Interaction between IL13 genotype and environmental factors in the risk for allergic rhinitis in Korean children

Department of Pediatrics, Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology (Impact Factor: 11.48). 08/2012; 130(2):421-6.e5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.04.052
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) is increasing worldwide. Allergic diseases develop in susceptible subjects when they are exposed to specific environmental factors.
We analyzed changes in the prevalence of AR and identified genetic and environmental factors in early childhood that affect risk.
We used the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire to collect data on AR, allergies, and environmental exposures from 4554 elementary school students from 5 areas of Seoul, Korea, in 2008. We also obtained DNA from 1050 subjects from 1 area of Seoul for genotype analysis of IL13.
We identified genetic and environmental factors during infancy and early childhood that increased the risk for current AR (resulting in a diagnosis of AR and AR symptoms in the past 12 months) in elementary school-aged children. These included allergic disease in parents and antibiotic use in infants, allergic disease in parents and exposure of infants to mold, and allergic disease in parents and moving an infant to a newly built house. The risk of current AR also increased in subjects with GA or AA at nucleotide 2044 in IL13 who had been exposed to mold in the home during infancy (adjusted odds ratio, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.75-6.11) compared with subjects who had GG at this position and had not been exposed to mold (adjusted odds ratio, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.75-6.11).
The prevalence of AR is increasing in Korean children. Children with a family history of allergic disease and exposure to specific environmental risk factors during infancy are more likely to have AR. Children with GA or AA at IL13(+2044) are at increased risk for AR when exposed to mold in the home during the first year of life.

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Available from: Byoung-Ju Kim, Jan 05, 2015
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    • "Several recent studies that detected GxE interactions examined diverse environmental determinants, particularly smoking, farming, indoor and occupational environments, air pollution, and diet or nutrition.82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89 To improve our understanding of the GxE influences on allergic diseases, newly identified genetic and environmental factors should be studied. "
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    ABSTRACT: During the last few decades, the prevalence of allergic disease has increased dramatically. The development of allergic diseases has been attributed to complex interactions between environmental factors and genetic factors. Of the many possible environmental factors, most research has focused on the most commonly encountered environmental factors, such as air pollution and environmental microbiota in combination with climate change. There is increasing evidence that such environmental factors play a critical role in the regulation of the immune response that is associated with allergic diseases, especially in genetically susceptible individuals. This review deals with not only these environmental factors and genetic factors but also their interactions in the development of allergic diseases. It will also emphasize the need for early interventions that can prevent the development of allergic diseases in susceptible populations and how these interventions can be identified.
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    • "IL-13 is thought to the pathogenesis of allergen-induced asthma [21]. Besides, the polymorphisms of IL-13 involved in some other diseases, such as eczema, allergic rhinitis [22,23]. GBM etiology remains unclear, but IL-13 has been shown to be over expressed in a majority of glioma cell lines and GBM tumor tissues [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor. Many abnormal secretion and expression of cytokines have been found in GBM, initially speculated that the occurrence of GBM may be involved in these abnormal secretion of cytokines. This study aims to detect the association of cytokine genes with GBM. Methods We selected seven tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in six cytokine genes, which previously reported to be associated with brain tumors, and analyzed their association with GBM in a Han Chinese population using χ2 test and genetic model analysis. Results We found two risk tSNPs and one protective tSNP. By χ2 test, the rs1801275 in IL-4R showed an increased risk of GBM. In the genetic model analysis, the genotype “TC” of rs20541 in IL-13 gene showed an increased risk of GBM in over-dominant model (OR = 2.00; 95% CI, 1.13-3.54, p = 0.015); the genotype “CT” of rs1800871 in the IL-10 gene showed a decrease risk in the over-dominant model (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33 – 0.97; p = 0.037). The genotype “AG” of rs1801275 in the IL-4R gene showed an increase risk in over-dominant model (OR = 2.29; 95% CI, 1.20 - 4.35; p = 0.0081) We further analyzed whether the six cytokine genes have a different effect on the disease in gender specific population, and found that the allele “G” of rs2243248 in the IL-4 gene showed a decrease risk of GBM in female (OR = 0.35, 95% CI, 0.13 - 0.94, p = 0.0032), but the allele “T” showed a decrease risk in male (OR = 0.30, 95% CI, 0.17 - 0.53, p = 0.0032). Conclusions Our findings, combined with previously reported results, suggest that cytokine genes have potential role in GBM development, which may be useful to early prognostics for GBM in the Han Chinese population.
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    • "The strengths of the present study include the large number of participants, the detailed assessment of AR, and the comprehensive assessment of dietary intake of antioxidants using a semi-quantitative FFQ focusing on 86 different foods especially in schoolchildren. The ISAAC questionnaire has been validated in a number of Korean studies.13,32 Sensitization was evaluated by skin prick test, and total IgE was measured, although these were not correlated with nutrient intake. "
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