 24 WBC sessions (3 min, −110 • C) on the active ROM of flexion, abduction, internal, and external rotation of the shoulder in subjects suffering from adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. ...
... A variety of studies (Ma et al., 2013;Giemza et al., 2015;Romanowski and Straburzynska-Lupa, 2020) have found favorable outcomes in the improvement of range of motion (ROM) and flexibility after one or multiple cryo-exposures. Ma et al. (2013) studied the effects of a cycle of 24 WBC sessions (3 min, −110 • C) on the active ROM of flexion, abduction, internal, and external rotation of the shoulder in subjects suffering from adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. The authors divided 30 patients into two groups: the WBC group received physical therapy modalities, passive joint mobilization of the shoulder, and cryostimulation, whereas the control group received only physical therapy modalities and passive join mobilization of the shoulder. ...
... A variety of studies (Ma et al., 2013;Giemza et al., 2015;Romanowski and Straburzynska-Lupa, 2020) have found favorable outcomes in the improvement of range of motion (ROM) and flexibility after one or multiple cryo-exposures. Ma et al. (2013) studied the effects of a cycle of 24 WBC sessions (3 min, −110 • C) on the active ROM of flexion, abduction, internal, and external rotation of the shoulder in subjects suffering from adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. ...
... A variety of studies (Ma et al., 2013;Giemza et al., 2015;Romanowski and Straburzynska-Lupa, 2020) have found favorable outcomes in the improvement of range of motion (ROM) and flexibility after one or multiple cryo-exposures. Ma et al. (2013) studied the effects of a cycle of 24 WBC sessions (3 min, −110 • C) on the active ROM of flexion, abduction, internal, and external rotation of the shoulder in subjects suffering from adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. The authors divided 30 patients into two groups: the WBC group received physical therapy modalities, passive joint mobilization of the shoulder, and cryostimulation, whereas the control group received only physical therapy modalities and passive join mobilization of the shoulder. ...
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Recovery after exercise is a crucial key in preventing muscle injures and in speeding up processes to return at the homeostasis level. There are several ways of developing a recovery strategy with the use of different kinds of traditional and up-to date techniques. The use of cold has traditionally been used after physical exercise for recovery purposes. In the recent years, the use of whole-body cryotherapy/cryostimulation (an extreme cold stimulation lasting 1-4 min and given in a cold room at a temperature comprised from -60 to -195°C) has tremendously increased for such purposes. However, there are controversies about the benefits that the use of this technique may provide. Therefore, this paper describes what is whole body cryotherapy/cryostimulation, reviews and debates the benefits that its use may provide, presents practical considerations and applications, and emphasizes the need of customization depending on the context, the purpose, and the subject characteristics. This review is written by international experts from the working group on whole body cryotherapy/cryostimulation from the International Institute of Refrigeration.
... According to this, all criteria were achieved by two studies [45,56]. Seven studies managed to avoid contamination and cointerventions and thereby reduced confounding results by asking the subjects not to undergo any adjuvant interventions for the duration of the study [1,40,45,54,56,60,67]. The rest of the studies did not discuss the avoidance of co-interventions or contaminations. ...
... BVA combined with physiotherapy remained clinically effective in terms of functional status after one year, which demonstrates the long term effects in improving the quality of life in patients with adhesive capsulitis. The addition of whole body cryotherapy (WBC) to physiotherapy modalities and passive joint mobilization was found to be more effective in improving all outcomes [40]. Doner et al. [41] studied the efficacy of the Mulligan technique combined with hot packs and trans-cutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis with at a three month follow up and found superior effects compared to stretching exercises. ...
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BACKGROUND: Adhesive capsulitis is a debilitating condition which causes the capsule of the gleno-humeral joint to thicken and contract progressively. The effectiveness of various non-operative methods has been demonstrated to improve the pain, range of motion (ROM) and functional status of patients with adhesive capsulitis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to review recent evidence on the efficacy of physiotherapy interventions in the treatment of adhesive capsulitis. METHODS: PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Science Direct and Cochrane databases were searched for studies published since 2013. The search terms included: Frozen shoulder, adhesive capsulitis, physical therapy, rehabilitation, manual therapy, mobilization, exercise, education, and electrotherapy. The search was limited to studies published in English and studies that used human subjects. RESULTS: Quality scores of 33 articles were reviewed according to the Sackett’s critical appraisal criteria and the grades of recommendation were determined for physiotherapy interventions used in the studies. CONCLUSION: The empirical evidence suggests that certain physical therapy techniques and modalities are strongly recommended for pain relief, improvement of ROM, and functional status in patients with adhesive capsulitis, while others are either moderately or mildly recommended. However, the efficacy of one treatment modality over another is uncertain. The poor methodological rigors demonstrated in most of the reviewed studies emphasize the urgent need of properly conducted, adequately sampled randomized controlled trials with adequate follow up to determine the superior combination of treatment. Keywords: Bursitis, exercise, outcome assessment, pain, physical therapy modalities, range of motion, adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder
... Patients with Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) or frozen shoulder, associated with shoulder pain and stiffness underwent a WBC program (Ma et al., 2013). Statistically significant improvement in shoulder mobility, reduced pain intensity levels, as well as the ability to carry out every day activities were observed. ...
... Another potential bias could come from differences in the populations examined. Amateur marathon runners and non-training (Szymura et al., 2018), participants with MCI (Rymaszewska et al., 2018) patients with AC of the shoulder (Ma et al., 2013) patients with seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis (Gizińska et al., 2015;Missmann et al., 2016) women with lumbar spondyloarthrosis (Kulis et al., 2017) chronic low back pain (Nugraha et al., 2015;Giemza et al., 2014Giemza et al., , 2015, patients with glucocorticoids (Straub et al., 2009), patients with Adhesive Capsulitis (Szymura et al., 2018), patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (Happe et al., 2016), Multiple Sclerosis patients (Miller et al., 2016) may not reflect the ailments of an aging populations. ...
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In this review we examine studies exploring the effects of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) from the perspective of applications with age with subjects over the age of 55 years old. Blood based factors such as Erythropoietin and Il-3 increased in exercised trained and normal subjects after WBC while other parameters did not change. WBC treatment of patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis decreased levels of the inflammatory markers IL-6 and TNF-α with a in the elasticity of erythrocytes. In older subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) a significant improvement of short-term memory was noted with reduced levels of IL-6 with an increase in BDNF release when whole blood was challenged with Aβ42. WBC appears to be an exciting non-pharmacological treatments with pleiotropic action. It has potential in enhancing performance and alleviating chronic conditions in older subjects as part of an active rest programme in combination with regular physical exercise. In conditions associated with cognitive dysfunction including Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia the many properties of WBC as an affordable treatment has exciting therapeutic potential.
... Adhesive capsulitis is a symptom of frozen shoulder and can cause stiffness and pain in the shoulder joint, decreasing S252 C. Park et al. / Comparative accuracy of a shoulder range motion measurement sensor and Vicon 3D the ability to move the arm in a range of multidirectional motions [1,2]. Physical therapy is necessary for patients who demonstrate limited ROM or movement because of conditions such as frozen shoulder and adhesive capsulitis [3][4][5][6]. However, there are limitations to physical therapy, and it is difficult to measure the ROM of the shoulder every day. ...
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Background: Although patients with frozen shoulders have the range of motion (ROM) of their shoulder's abduction movements measured at hospital and the physical therapy visits, multiple visits to check for progress is often difficult. Thus, we developed an artificial intelligence-based image recognition detectable sensor (AIRDS) intended for easy use at home. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of a sensor (AIRDS) measuring shoulder abduction angle, thus offering a valid and feasible system for monitoring patients with frozen shoulder. Methods: Ten patients with frozen shoulder (5 males, 5 females) performed shoulder joint movements while being measured with the AIRDS system and the 3-dimensional Vicon system. The measure of the outcome included the linear regression of the shoulder abduction joint kinematics. Results: Linear regression analysis of the AIRDS system and the Vicon system demonstrated a significant correlation coefficient of R2= 0.9979 (P< 0.05). Conclusions: Our results provide novel, promising evidence that AIRDS can accurately measure the timing and total spatial characteristics of clinical movements. AIRDS is designed to provide real-time ROM measurements for joint mobility using artificial intelligence instead of the judgement of the physical therapist.
... из прочих нехирургических методов лечения используется криотерапия всего тела при температуре воздуха от -110 °C до -140 °C в течение 2-3 минут. предполагается наличие противовоспалительного и обезболивающего действия процедуры на организм [28,44]. ...
Article
The article presents a current view of the etiology and pathogenesis of, adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder joint and the basic principles of conservative and surgical treatmen. Idiopathic adhesive shoulder capsulitis is a self-limiting disease with gradual improvement in symptoms, sometimes demanding surgical treatment. Currently, the role of both inflammatory and fibrotizing processes in the pathogenesis of adhesive capsulitis is generally recognized, when the inflammatory process ultimately leads to fibrotic changes. The disease is associated with diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, autoimmune diseases, and Dupuytren’s contracture. In theliterature there isno consensus on the unified treatment modality for adhesive capsulitis: conservative, operative, or combined. In a number of patients, improvement is achieved spontaneously, the recommended methods of treatment range from follow-up to invasive open capsulotomy. There is no universal treatment algorithm, so treatment should be individualized. By all accounts, conservative treatment is the first treatment of choice for adhesive capsulitis and includes physical therapy in combination with physiotherapy, anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injection, and hydrodilation. Surgical treatment of adhesive capsulitis is indicated for patients with persistent symptoms of the disease and ineffectiveness of conservative treatment. Surgical treatment includes manipulation under anesthesia and / or shoulder capsulotomy (arthroscopic or open). Treatment of adhesive shoulder capsulitis remains an unresolved clinical problem. The existing treatment regimens are not universal and further studies with long-term outcomes are needed to develop more effective treatment modality.
Article
Background: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (AC) is characterized by fibrosis and contracture of the glenohumeral joint capsule, resulting in progressive stiffness, pain, and restriction of motion of the shoulder. The prevalence of AC is estimated to be 2-5% of the general population. Patients with AC typically have an insidious onset of pain and can progress to severe limitation of the shoulder leading to significant disability and decreased quality of life. Objectives: The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of AC with a focus on clinical presentation, natural history, pathophysiology, and various treatment modalities. Study design: A review article. Setting: A review of literature. Methods: A search was made on the Pubmed database using the keywords of adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder, shoulder capsulitis, arthrofibrosis, shoulder pain, shoulder stiffness. Results: Our search identified numerous studies in order to provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the treatment and management of AC. Limitations: There remains limited evidence in literature about the understanding of AC and optimal treatment. Conclusion: AC is an important cause of chronic pain and disability. There is currently no consensus on treatment. Initial treatment modalities revolve around conservative measures as well as aggressive physical therapy. Further treatment options include intraarticular injections, hydro-dilation, nerve blocks, and for more refractory cases, surgical interventions such as arthroscopic capsulotomy.
Book
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The leading reference on shoulder rehabilitation, Physical Therapy of the Shoulder, 5th Edition provides complete information on the functional anatomy of the shoulder, the mechanics of movement, and the evaluation and treatment of shoulder disorders. It promotes current, evidence-based practice with coverage of the latest rehabilitation and surgical techniques. Case studies show the clinical application of key principles, and follow the practice patterns from the APTA "Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, 2nd Edition, " relating to shoulder disorders. Edited by Robert Donatelli, a well-known lecturer and consultant for professional athletes, this book includes a companion website with video clips demonstrating shoulder therapy techniques and procedures.
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Adhesive capsulitis is a common musculoskeletal disorder mainly affecting middle aged adults. It is associated with generalized pain and tenderness in the shoulder joint with severe loss of active and passive ranges of motion in all planes. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of local steroid injection and physical therapy measures for treating this disorder. Ten male and 10 female patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided randomly into two groups and treated with either 40 mg methylprednisolone acetate injection with local anesthetic (group A) or physical therapy measures plus nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (group B). The mean ages of the patients were 55.6 +/- 12.2 years in group A and 56.4 +/- 7.1 years in group B. Clinical assessment was performed on initial visit and at the 2nd and 12th weeks. Active and passive range of motion was recorded and the visual analogue scale was used to evaluate pain intensity. At initial visit, these data in both groups of patients were not statistically different. Although both treatment regimens resulted in significant improvement in range of motion, the differences between mean external rotation at the 2nd and 12th weeks were not statistically significant in either group. The improvement in range of motion at the end of the study was similar in both groups (P > 0.05). All patients reported improvement during the study. The differences between mean VAS scores at the 2nd and 12th weeks were statistically significant in both groups. In conclusion, local steroid injection therapy was found to be as effective as physical therapy for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis.
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Context Knowledge and understanding of the principles and applications of joint-mobilization techniques are becoming commonplace for entry-level certified athletic trainers. Data Sources Various textbooks written on this topic. Data Synthesis The authors collected information from commonly used textbooks on joint mobilization in both athletic training and physical therapy curriculums. Conclusion Undoubtedly, before using joint mobilization, the clinician should demonstrate mastery-level understanding of joint biomechanics, application principles, and indications and contra-indications. This article provides basic information on the principles of joint mobilization.
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The measurement of subjective pain intensity continues to be important to both researchers and clinicians. Although several scales are currently used to assess the intensity construct, it remains unclear which of these provides the most precise, replicable, and predictively valid measure. Five criteria for judging intensity scales have been considered in previous research: ease of administration of scoring; relative rates of incorrect responding; sensitivity as defined by the number of available response categories; sensitivity as defined by statistical power; and the magnitude of the relationship between each scale and a linear combination of pain intensity indices. In order to judge commonly used pain intensity measures, 75 chronic pain patients were asked to rate 4 kinds of pain (present, least, most, and average) using 6 scales. The utility and validity of the scales was judged using the criteria listed above. The results indicate that, for the present sample, the scales yield similar results in terms of the number of subjects who respond correctly to them and their predictive validity. However, when considering the remaining 3 criteria, the 101-point numerical rating scale appears to be the most practical index.
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In 684 patients pulse and blood pressure were measured before and after whole body cryotherapy. The pulse was not significantly changed in the age group below 70 years. In more than 70 year old patients it raised from bradycardia 16 beats per minute. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure revealed a slight increase. In 229 persons the basal temperature was measured sublingually before and after whole body cryotherapy. After 90 seconds at -100°C on the average we registered a slight decrease of 0.38°C. In 35 patients with RA and ankylosing spondylitis and in 34 healthy persons parameters of metabolism were measured before, after and 3 hours after whole body cryotherapy. While in healthy persons there was a significant decrease of uric acid, it was not observed in the patients group. Cholesterol revealed an increase in patients and controls. After 3 hours there was a decrease to be noticed. Triglyceride did not change in controls, while in patients there was a definite increase. The glucose level did not change in the controls, while in patients it was significantly elevated within the normal range. After 3 hours there was a decrease in patients. Fatty acids did not change in their concentration in controls. In patients after treatment they were decreased up to 3 hours. Blood analyses before and after the treatment showed a significant increase of pO 2 in patients. pCO 2 decreased respectively.
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This paper considers some of the developments in knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of pain. The 'pain-gate' theory and the descending pain suppression mechanisms are mentioned briefly. A number of mechanisms are suggested whereby interferential therapy may relieve pain. A brief description of the interferential stimulus and its potential for utilising the mechanisms described in earlier sections is given. Suggestions are made concerning the frequencies used for gaining this pain relieving effect.
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The literature clearly documents the existence of nonshivering thermogenesis of adrenergic origin in adult humans. This thermogenesis is activated in cold exposed individuals, during the early phase of cooling, prior to shivering and equals to about 25% of the basal MR (0.29 W kg-1). This amount of heat can compensate for the heat loss from the body when the air temperature is about 5°C below the thermoneutral zone. Human nonshivering thermogenesis is probably based on thermogenic actions both of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Relative participation of adrenaline or noradrenaline in the thermogenic response is not known and the mode of action of the amines may differ. Adrenaline themogenesis, in contrast to noradrenaline thermogenesis, can be potentiated by cold adaptation to the level corresponding to the total capacity of β-adrenergic (isoprenaline) thermogenesis (0.58 W kg-1). Adrenaline thermogenesis is located in skeletal muscles and probably also in white fat. Diffused brown fat cells present in white fat pads may be also involved, however. Although several molecular mechanisms have been suggested, the discrete mode of catecholamine thermogenic action in organs other than the brown adipose tissue remains unknown. Participation of various subtypes of adrenoceptors and uncoupling proteins must be considered, although the direct evidence for their involvement in human adrenaline thermogenesis is still lacking. Thus the cellular mechanisms of human nonshivering thermogenesis may differ from those found in small mammals. Physiological regulatory mechanisms, namely changes in the blood flow, could be involved in inducing adrenergic thermogenesis in human muscle. Thus, the regulation of MR by catecholamines may not be solely dependent on biochemical mechanisms related to the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation but may also rely on physiological processes.
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Aims. – Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) at -110 °C has been in use since the eighties, essentially in Northern Europe, for the treatment of rheumatism diseases and also in sports medicine and traumatology. The objective of this work is to measure the effects of a WBC session on skin and core body temperatures, based on the medical protocol that we have been using on sportsmen and sportswomen for nearly two years, on a daily basis.Method. – Eleven sportspersons were included in the study, 10 men and 1 woman. Skin temperatures were measured in various places on the body using a laser thermometer, 5 minutes before the session and then immediately afterwards and 5, 10 and finally 20 minutes later. The core body temperature was measured using an ear thermometer. The cryotherapy session lasted 4 minutes.Results. – On exiting the cold chamber, the lowest temperatures were measured on the shin, with an average value of less than 10 °C. The skin temperatures rose very quickly, but the measured values remained lower than the reference temperatures after 20 minutes. As far as the core body temperature is concerned, we observed a significant decrease, but the value observed was both deferred and transient: 0.63 °C observed after 5 minutes. The difference was no longer significant after 20 minutes.
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Temporomandibular pain and dysfunction (TMPD) is estimated to affect as many as 28–85% of Western populations. Two of the salient features of this condition are a reduced range of mandibular movement and increased activity of the masseter muscles. Passive mobilisations have been shown to be clinically effective in increasing the pain-free movement of the temporomandibular joints (Weisberg and Friedman, 1981; Trott, 1986), and in other joints mobilisation/manipulation has resulted in changes in the muscle tone (Thabe, 1986). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a distraction mobilisation technique on the range of mandibular movement and on masseter muscle tone as measured by electromyographic (EMG) activity in patients suffering from TMPD. Changes in mandibular movement capacity and the masseter muscle EMG activity were measured before and after both mobilisation and sham treatment using a repeated measures design. The results showed a significant decrease in masseter EMG activity and a significant increase in mandibular movement following mobilisation compared with the sham treatment. Furthermore, the EMG activity remained significantly decreased for 15 min. These findings suggest that temporomandibular joint mobilisation can be an effective means of reducing muscle tension and, at least in the short term, of increasing the range of mandibular movement.